India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and it is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west, China and Bhutan to the northeast, in the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. Indias Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a border with Thailand. The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE, in the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, early political consolidations took place under the Maurya and Gupta empires, the peninsular Middle Kingdoms influenced cultures as far as southeast Asia. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, much of the north fell to the Delhi sultanate, the south was united under the Vijayanagara Empire.
The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal empire, in the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, and in the mid-19th under British crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which later, under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance, in 2015, the Indian economy was the worlds seventh largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, malnutrition, a nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the third largest standing army in the world and ranks sixth in military expenditure among nations. India is a constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system. It is a pluralistic and multi-ethnic society and is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindu, the latter term stems from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, which was the historical local appellation for the Indus River.
The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as The people of the Indus, the geographical term Bharat, which is recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations. Scholars believe it to be named after the Vedic tribe of Bharatas in the second millennium B. C. E and it is traditionally associated with the rule of the legendary emperor Bharata. Gaṇarājya is the Sanskrit/Hindi term for republic dating back to the ancient times, hindustan is a Persian name for India dating back to the 3rd century B. C. E. It was introduced into India by the Mughals and widely used since and its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety
Four Maharashtra is a state in the western region of India and is Indias second-most populous state and third-largest state by area. It is the wealthiest Indian state and it is the worlds second-most populous sub-national entity. It has over 112 million inhabitants and its capital, has a population of approximately 18 million, Nagpur is Maharashtras second capital as well as its winter capital. Maharashtras business opportunities along with its potential to offer a standard of living attract migrants from all over India. Ancient and medieval Maharashtra included the empires of the Satavahana dynasty, Rashtrakuta dynasty, Western Chalukyas, the major rivers of the state are Godavari, and Krishna. The Narmada and Tapti Rivers flow near the border between Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat, Maharashtra is the second most urbanised state in India. The state has several popular Hindu places of pilgrimage including Pandharpur and Alandi, other places that attract pilgrims from other parts of India and beyond include Hazur Sahib Gurudwara at Nanded, Sai Baba shrine at Shirdi and Dikshabhumi at Nagpur.
Maharashtra is the wealthiest and one of the most developed states in India, as of 2011, the state had a per capita income of ₹1.0035 lakh, more than the national average of ₹0.73 lakh. Its GDP per capita crossed the ₹1.20 lakh threshold for the first time in 2013, however, as of 2014, the GDP per capita reduced to ₹1.03 lakh Agriculture and industries are the largest parts of the states economy. Major industries include chemical products and non-electrical machinery, petroleum, Jai Maharashtra The modern Marathi language developed from the Maharashtri Prakrit, and the word Mahratta is found in the Jain Maharashtri literature. The terms Maharashtra, Maharashtri and Maratha may have derived from the same root, their exact etymology is uncertain. But the Marathas as a people do not seem to be mentioned before the thirteenth or fourteenth century, the most widely accepted theory among the linguistic scholars is that the words Maratha and Maharashtra ultimately derived from a combination of Maha and rashtrika.
The word rashtrika is a Sanskritized form of Ratta, the name of a tribe or dynasty of petty chiefs ruling in the Deccan region. Another theory is that the term is derived from Maha and ratha / rathi, an alternative theory states that the term derives from the word Maha and Rashtra. However, this theory has not found acceptance among scholars who believe it to be the Sanskritised interpretation of writers. Maharashtra was ruled by the Maurya Empire in the 4th and 3rd centuries BCE, around 230 BCE Maharashtra came under the rule of the Satavahana dynasty for 400 years. The greatest ruler of the Satavahana Dynasty was Gautamiputra Satakarni, in 90 CE Vedishri, son of the Satavahana king Satakarni, the Lord of Dakshinapatha, wielder of the unchecked wheel of Sovereignty, made Junnar, thirty miles north of Pune, the capital of his kingdom. The state was ruled by Western Satraps, Gupta Empire, Gurjara-Pratihara, Kadambas, Chalukya Empire, Rashtrakuta Dynasty, and Western Chalukya before finally
Mumbai is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the most populous city in India and the ninth most populous agglomeration in the world, Mumbai lies on the west coast of India and has a deep natural harbour. In 2008, Mumbai was named a world city. It is the wealthiest city in India, and has the highest GDP of any city in South, Mumbai has the highest number of billionaires and millionaires among all cities in India. The seven islands that came to constitute Mumbai were home to communities of fishing colonies, during the mid-18th century, Bombay was reshaped by the Hornby Vellard project, which undertook reclamation of the area between the seven islands from the sea. Along with construction of roads and railways, the reclamation project, completed in 1845. Bombay in the 19th century was characterised by economic and educational development, during the early 20th century it became a strong base for the Indian independence movement. Upon Indias independence in 1947 the city was incorporated into Bombay State, in 1960, following the Samyukta Maharashtra movement, a new state of Maharashtra was created with Bombay as the capital.
