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Kapellmeister is a German word designating a person in charge of music-making. The word is a compound, consisting of the roots Meister; the word was used to refer to somebody in charge of music in a chapel. However, the term has evolved in its meaning in response to changes in the musical profession. In German-speaking countries during the approximate period 1500–1800, the word Kapellmeister designated the director of music for a monarch or nobleman. For English speakers, it is this sense of the term, most encountered, since it appears in biographical writing about composers who worked in German-speaking countries. A Kapellmeister position was a senior one and involved supervision of other musicians. Johann Sebastian Bach worked from 1717 to 1723 as Kapellmeister for Prince Leopold of Anhalt-Cöthen. Joseph Haydn worked for many years as Kapellmeister for the Esterházy family, a high-ranking noble family of the Austrian Empire. George Frideric Handel served as Kapellmeister for Elector of Hanover.

A Kapellmeister might be the director of music for a church. Thus, Georg Reutter was the Kapellmeister at St. Stephen's Cathedral, where his young choristers included both Joseph and Michael Haydn. Becoming a Kapellmeister was a mark of success for professional musicians of this time. For instance, Joseph Haydn once remarked that he was glad his father had lived long enough to see his son become a Kapellmeister; the term implied the possession of considerable musical skill. When the 18th century actor and musician Joachim Daniel Preisler heard the famous soprano Aloysia Weber perform in her home, he paid her the following compliment in his diary: The well-known Mozardt is her brother-in-law, has taught her so well that she accompanies from a score and plays interludes like a Kapellmeister. By the end of the 18th century, many of the nobility had declined in their economic power relative to the newly prosperous middle class; the maintenance of a Kapelle became too expensive for most nobles, which led to a decline in the number of Kapellmeister positions.

A well-known instance occurred in 1790, when Prince Anton Esterházy succeeded his father Nikolaus and dismissed all of the latter's extensive musical establishment. But as Jones points out, Prince Anton was hardly alone in doing this; this was a difficult time for musicians. For instance, Ludwig van Beethoven never worked as a Kapellmeister, but was supported by a somewhat unreliable combination of noble patronage and concert income. Mozart never was a Kapellmeister in the sense given above. In 1787, he was given a paid position in the court of the Austrian Emperor, as Kammercompositeur, but authority in matters musical at the court was exercised by Antonio Salieri. However, in reviews and advertising, Mozart was referred to as " Kapellmeister Mozart", it seems that Mozart's prestige, along with the fact that he appeared in public directing other musicians, led to the use of "Kapellmeister" as a term of respect. In April 1791, Mozart did apply to become the Kapellmeister at St. Stephen's Cathedral, was in fact designated by the City Council to take over this job following the death of the then-ailing incumbent, Leopold Hofmann.

However, this never took place. Variant spellings capellmeister and capelle, to refer to the orchestra or choir, are sometimes encountered in English language works about composers who held the title; the word Hofkapellmeister specified. Equivalent positions were referred to with equivalent names. In Finnish kapellimestari is still the primary word used of conductors. Arnold von Bruck was Kapellmeister in Vienna for Ferdinand I, King of Bohemia and Croatia from 1527 to 1545. Mattheus Le Maistre was Kapellmeister at the court of the Electors of Saxony in Dresden from 1554 to 1568. Antonio Scandello was Kapellmeister at the court of the Electors of Saxony in Dresden from 1568. Jacob Regnart was Kapellmeister at Innsbruck from 1585 to about 1596. Michael Praetorius was Kapellmeister at Wolfenbüttel from 1604. Heinrich Schütz was Kapellmeister to John George I, Elector of Saxony from 1619. Samuel Scheidt was Kapellmeister to the Margrave of Brandenburg. Heinrich Ignaz Franz Biber was Kapellmeister in Salzburg from 1684.

