Satellite imagery are images of Earth or other planets collected by imaging satellites operated by governments and businesses around the world. Satellite imaging companies sell images by licensing them to governments and businesses such as Apple Maps and Google Maps; the first images from space were taken on sub-orbital flights. The U. S-launched V-2 flight on October 24, 1946 took one image every 1.5 seconds. With an apogee of 65 miles, these photos were from five times higher than the previous record, the 13.7 miles by the Explorer II balloon mission in 1935. The first satellite photographs of Earth were made on August 14, 1959 by the U. S. Explorer 6; the first satellite photographs of the Moon might have been made on October 6, 1959 by the Soviet satellite Luna 3, on a mission to photograph the far side of the Moon. The Blue Marble photograph was taken from space in 1972, has become popular in the media and among the public. In 1972 the United States started the Landsat program, the largest program for acquisition of imagery of Earth from space.
Landsat Data Continuity Mission, the most recent Landsat satellite, was launched on 11 February 2013. In 1977, the first real time satellite imagery was acquired by the United States's KH-11 satellite system. All satellite images produced by NASA are published by NASA Earth Observatory and are available to the public. Several other countries have satellite imaging programs, a collaborative European effort launched the ERS and Envisat satellites carrying various sensors. There are private companies that provide commercial satellite imagery. In the early 21st century satellite imagery became available when affordable, easy to use software with access to satellite imagery databases was offered by several companies and organizations. Satellite images have many applications in meteorology, fishing, biodiversity conservation, landscape, cartography, regional planning, education and warfare. Images can be in other spectra. There are elevation maps made by radar images. Interpretation and analysis of satellite imagery is conducted using specialized remote sensing software.
There are four types of resolution when discussing satellite imagery in remote sensing: spatial, spectral and radiometric. Campbell defines these as follows: spatial resolution is defined as the pixel size of an image representing the size of the surface area being measured on the ground, determined by the sensors' instantaneous field of view. Geometric resolution refers to the satellite sensor's ability to image a portion of the Earth's surface in a single pixel and is expressed in terms of Ground sample distance, or GSD. GSD is a term containing the overall optical and systemic noise sources and is useful for comparing how well one sensor can "see" an object on the ground within a single pixel. For example, the GSD of Landsat is ≈30m, which means the smallest unit that maps to a single pixel within an image is ≈30m x 30m; the latest commercial satellite has a GSD of 0.41 m. This compares to a 0.3 m resolution obtained by some early military film based Reconnaissance satellite such as Corona.
The resolution of satellite images varies depending on the instrument used and the altitude of the satellite's orbit. For example, the Landsat archive offers repeated imagery at 30 meter resolution for the planet, but most of it has not been processed from the raw data. Landsat 7 has an average return period of 16 days. For many smaller areas, images with resolution as high as 41 cm can be available. Satellite imagery is sometimes supplemented with aerial photography, which has higher resolution, but is more expensive per square meter. Satellite imagery can be combined with vector or raster data in a GIS provided that the imagery has been spatially rectified so that it will properly align with other data sets. Satellite imaging of the Earth surface is of sufficient public utility that many countries maintain satellite imaging programs; the United States has led the way in making these data available for scientific use. Some of the more popular programs are listed below followed by the European Union's Sentinel constellation.
Landsat is the oldest continuous Earth observing satellite imaging program. Optical Landsat imagery has been collected at 30 m resolution since the early 1980s. Beginning with Landsat 5, thermal infrared imagery was collected; the Landsat 7 and Landsat 8 satellites are in orbit. Landsat 9 is planned. MODIS has collected near-daily satellite imagery of the earth in 36 spectral bands since 2000. MODIS is onboard the NASA Aqua satellites; the ESA is developing the Sentinel constellation of satellites. 7 missions are planned, each for a different application. Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2, Sentinel-3 have been launched; the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emissio
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto to the northwest and the Po Valley; the countries with coasts on the Adriatic are Albania and Herzegovina, Italy and Slovenia. The Adriatic contains over 1,300 islands located along the Croatian part of its eastern coast, it is divided into three basins, the northern being the shallowest and the southern being the deepest, with a maximum depth of 1,233 metres. The Otranto Sill, an underwater ridge, is located at the border between the Adriatic and Ionian Seas; the prevailing currents flow counterclockwise from the Strait of Otranto, along the eastern coast and back to the strait along the western coast. Tidal movements in the Adriatic are slight, although larger amplitudes are known to occur occasionally; the Adriatic's salinity is lower than the Mediterranean's because the Adriatic collects a third of the fresh water flowing into the Mediterranean, acting as a dilution basin.