Mumbai is the financial and entertainment capital of India and it is home to some of Indias premier scientific and nuclear institutes like BARC, NPCL, IREL, TIFR, AERB, AECI, and the Department of Atomic Energy. The city houses Indias Hindi and Marathi film and television industry, Mumbais business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from all over India, making the city a melting pot of many communities and cultures. The oldest known names for the city are Kakamuchee and Galajunkja, in 1508, Portuguese writer Gaspar Correia used the name Bombaim, in his Lendas da Índia. This name possibly originated as the Old Portuguese phrase bom baim, meaning good little bay, in 1516, Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa used the name Tana-Maiambu, Tana appears to refer to the adjoining town of Thane and Maiambu to Mumbadevi. Other variations recorded in the 16th and the 17th centuries include, Bombay, Bombaym, Mombaim, Bambaye, Bombeye, Boon Bay, and Bon Bahia.
After the English gained possession of the city in the 17th century, Ali Muhammad Khan, imperial diwan or revenue minister of the Gujarat province, in the Mirat-i-Ahmedi referred to the city as Manbai. By the late 20th century, the city was referred to as Mumbai or Mambai in the Indian statewise official languages of Marathi, Gujarati and Sindhi, the Government of India officially changed the English name to Mumbai in November 1995. According to Slate magazine, they argued that Bombay was a corrupted English version of Mumbai, Slate said The push to rename Bombay was part of a larger movement to strengthen Marathi identity in the Maharashtra region. A resident of Mumbai is called mumbaikar in the Marathi language, the term has been in use for quite some time but it gained popularity after the official name change to Mumbai. Mumbai is built on what was once an archipelago of seven islands, Bombay Island, Mazagaon, Colaba, Worli and it is not exactly known when these islands were first inhabited
The Economic Times
The Economic Times is an English-language, Indian daily newspaper published by the Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd. First published in 1961, it is the worlds second-most widely read English-language business newspaper, after the Wall Street Journal, with a readership of over 800,000. The Economic Times is published simultaneously from 12 cities—Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Chandigarh, the Economic Times is headquartered in Mumbai at The Times of India building. Its main content is based on the Indian economy, international finance, the founder- editor of the paper when it was launched in 1961 was P. S. The current editor of The Economic Times is Bodhisattva Ganguli, like the London-based Financial Times, The Economic Times is printed on salmon pink paper. It is sold in all cities in India. In June 2009, it launched a channel called ET Now. 1960s and 1970s, PS Hariharan, DK Rangnekar 1980s, Hannan Ezekiel, Manu Shroff Early to mid 1990s, T
Punjab is a state in North India, forming part of the larger Punjab region. The state capital is located in Chandigarh, a Union Territory, after the partition of India in 1947, the Punjab province of British India was divided between India and Pakistan. The Indian Punjab was divided on the basis of language in 1966 and it was divided into 3 parts. Haryanvi speaking areas were carved out as Haryana, Hilly regions, Punjab is the only Sikh majority state in India with Sikhs being 57. 69% of the population. Agriculture is the largest industry in Punjab, Punjab has the largest number of steel rolling mill plants in India, which are located in Steel Town—Mandi Gobindgarh in the Fatehgarh Sahib district. The word Punjab is a compound of the Persian words panj, thus Panjāb roughly means the land of five rivers. The five rivers are the Sutlej, Ravi, traditionally, in English, there used to be a definite article before the name, i. e. The name is sometimes spelled as Panjab. During the period when the epic Mahabharata was written, around 800–400 BCE, Punjab was known as Trigarta, the Indus Valley Civilization spanned much of the Punjab region with cities such as Rupar.