Georg Muffat was Kapellmeister to the bishop of Passau from 1690 to his death. Agostino Steffani was Kapellmeister from 1688 to 1698 at the court of Hanover. Johann Caspar Ferdinand Fischer was Kapellmeister to Louis William, Margrave of Baden-Baden, from at least 1695. Johann Ludwig Bach, a second cousin of J. S. Bach, was Kapellmeister at Meiningen. Georg Philipp Telemann served as Kapellmeister for 16 years, starting in 1705, for the court of Erdmann II, Count of Promnitz, in Hamburg. Johann David Heinichen held the position of Kapellmeister at the electoral Saxon court in Dresden from 1717 until his death. Johann Sebastian Bach worked from


Góis is a municipality of the district of Coimbra, in the central part of continental Portugal. The population in 2011 was 4,260, in an area of 263.30 km². The municipality of Góis is situated 40 kilometres in Coimbra, in the deep, narrow valley of the Ceira, between the mountains of Carvalhal and Rabadão; the municipality is limited in the north by the municipality of Arganil, east by Pampilhosa da Serra, southwest by Pedrógão Grande and Castanheira de Pera, west by Lousã and northwest by Vila Nova de Poiares. The mountains of the Penedo de Góis, which are part of the Serra da Lousã, at a height of 1,043 metres, have an accentuated orography with many climatic differences; the environment resulted in a diverse vegetation, that includes holm oaks in the sunny regions. It is an area of appreciable landscape, composed of quartzite, accompanied by gravel along the flanks; the rivers, in addition to its fishery resources, are utilized for leisure activities. There are a number of watercourses in the municipality, all with a permanent character that support the watersheds of the Zêzere and Mondego Rivers.

The riparian vegetation thrives: the patches of European alder and communities of Portuguese laurel, with the presence of European holly. These areas include important spaces for the conservation of Iberian Emerald Lizard and the Gold-Striped Salamander known as an area of elevated genetic diversity and major vulnerability. Administratively, the municipality is divided into 4 civil parishes: Alvares Cadafaz e Colmeal Góis Vila Nova do Ceira There are many religious and/or secular festivals throughout the summer, including one of Portugal's largest Motorbikecompetitions in August. Góis is twinned with: São Paulo, Brazil Photographs of Góis on Flickr


Low Extra Delay Background Transport is a way to transfer data on the Internet without clogging the network. LEDBAT was invented by Stanislav Shalunov and is used by Apple for software updates and by BitTorrent for most of its transfers and by Microsoft SCCM software distribution points. LEDBAT is estimated to carry 13–20% of Internet traffic. LEDBAT is a delay-based congestion control algorithm that uses all the available bandwidth while limiting the increase in delay. LEDBAT congestion control has the following goals: Use all available bandwidth, to maintain a low queueing delay when no other traffic is present, Limit the queuing delay it adds to that induced by other traffic, To yield to standard TCP that share the same bottleneck link; the two main implementations are uTP as part of TCP by Apple. BitTorrent makes the code available under an open-source license. Apple uses LEDBAT for Software Updates so that large software downloads to Mac OS X computers and iOS devices do not interfere with normal user activities.

Both of the above implementations aim to limit the network queuing delay to 100ms. This is the maximum allowed for by the standardized protocol. If one used a lower value it would be starved when the other was in use. Windows 10 Anniversary Update introduced support for LEDBAT via undocumented socket option as an experimental Windows TCP Congestion Control Module and Windows Server 2019 Assumptions: The clocks of the sender and the receiver are not synchronized The sender sends at a fixed rateThe sender sends 5 packets of data every 10 clock counts: 10, 20, 30, 40, 50; the units are unimportant. The receiver is receiving data not only from this particular sender but from other sources. For the 5 packets that were sent, the receiver receives them at the following clock counts: 112, 135, 176, 250, 326; the first differences between the received and sent clock counts are: 102, 115, 146, 210, 276. The second differences are: 13, 31, 64 and 66; the receiver will infer from the positive increase in one way delays that congestion is increasing and adjust the transfer rate accordingly.

