Calotropis procera is a species of flowering plant in the family Apocynaceae that is native to North Africa, Tropical Africa, Western Asia, South Asia, and Indochina. The green globes are hollow but the flesh contains a milky sap that is extremely bitter. Common names for the plant include apple of Sodom, Sodom apple, kapok tree, kings crown, rubber bush, the name apple of Sodom derives from the Hebrew Tapuah Sdom. He says the fruit resembled a large, smooth apple or orange, when pressed or struck, it exploded with a puff, like a bladder or puff-ball, leaving in the hand only the shreds of the thin rind and a few fibers. It is filled chiefly with air, which gives it the round form, in the center a small slender pod runs through it which contains a small quantity of fine silk, which the Arabs collect and twist into matches for their guns. The plant, however, is not native solely to Palestine and it is known to occur throughout the tropical belt and is common in the West Indies, where the locals know it as pillow cotton.
When the ripe apples burst, the contents are ejected along with the seeds. The former are collected by the Jamaicans and used for filling pillows, Sodom apple is listed in the Mishnah and Talmud. The fibers attached to the seeds may have used as wicks. However the Mishnah forbids this for the Sabbath, in this story, a well-meaning servant of the prophet Elisha gathers herbs and a large quantity of the unknown gourds, and casts them into the pot. After the outcry from the band of prophets, instructs them to cast flour into the stew pot, the fibre of the Sodom Apple may have been used for the linen of the high priests. In 1938, botanists Hannah and Ephraim HaReuveni, authors of the The Squill, the milky sap contains a complex mix of chemicals, some of which are steroidal heart poisons known as cardiac aglycones. These belong to the chemical family as similar chemicals found in foxgloves. The steroidal component includes a group in the C3β position, a second attached to the C14 carbon, a C/D-cis ring junction.
In the plants, the component is commonly attached via a glycosidic link to a 2-desoxy or a 2. The features described are those required for toxicity but in addition there can be other substitutions into the steroid nucleus and these can be a C19-aldehyde in place of the more usual methyl group in this position as well as additional hydroxyl functions and sometimes epoxide structures. In the case of the Calotropis glycosides, their names are calotropin, calactin and voruscharin, the steroidal moiety has one of the more unusual structures. The C-19 formyl group is present and there is a secondary alcohol as well as the common C3
Some linguists use vernacular and nonstandard dialect as synonyms. The use of vernacular is not recent, here vernacular, mother language and dialect are already in use in a modern sense. The figurative meaning was broadened from the diminutive extended words vernaculus, the classical Latin grammarian, used the term vocabula vernacula, termes de la langue nationale or vocabulary of the national language as opposed to foreign words. In general linguistics, a vernacular is contrasted with a lingua franca, for instance, in Western Europe until the 17th century, most scholarly works had been written in Latin, which was serving as a lingua franca. Works written in Romance languages are said to be in the vernacular, the Divina Commedia, the Cantar de Mio Cid, and The Song of Roland are examples of early vernacular literature in Italian and French, respectively. In Europe, Latin was used instead of vernacular languages in varying forms until c. 1701, in its latter stage as New Latin, in Catholicism, vernacular bibles were provided, but Latin was used at Tridentine Mass until the Second Vatican Council of 1965.
Certain groups, notably Traditionalist Catholics, continue to practice Latin Mass, in India, the 12th century Bhakti movement led to the translation of Sanskrit texts to the vernacular. In science, a user of the vernacular was Galileo. 1600, though some of his works remained in Latin, a example is Isaac Newton, whose 1687 Principia was in Latin, but whose 1704 Opticks was in English. Latin continues to be used in fields of science, notably binomial nomenclature in biology, while other fields such as mathematics use vernacular. In diplomacy, French displaced Latin in Europe in the 1710s, certain languages have both a classical form and various vernacular forms, with two widely used examples being Arabic and Chinese, see Varieties of Arabic and Chinese language. In the 1920s, due to the May Fourth Movement, Classical Chinese was replaced by written vernacular Chinese, the vernacular is often contrasted with a liturgical language, a specialized use of a former lingua franca. Similarly, in Hindu culture, traditionally religious or scholarly works were written in Sanskrit or in Tamil in Tamil country.