The Vedic Civilization spread along the length of the Sarasvati River to cover most of northern India including Punjab and this civilisation shaped subsequent cultures in the Indian subcontinent. The Punjab region was conquered by many ancient empires including the Gandhara, Mauryas, Kushans, Palas, Gurjara-Pratiharas, the furthest eastern extent of Alexander the Greats exploration was along the Indus River. Agriculture flourished and trading cities such as Jalandhar and Ludhiana grew in wealth, due to its location, the Punjab region came under constant attack and influence from both west and east. Punjab faced invasions by the Achaemenids, Scythians and this resulted in the Punjab witnessing centuries of bitter bloodshed. Its culture combines Hindu, Islamic and British influences, the regions of Azad Kashmir and Jammu have been historically associated with the Punjab. The Punjab is the Sapta Sindhu region mentioned in the Rig Veda, among the classic books that were wholly or partly composed in this region are the following.
The Brahmins of this region are called Saraswata after the legendary Saraswati river region, Hinduism has been prevalent in Punjab since historical times before the arrival of Islam and birth of Sikhism in Punjab. Some of the influential Sikh figures such as Guru Nanak, Banda Singh Bahadur, Bhai Mati Das, many of Punjabs Hindus converted to Sikhism. Punjabi Hindus can trace their roots from the time of the Vedas, many modern day cities in Indian Punjab and Pakistani Punjab are still named from that period like Lahore, Chandigarh and so on
Stand-up comedy is a comic style in which a comedian performs in front of a live audience, usually speaking directly to them. The performer is known as a comic, stand-up comic, stand-up comedian. In stand-up comedy, the comedian usually recites a grouping of humorous stories and one-liners typically called a monologue, some stand-up comedians use props, music, or magic tricks to enhance their acts. Stand-up comedy is often performed in clubs and pubs, nightclubs. Outside of live performance, stand-up is often distributed commercially via television, DVD, CD, in stand-up comedy, the feedback of the audience is instant and crucial for the comedians act. Audiences expect a stand-up comic to provide a stream of laughs. Will Ferrell has called stand-up comedy hard and vicious, a stand-up comedy show may involve only one comedian, or feature a headline or a showcase format. This is followed by one or two middle or featured acts, who perform 15- to 20-minute sets, followed by a headliner who performs for longer, a showcase format may still feature an MC.
Bringer shows are another opportunity for amateur performers, the performer must bring a specified number of paying guests in order to get stage time. The guests usually have to pay a charge and there is often a minimum number of drinks that must be ordered. These shows usually have a showcase format and this type of show gives comedians better exposure than open mics because there is usually better audience turnout and industry professionals sometimes go to watch. Different comedy clubs have different requirements for their bringer shows, gotham Comedy Club in New York City, for example, usually has ten-person bringers, while Broadway Comedy Club in New York City usually has six-person bringers. As the name implies, stand-up comedians usually perform their material while standing, stand-up comedy has its origin in classic Parrhesia in 400 BC used for cynics and epicureans in order to tell the reality without censorship. Stand-up comedy in the United Kingdom began in the halls of the 18th and 19th centuries.