The surface water temperatures range from 30 °C in summer to 12 °C in winter moderating the Adriatic Basin's climate. The Adriatic Sea sits on the Apulian or Adriatic Microplate, which separated from the African Plate in the Mesozoic era; the plate's movement contributed to the formation of the surrounding mountain chains and Apennine tectonic uplift after its collision with the Eurasian plate. In the Late Oligocene, the Apennine Peninsula first formed, separating the Adriatic Basin from the rest of the Mediterranean. All types of sediment are found in the Adriatic, with the bulk of the material transported by the Po and other rivers on the western coast; the western coast is alluvial or terraced, while the eastern coast is indented with pronounced karstification. There are dozens of marine protected areas in the Adriatic, designed to protect the sea's karst habitats and biodiversity; the sea is abundant in flora and fauna—more than 7,000 species are identified as native to the Adriatic, many of them endemic and threatened ones.
The Adriatic's shores are populated by more than 3.5 million people. The earliest settlements on the Adriatic shores were Etruscan and Greek. By the 2nd century BC, the shores were under Rome's control. In the Middle Ages, the Adriatic shores and the sea itself were controlled, to a varying extent, by a series of states—most notably the Byzantine Empire, the Croatian Kingdom, the Republic of Venice, the Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire; the Napoleonic Wars resulted in the First French Empire gaining coastal control and the British effort to counter the French in the area securing most of the eastern Adriatic shore and the Po Valley for Austria. Following Italian unification, the Kingdom of Italy started an eastward expansion that lasted until the 20th century. Following World War I and the collapse of Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire, the eastern coast's control passed to Yugoslavia and Albania; the former disintegrated during the 1990s. Italy and Yugoslavia agreed on their maritime boundaries by 1975 and this boundary is recognised by Yugoslavia's successor states, but the maritime boundaries between Slovenian, Bosnian-Herzegovinian, Montenegrin waters are still disputed.
Italy and Albania agreed on their maritime boundary in 1992. Fisheries and tourism are significant sources of income all along the Adriatic coast. Adriatic Croatia's tourism industry has grown faster economically than the rest of the Adriatic Basin's. Maritime transport is a significant branch of the area's economy—there are 19 seaports in the Adriatic that each handle more than a million tonnes of cargo per year; the largest Adriatic seaport by annual cargo turnover is the Port of Trieste, while the Port of Split is the largest Adriatic seaport by passengers served per year. The origins of the name Adriatic are linked to the Etruscan settlement of Adria, which derives its name from the Illyrian adur meaning water or sea. In classical antiquity, the sea was known as Mare Adriaticum or, less as Mare Superum, " upper sea"; the two terms were not synonymous, however. Mare Adriaticum corresponds to the Adriatic Sea's extent, spanning from the Gulf of Venice to the Strait of Otranto; that boundary became more defined by Roman authors – early Greek sources place the boundary between the Adriatic and Ionian seas at various places ranging from adjacent to the Gulf of Venice to the southern tip of the Peloponnese, eastern shores of Sicily and western shores of Crete.
Mare Superum on the other hand encompassed both the modern Adriatic Sea and the sea off the Apennine peninsula's southern coast, as far as the Strait of Sicily. Another name used in the period was Mare Dalmaticum, applied to waters off the coast of Dalmatia or Illyricum; the names for the sea in the languages of the surrounding countries include Albanian: Deti Adriatik. In Croatian and Slovene, the sea is referred to as Jadran; the Adriatic Sea is a semi-enclosed sea, bordered in the southwest by the Apennine or Italian Peninsula, in the northwest by the Italian regions of Veneto and Friuli-Venezia Giulia, in the northeast by Slovenia, Croatia, B
The Dinaric Alps commonly Dinarides, are a mountain range in Southern and Southeastern Europe, separating the continental Balkan Peninsula from the Adriatic Sea. They stretch from Italy in the northwest through Slovenia, Croatia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Kosovo to Albania in the southeast; the Dinaric Alps extend for 645 kilometres along the Western Balkan Peninsula from the Julian Alps to the northwest in Italy, downwards to the Šar and Korab massif, where their direction changes. The Albanian Alps, or Prokletije, is the highest section of the entire Dinaric Alps. Maja Jezercë is the highest peak and is located in Albania, standing at 2,694 metres above the Adriatic; the Dinaric Alps are one of the most rugged and extensively mountainous areas of Europe, alongside the Caucasus Mountains, Alps and Scandinavian Mountains. They are formed of Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks of dolomite, limestone and conglomerates formed by seas and lakes that once covered the area. During the Alpine earth movements that occurred 50–100 million years ago, immense lateral pressures folded and overthrust the rocks in a great arc around the old rigid block of the northeast.