TCP congestion control

Chinese television drama

Chinese television dramas or mainland Chinese television dramas are similar to television dramas in North America, but are longer. China produces more television dramas than any other country, it made more than 15,000 episodes in 2014. The most popular genre of dramas in China is fantasy romance, with 47 of the 50 most watched dramas in the country in 2016 being in this genre. Chinese television dramas are popular and broadcast on TV throughout Asia in Vietnam, Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Cambodia. Since the 1990s, historical serials have been the dominant genre on prime-time television; the trend peaked with many palace dramas shown on television. Popular Chinese television dramas, such as Nirvana in Fire, The Journey of Flower, Eternal Love, The Princess Weiyoung, Just One Smile Is Very Alluring, The Legend of Zhen Huan, Scarlet Heart, The Mystic Nine and more garner billions of views among China's most popular video websites, iQiyi and Tencent Video; some dramas have been so popular and acclaimed that they were remade in other languages, or were spun off into a sequel.

A large number of series end all episodes in cliffhangers. CCTV-8 is a channel. Series are divided into several rough categories: historical and politics, the more modern family conflict drama genre. Episodes begin with opening theme music over credits and end with further theme music and more credits; the series of episodes runs on together to depict a series of events that happen one after another in relevance to the main plot of the drama. Like a novel, the drama contains characters, plot and resolution that intrigue the audience’s interest; the large number of episodes allows the plot to be carried in much more detail than in a short movie. A particular aspect of life such as high school, college, or work life of a person, or a specific job is shown with much greater details that allows the audience to acknowledge that particular area in detail; this gives the audience a better understanding of the characters and their perspectives as well as the entirety of the storyline. Long-form Chinese television series vary in quality, although in recent years, observers have noted a sharp increase in production values and script quality in some series.

A number of Chinese television series used music from Hollywood movies as incidental music. Dramas are generated with a specific genre like romance, horror, family drama, sports, or a mixture of these in the form of ancient, Republican era or modern to highlight the theme and suits the audience’s interest. Chinese-language dramas are classified by where they were produced, such as mainland dramas, Taiwanese dramas, Hong Kong dramas, Singaporean dramas; each differs in the style of editing format. Most consist of romance and friends with the combination of pop cultural themes. C-pop Mandopop Cinema of China Taiwanese drama Hong Kong television drama Television in China

Doppler (building)

Doppler known as Amazon Tower I, Rufus 2.0 Block 14, is a 524-foot-tall office building in Seattle, Washington that houses the corporate headquarters of Amazon. It is part of the three-tower campus that Amazon is developing in the Denny Triangle neighborood, located at the intersection of Westlake Avenue and 7th Avenue near the Westlake Center and McGraw Square; the tower houses 3,800 employees. The tower's name, refers to the internal codename of the Amazon Echo voice-controlled speaker that launched in 2014; the Amazon campus, designed by Seattle architecture firm NBBJ, was approved by the Seattle Department of Planning and Development in late 2012 and excavation on Tower I began under the direction of Sellen Construction in June 2013. The tower was topped out in February 2015 and opened on December 14, 2015; the 37-story building has a five-story meeting room center, featuring an amphitheater and stage with stadium-style seating for 2,000, six stories of underground parking with 1,064 spaces.

The project, covering the entire three-block campus, is on track to receive LEED Gold certification. The facade uses dichroic glass to reflect light in varying colors dependent on the time of the day; the site was once proposed for a 31-story mixed-use high-rise, known as the Seventh at Westlake Tower. However, the plans were canceled in 2012 after being on hold for four years. Day 1 re:Invent List of tallest buildings in Seattle

1986 USFL season

The 1986 USFL season would have been the fourth season of the United States Football League. Plans and a schedule had been set for a 1986 season, which would have played in the autumn and winter months, but the failure to secure a large judgment or concessions through a landmark antitrust lawsuit against the National Football League, combined with the seizure of one of the team's assets, days before the season was to begin led the league to postpone ultimately cancel the season and cease operations; the federal court judgement found the NFL guilty of violating antitrust guidelines on July 29, 1986, but the USFL was only awarded $1 in damages plus court costs, as the jury found that the actions of the USFL owners had done as much in detriment to themselves as did the actions of the NFL. All USFL contracts were terminated in the days following this judgement, releasing all employees ending the league. Six of the seven teams in the Western Conference dropped out of play after the 1985 season, leaving only the Arizona Outlaws.