The heavy censorship regime of the Lord Chamberlains Office required all comedians to submit their acts for censorship, the act would be returned with unacceptable sections underlined in blue pencil. The comedian was obliged not to deviate from the act in its edited form, the rise of the post-war comedians coincided with the rise of television and radio, and the traditional music hall circuit suffered greatly as a result. By the 1970s, music hall entertainment was virtually dead, alternative circuits had evolved, such as working mens clubs. The alternative comedy scene began to evolve
Delhi, officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi or NCT, is a city and a union territory of India. It is bordered by Haryana on three sides and by Uttar Pradesh to the east, the NCT covers an area of 1,484 square kilometres. According to 2011 census, Delhis city population was about 11 million, Delhis urban area is now considered to extend beyond the NCT boundary to include an estimated population of over 26 million people making it the worlds second largest urban area. As of 2016 recent estimates of the economy of its urban area have ranked Delhi either the top or second most productive metro area of India. Delhi is the second wealthiest city after Mumbai in India, with a wealth of $450 billion. Delhi has been inhabited since the 6th century BC. Through most of its history, Delhi has served as a capital of various kingdoms and it has been captured and rebuilt several times, particularly during the medieval period, and modern Delhi is a cluster of a number of cities spread across the metropolitan region.
New Delhi is jointly administered by the government of India and the local government of Delhi. Delhi is the centre of the National Capital Region, which is a unique interstate regional planning area created by the National Capital Region Planning Board Act of 1985, Delhi ranks among the cities with the worst air pollution in the world. There are a number of myths and legends associated with the origin of the name Delhi, one of them is derived from Dhillu or Dilu, a king who built a city at this location in 50 BC and named it after himself. The coins in circulation in the region under the Tomaras were called dehliwal, according to the Bhavishya Purana, King Prithiviraja of Indraprastha built a new fort in the modern-day Purana Qila area for the convenience of all four castes in his kingdom. He ordered the construction of a gateway to the fort and named the fort dehali, another theory suggests that the citys original name was Dhillika. The people of Delhi are referred to as Delhiites or Dilliwalas, the city is referenced in various idioms of the Northern Indo-Aryan languages.
Dilli dilwalon ka shehr or Dilli Dilwalon ki meaning Delhi belongs to the large-hearted/daring, aas-paas barse, Dilli pani tarse, literally meaning it pours all around, while Delhi lies parched. An allusion to the sometimes semi-arid climate of Delhi, it refers to situations of deprivation when one is surrounded by plenty. The area around Delhi was probably inhabited before the second millennium BC, the city is believed to be the site of Indraprastha, the legendary capital of the Pandavas in the Indian epic Mahabharata. According to Mahabharata, this land was initially a huge mass of forests called Khandavaprastha which was burnt down to build the city of Indraprastha, the earliest architectural relics date back to the Maurya period, in 1966, an inscription of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka was discovered near Srinivaspuri. Remains of eight cities have been discovered in Delhi
According to the 2011 census, the population of Amritsar was 1,132,761. The city is situated 217 km northwest of state capital Chandigarh and 456 km northwest of Delhi and it is near Pakistan, with the Wagah Border being only 28 km away. The nearest city is Lahore, the second largest city in Pakistan, Amritsar is home to the Harmandir Sahib, the spiritual and cultural centre for the Sikh religion. The city houses the Akal Takht, the highest seat of authority of the Khalsa. The Ramtirth temple situated at Amritsar is believed to be the Ashram site of Maharishi Valmiki, according to the Hindu mythology, Goddess Sita gave birth to Lava and Kusha, sons of lord Rama at Ramtirth ashram. Large number of people visit Ramtirth Temple at annual fair, nearby cities to Amritsar and Kasoor were said to be founded by Lava and Kusha, respectively. During Ashvamedha Yagna by Lord Rama and Kush captured the ritual horse, during Navratra festivities it is considered to be auspicious by Hindu population of the city to visit that temple.