The Dinaric Alps were thrown up in more or less parallel ranges, stretching like necklaces from the Julian Alps as far as northern Albania and Kosovo, where the mountainous terrain subsides to make way for the waters of the Drin River and the plains of Kosovo. The Dinarides are named after Mount Dinara, a prominent peak in the center of the mountain range on the border with the Dalmatian part of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina; the chain is called Alpet Dinaride or Alpet Dinarike in Albanian, Dinaridi/Динариди in Serbo-Croatian, Dinarsko gorstvo in Slovene and Alpi Dinariche in Italian. The Mesozoic limestone forms a distinctive region of the Balkans, notable for features such as the Karst, which has given its name to all such terrains of limestone eroded by groundwater; the Dinarides are known for being composed of karst — limestone rocks — as is Dinara, the mountain for which they were named. The Quaternary ice ages had little direct geologic influence on the Balkans. No permanent ice caps existed, there is little evidence of extensive glaciation.
Only the highest summits of Durmitor and Prenj have glacial valleys and moraines as low as 600 m. However, in the Prokletije, a range on the northern Albanian border that runs east to west, there is evidence of major glaciation. One geological feature of great importance to the present-day landscape of the Dinarides must be considered in more detail: that of the limestone mountains with their attendant faulting, they are hard and slow to erode, persist as steep jagged escarpments, through which steep-sided gorges and canyons are cleft by the rivers draining the higher slopes. The submerged western Dinaric Alps form the numerous islands and harbors along the Croatian coast; the most extensive example of limestone mountains in Europe are those of the Karst of the Dinaric Alps. Here, all the characteristic features are encountered again and again as one travels through this wild and underpopulated country. Limestone is a porous rock, yet hard and resistant to erosion. Water is the most important corrosive force, dissolving the limestone by chemical action of its natural acidity.
As it percolates down through cracks in the limestone it opens up fissures and channels of considerable depth, so that whole systems of underground drainage develop. During subsequent millennia these work deeper, leaving in their wake enormous waterless caverns and grottoes and forming underground labyrinths of channels and shafts; the roofs of some of these caverns may fall in, to produce great perpendicular-sided gorges, exposing the water to the surface once more. The Dinaric rivers carved many canyons characteristic for Dinaric Alps, in particular karst. Among largest and most well known are the Neretva, the Rakitnica, the Prača, the Drina, the Sutjeska, the Vrbas, the Piva, the Tara, the Komarnica, the Morača, the Cem/Ciijevna, the Lim, the Drin. Only along the Dinaric gorges is communication possible across the Karst, roads and railways tunnel through precipitous cliffs and traverse narrow ledges above roaring torrents. A number of springs and rivers rise in the Dinaric range, including Jadro Spring noted for having been the source of water for Diocletian's Palace at Split.
At the same time, the purity of these rocks is such that the rivers are crystal clear, there is little soil-making residue. Water quality testing of the Jadro River, for example, indicates the low pollutant levels present. Rock faces are bare of vegetation and glaring white, but what little soil there is may collect in the hollows and support lush lime-tolerant vegetation, or yield narrow strips of cultivation. Ruins of fortresses dot the mountainous landscape, evidence of centuries of war and the refuge the Dinaric Alps have provided to various armed forces. During the Roman period, the Dinarides provided shelter to the Illyrians resisting Roman conquest of the Balkans, which began with the conquest of the eastern Adriatic coast in the 3rd century BC. Rome conquered the whole of Illyria in 168 BC, but these mountains sheltered Illyrian resistance forces for many years until the area's complete subjugation by 14 AD. More the Ottoman Empire failed to subjugate the mountainous areas
Mediterranean monk seal
The Mediterranean monk seal is a monk seal belonging to the family Phocidae. As of 2015, it is estimated that fewer than 700 individuals survive in three or four isolated subpopulations in the Mediterranean, in the Aegean Sea, the archipelago of Madeira and the Cabo Blanco area in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean, it is believed to be the world's rarest pinniped species. This species of seal grows from 80 centimetres long at birth up to an average of 2.4 metres as adults. Males weigh an average of 320 kilograms and females weigh 300 kilograms, with overall weight ranging from 240–400 kilograms, they are thought to live up to 45 years old. The monk seals' pups are about 1 metre long and weigh around 15–18 kilograms, their skin being covered by 1–1.5 centimeter-long, dark brown to black hair. On their bellies, there is a white stripe, which differs in shape between the two sexes. In females the stripe is rectangular in shape whereas in males it is butterfly shaped; this hair is replaced after six to eight weeks by the usual short hair adults carry.