In contrast, all seven teams from the Eastern Conference were slated to return intact. The San Antonio Gunslingers folded after its owner, Clinton Manges, abandoned the team partway through the previous season; the Oakland Invaders, Portland Breakers and league-owned Los Angeles Express all pulled out of competition, citing financial problems. The Denver Gold, one of two teams to vote against moving to a fall schedule, sold its football assets to the Jacksonville Bulls, after announcing its intent to move to Portland to take the place of the Breakers; the Houston Gamblers assets were sold to the New Jersey Generals in a complicated series of transactions that had the Gamblers sold to Stephen M. Ross, merging the Gamblers with the Generals, Generals owner Donald Trump buying out Ross's stake after Ross raised concerns about the Generals' debt load; the Baltimore Stars were to move to Memorial Stadium in Baltimore, after playing the previous season at the University of Maryland's Byrd Stadium in College Park due to conflicts with baseball.

A franchise representing Chicago, to be owned by Eddie Einhorn and a replacement for the unpopular Chicago Blitz, was to begin play in the fall 1986 season. As the Chicago team would not have had access to Soldier Field and because Einhorn was a part-owner of the Chicago White Sox, the team would have had to move to Comiskey Park, a stadium that had not hosted football since 1958. No expansion teams were slated to be added. A major point of uncertainty was the case of the Tampa Bay Bandits; the Bandits were in ownership turmoil as the result of co-owner Stephen Arky's 1985 suicide and the terminal illness of majority owner John F. Bassett, who died in May 1986; the league found an ownership group willing to take Bassett's place: Lee Scarfone and Tony Cunningham agreed to field the Tampa Bay Bandits in the USFL for the fall 1986 season. However, it soon became known that Scarfone and Cunningham had gone into significant debt to buy out Bassett's rights and were left bankrupt when, on August 4, 1986, a judge ordered the seizure of all of the team's assets to cover the contract of Bret Clark, a safety Bassett had signed in early 1985.

Arky's suicide threatened the Birmingham Stallions' existence. Arky's father-in-law Marvin Warner had owned the Stallions, the sequence of events that led to Arky's suicide, the exposure of securities fraud at Arky's company ESM Government Securities, sparked a bank run on Home State Savings Bank when it was revealed that most of ESM's money had been deposited in that bank, wiping out most of Warner's net worth; the team's limited partners, along with a bailout from the city of Birmingham, kept the team afloat during 1985. The loss of the Western Conference required a realignment of the league's eight remaining teams; the three Florida teams would have joined Arizona as the "Independence Division", while the "Liberty Division" would comprise the four other teams. Three teams would have entered the 1986 season with new head coaches. Baltimore's former coach Jim Mora had taken over the NFL's New Orleans Saints. Baltimore had not named a head coach at the time. Mouse Davis, who coached Denver in 1984, was set to take over the Jacksonville Bulls as part of the merger between the teams.

The Bulls' previous coach, Lindy Infante, left to join the NFL's Cleveland Browns as offensive coordinator. Jack Pardee, who coached Houston in 1985, was set to take over the New Jersey Generals as part of the merger between the teams. New Jersey's previous coach, Walt Michaels, never coached football in the United States again; the sudden cancellation of the 1986 season left the league's coaches out of work. While players were able to sign with other teams quickly, other leagues' teams had set their coaching staffs, meaning that Pardee, Orlando's Lee Corso and Tampa Bay's Steve Spurrier would have to wait until 1987 to find work. For Birmingham's Rollie Dotsch, it would be too late: by the time he returned to coaching as an NFL assistant in 1987, he had developed termina