The main commercial activities of Amritsar include tourism and fabrics, farm produce, service trades, the city is known for its rich cuisine, and culture, and for the Jallianwala Bagh massacre in 1919 under British Rule. Amritsar is home to Central Khalsa Orphanage, which was home to Udham Singh. Gandhi Ground is the sports complex in the city which is home to the Amritsar Games Association. Amritsar has been chosen as one of the cities for HRIDAY - Heritage City Development. Amritsar is one of the largest cities of the Punjab state in India. The city origin lies in the village of Tung, and was named after the lake founded by the fourth Sikh Guru Ram Das in 1574 on land bought by him for 700 rupees from the owners of the village of Tung. Earlier, Guru Ram Das had begun building Santokhsar Sarovar, near the village of Sultanwind in 1564 and it could not be completed before 1588. In 1574, Guru Ram Das built his residence and moved to this place, at that time, it was known as Guru Da Chakk. Amritsars central walled city has narrow streets mostly developed in the 17th and 18th century, the city is a peculiar example of an introverted planning system with unique areas called Katras.
The Katras are self-styled residential units that provided unique defence system during attacks on the city and this led to a general strike in Amritsar. Excited groups of citizens soon merged into a crowd of about 50,000 marching on to protest to the deputy commissioner against the arrest of the two leaders, the crowd, was stopped and fired upon near the railway foot-bridge
Kaun Banega Crorepati
Kaun Banega Crorepati is an Indian television game show originally aired on Star Plus commissioned by the programming team of Sameer Nair. In 2010, produced by Big Synergy for M-Net Original Production, while based on the UK game show Who Wants to Be a Millionaire. KBC intersperses the playing of the game with Bollywood style musical numbers, director Danny Boyles 2008 film Slumdog Millionaire was based on the show, and featured the shows host, actor Amitabh Bachchan in a cameo appearance. The shows host, based loosely on Bachchan, was portrayed by Anil Kapoor, Kapoor himself has appeared on a celebrity version of the show. Three years after the release, a contestant named Sushil Kumar became the shows first million-dollar winner. KBC first aired in 2000 and was hosted by Amitabh Bachchan, the show was well received from the very first season. It aired on SABC1, at 21h00, from 11 February 2020, on 5 August 2005, the show was restarted after a four-year hiatus, and renamed Kaun Banega Crorepati Dwitiya in which the final prize amount was doubled to 2 crore rupees.
It was abruptly ended by STAR Plus after Amitabh Bachchan fell ill in 2006, Star Television recruited Shahrukh Khan to host the third season of the show. The grand prize remained 2 crore rupees, the third season of the show began airing on 22 January 2007. However, the ratings dropped significantly. The season ended on 19 April 2007 with a special finale, the fourth season was hosted by Amitabh Bachchan and started on 11 October 2010, on Bachchans 68th birthday. This season was telecast 4 days a week, Monday through Thursday evenings, the tagline of the season was Koi Bhi Sawaal Chota Nahi Hota. The show moved from Star Plus to Sony TV and M-Net India, the new logo designed for the fourth season incorporated the new Indian rupee symbol, which was unveiled the same year. The phone lines for the season opened on 2 August 2010 at 9 PM IST. The total prize money was increased to ₹50 million, the fourth season of the show was highly successful due to the return of former host Amitabh Bachhan. The season ended on 9 December 2010, like many other versions of the show, the season 4 reduced the number of questions from 15, to 13 in this version.
The Indian version adopted the format from the US version and is the fourth countrys version to do. There was a 30-second time limit for questions 1 and 2, and a 45-second time limit for questions 3 to 7, the clock stops whenever a lifeline is used, and if the contestant allows the clock to run out, he/she will be forced to walk away
He is the son of Hiroo Johar and the acclaimed producer Yash Johar. Johar made his debut with the blockbuster romance Kuch Kuch Hota Hai. His next two films were the ensemble dramas Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham. and Kabhi Alvida Naa Kehna and his counter-terrorism drama My Name Is Khan earned him his second Filmfare Award for Best Director. These, along with the successful films he has produced under the Dharma Productions banner, have established him as one of the leading director-producers in Hindi cinema. Karan Johar was born in Mumbai, India to Indian Bollywood film producer Yash Johar, founder of Dharma Productions and he studied at the Greenlawns High School and attended H. R. College of Commerce and Economics, both in Mumbai and he received a masters degree in French. Johar started his career in entertainment industry as an actor, he played the role of Shrikant in 1989 Doordarshan Serial Indradhanush, as a child, he was influenced by commercial Indian cinema, He cites Raj Kapoor, Yash Chopra and Sooraj R.