With the rise of the movement from the 12th century onwards, religious works were created in the other languages, Kannada, Telugu. These circumstances are a contrast between a vernacular and language variant used by the same speakers, according to one school of linguistic thought, all such variants are examples of a linguistic phenomenon termed diglossia. In it, the language is bifurcated, i. e. the speaker learns two forms of the language and ordinarily uses one but under special circumstances the other. The one most frequently used is the low variant, equivalent to the vernacular, the concept was introduced to linguistics by Charles A. Ferguson, but Ferguson explicitly excluded variants as divergent as dialects or different languages or as similar as styles or registers
Ceiba pentandra is a tropical tree of the order Malvales and the family Malvaceae, native to Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean, northern South America, and to tropical west Africa. A somewhat smaller variety is found throughout southern Asia and the East Indies, Kapok is the most used common name for the tree and may refer to the cotton-like fluff obtained from its seed pods. The tree is cultivated for the fibre, particularly in south-east Asia. The very largest individuals however can be 19 feet thick or more above the buttresses, the trunk and many of the larger branches are often crowded with large simple thorns. These major branches, usually 4 to 6 in number and up to six feet thick form a crown of foliage as much as 201 feet in width, the palmate leaves are composed of 5 to 9 leaflets, each up to 20 cm long. The trees produce several hundred 15 cm pods containing seeds surrounded by a fluffy, yellowish fibre that is a mix of lignin, pentandra is among the largest trees in the world.
One of the oldest known Kapok trees, at 200 years, lives in Miami, Kapok fibre is light, very buoyant, resistant to water, but it is very flammable. The process of harvesting and separating the fibre is labour-intensive and manual and it is difficult to spin, but is used as an alternative to down as filling in mattresses, upholstery and stuffed toys such as teddy bears, and for insulation. It was previously used in life jackets and similar devices until synthetic materials largely replaced the fibre. The seeds produce an oil that is used locally in soap, native tribes along the Amazon River harvest kapok fibre to wrap around their blowgun darts. The fibres create a seal that allows the pressure to force the dart through the tube, when Pearl Harbor was bombed by the Japanese, a council was summoned that night in Washington, to consider what strategic commodities were threatened. The commercial tree is most heavily cultivated in the rainforests of Asia, notably in Java, Malaysia, the flowers are an important source of nectar and pollen for honey bees.
Ceiba pentandra bark decoction has been used as a diuretic, aphrodisiac and it is used as an additive in some versions of the hallucinogenic drink Ayahuasca. A vegetable oil can be pressed from kapok seeds, the oil has a yellow colour and a pleasant, mild odour and taste, resembling cottonseed oil. It becomes rancid quickly when exposed to air, Kapok oil is produced in India and Malaysia. It has a value of 85–100, this makes it a nondrying oil. Kapok oil has potential as a biofuel and in paint preparation. The kapok is a symbol in Maya mythology
Bombax ceiba, like other trees of the genus Bombax, is commonly known as cotton tree. More specifically, it is known as red silk-cotton, red cotton tree, or ambiguously as silk-cotton or kapok. This Asian tropical tree has a tall tree and its leaves are deciduous in winter. Red flowers with 5 petals appear in the spring before the new foliage and it produces a capsule which, when ripe, contains white fibres like cotton. Its trunk bears spikes to deter attacks by animals, although its stout trunk suggests that it is useful for timber, its wood is too soft to be very useful. The dry cores of the Bombax ceiba flower are an ingredient of the nam ngiao spicy noodle soup of the cuisine of Shan State and Northern Thailand. Bombax ceiba grows to an average of 20 meters, with old trees up to 60 meters in wet tropical regions, the trunk and limb bear numerous conical spines particularly when young, but get eroded when older. The leaves are palmate with about 6 leaflets radiating from a central point, the leafs long flexible petiole is up to 20 cm long.
Staminal tube is short, more than 60 in 5 bundles, stigma is light red, up to nine centimeters in length, ovary is pink,1. 5~2 centimeters in length, with the skin of the ovary covered in white silky hair at 1mm long. Seeds are numerous, ovoid, black or gray in colour, the fruit, which reaches an average of 13 centimeters in length, is light-green in color in immature fruits, brown in mature fruits. Spikes on stem can be ground and applied to face for treatment against acne. The tree is planted in southeastern Asian countries According to Chinese historical record. This tree is known as semal or shimul in India. It is widely planted in parks and on roadsides there because of its red flowers which bloom in March/April. This tree is common in New Delhi although it doesnt reach its full size of 60m there because of the semi arid climate. The cotton fibers of this tree can be floating in the wind around the time of early May. This tree shows two marked growth sprints in India, in spring and during the monsoon months, perhaps due to subtropical climate and heavy rainfalls, its found in dense population throughout the Northeast India.
This tree is found in the eastern parts of Pakistan