Barjatya as his inspirations. For a time, Johar followed numerology, creating film titles in which the first word, after watching the 2006 film, Lage Raho Munna Bhai which was critical of numerology, Johar decided to stop this practice. Johar is a father to twins through surrogacy. The twins were born at Masrani Hospital in Mumbai, Johar named his son Yash – after his father, and his daugter Roohi – rearranged from his mothers name Hiroo. Johar entered the industry as an assistant director on Aditya Chopras Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge. He made his own directorial debut with the blockbuster romance Kuch Kuch Hota Hai, the film became a major blockbuster at the box office and received mostly positive reviews from critics. Writing for Planet Bollywood, critic Anish Khanna commented that Karan Johar makes an impressive debut, has a good script sense. It won the National Film Award for Best Popular Film Providing Wholesome Entertainment and it swept most of the major awards at the 44th Filmfare Awards, including Best Film, Best Director, and all four acting awards.
Johars next directorial venture was the family drama Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham. The film starred Amitabh Bachchan as a rich industrialist, Jaya Bachchan as his compassionate wife. It featured Kajol and Kareena Kapoor as sisters from a family who become the love interests of Khan and Roshan respectively. The film became Johars second major blockbuster at the box office, critic Taran Adarsh commented that Johar confirms the fact that he is the brightest in film firmament
The Rashtrapati Bhavan, formerly known as Viceroys House, is the official home of the President of India, located at the Western end of Rajpath in New Delhi, India. In terms of area, it is one of the largest residences of a head of state in the world, the British architect Edwin Landseer Lutyens, a major member of the city-planning process, was given the primary architectural responsibility. The completed Governor-Generals palace turned out similar to the original sketches which Lutyens sent Herbert Baker, from Simla. Lutyens design is grandly classical overall, with colours and details inspired by Indian architecture and Baker who had been assigned to work on Viceroys House and the Secretariats, began on friendly terms. Baker had been assigned to work on the two buildings which were in front of Viceroys House. The original plan was to have Viceroys House on the top of Raisina Hill and it was decided to build it 400 yards back, and put both buildings on top of the plateau. While Lutyens wanted Viceroys House to be higher, he was forced to move it back from the intended position, after completion, Lutyens argued with Baker, because the view of the front of the building was obscured by the high angle of the road.
Lutyens campaigned for its fixing, but was not able to get it to be changed, Lutyens wanted to make a long inclined grade all the way to Viceroys House with retaining walls on either side. While this would give a view of the house further back. In 1916 the Imperial Delhi committee dismissed Lutyenss proposal to alter the gradient, Lutyens thought Baker was more concerned with making money and pleasing the government, rather than making a good architectural design. Lutyens travelled between India and England almost every year for twenty years, to work on construction of Viceroys House in both countries. Lutyens reduced the building from 13,000,000 cubic feet to 8,500,000 cubic feet because of the restrictions of Lord Hardinge. While Hardinge demanded that costs be reduced, he wanted the house to retain a certain amount of ceremonial grandeur. On 26 January 1950, when Rajendra Prasad became the first President of India and occupied this building, it was renamed as Rashtrapati Bhavan – the Presidents House.
Consisting of four floors and 340 rooms, with an area of 200,000 square feet. The design process of the mansion was long and politically charged, Lutyens early designs were all starkly classical and entirely European in style. Various Indian designs were added to the building and these included several circular stone basins on top of the building, as water features are an important part of Indian architecture. It blocks harsh sunlight from the windows and shields the windows from heavy rain during the monsoon season, on the roofline were several chuttris, which helped to break up the flatness of the roofline not covered by the dome