Pregnant Mediterranean monk seals use inaccessible undersea caves while giving birth, though historical descriptions show they used open beaches until the 18th century. There are eight pairs of teeth in both jaws. Believed to have the shortest hair of any pinniped, the Mediterranean monk seal fur is black or brown to dark grey, with a paler belly, close to white in males; the snout is short broad and flat, with pronounced, long nostrils that face upward, unlike their Hawaiian relative, which tend to have more forward nostrils. The flippers are short, with small slender claws. Monk seals have two pairs of retractable abdominal teats, unlike most other pinnipeds. Little is known of this seal's reproduction. Scientists have suggested that they are polygynous, with males being territorial where they mate with females. Although there is no breeding season since births take place year round, there is a peak in October and November; this is the time when caves are prone to wash out due to high surf or storm surge, which causes high mortality rates among monk seal pups at the key Cabo Blanco colony.
According to the IUCN species factsheet, "pup survival is low. Survival of pups born from September to January is 29%; this low survival rate is associated with mortality caused by severe storms, high swells and tides, but impoverished genetic variability and inbreeding may be involved. Pups born during the rest of the year had a survival rate of 71%". In 2008, lactation was reported in an open beach, the first such record since 1945, which could suggest the seal could begin feeling safe to return to open beaches for breeding purposes in Cabo Blanco. Pups make first contact with the water two weeks after their birth and are weaned at around 18 weeks of age. Most individuals are believed to reach maturity at four years of age; the gestation period lasts close to a year. However, it is believed to be common among monk seals of the Cabo Blanco colony to have a gestation period lasting longer than a year. Mediterranean monk seals are diurnal and feed on a variety of fish and mollusks octopus and eels, up to 3 kg per day.
They are known to forage at depths up to 250 meters, with an average depth varying between specimens. Monk seals prefer hunting in wide-open spaces, they are successful bottom-feeding hunters. The habitat of this pinniped has changed over the years. In ancient times, up until the 20th century, Mediterranean monk seals had been known to congregate, give birth, seek refuge on open beaches. In more recent times, they have left their former habitat and now only use sea caves for these activities; these caves are inaccessible to humans. Their caves have underwater entries and their caves are positioned along remote or rugged coastlines. Scientists have confirmed this is a recent adaptation, most due to the rapid increase in human population and industry, which have caused increased disturbance by humans and the destruction of the species' natural habitat; because of these seals' shy nature and sensitivity to human disturbance, they have adapted to try to avoid contact with humans within the last century, even earlier.
The coastal caves are, dangerous for newborns, are causes of major mortality among pups when sea storms hit the caves. This earless seal's former range extended throughout the Northwest Atlantic Africa and Black Sea, including all offshore islands of the Mediterranean, into the Atlantic and its islands: Canary, Ilhas Desertas, Porto Santo... as far west as the Azores. Vagrants could be found as far south as Gambia and the Cape Verde islands, as far north as continental Portugal and Atlantic France. Several causes provoked a dramatic population decrease over time: on one hand, commercial hunting and, during the 20th century, eradication by fishermen, who used to consider it a pest due to the damage the seal causes to fishing nets when it preys on fish caught in them; some seals have survived in the S
Vlorë County is one of the 12 counties of the Republic of Albania, with the capital in Vlorë. The county spans 2,706 square kilometres and had a total population of 183,105 people as of 2016; the county borders on the counties of Fier, Gjirokastër, the Adriatic and Ionian Sea. Vlorë is geographically a mountainous county; the county stretches along the Adriatic Sea and the Ionian Sea, forming the Albanian Riviera. The county has a coastline of 244 kilometres; the coasts on the west can be steep and rocky with green panoramic vistas and high mountains in the hinterland, including the Ceraunian Mountains. The highest natural point is Maja e Çikës, at 2,044 metres. Although the northwest of the county is comprised by the peninsula of Karaburun with a rough relief, steep cliffs and rocky beaches. With more than 180.000 inhabitants in 2016, the county is the seventh most populous Albanian county, the third most populous county of the Southern Region. Albanians predominate in the county, including the capital city.
In addition, Aromanians and Montenegrins are present in the ethnic composition of the local population of the county. The port city Vlorë is the capital of Vlorë County, it is where the Albanian Declaration of Independence was proclaimed on November 28, 1912. Sarandë is one of the most important tourist attractions of the Albanian Riviera, it is situated on an open sea gulf of the Ionian Sea in the central Mediterranean, about 14 km east of the north end of the Greek island of Corfu. The Butrint National Park, Llogara National Park and Karaburun Sazan National Marine Park are located in Vlorë County; the ancient city of Butrint is an archeological site in Vlorë County, some 14 kilometres south of Sarandë. It is part of the Butrint National Park. During the antiquity the city of Vlorë, the homonymous county capital, was known as Aulón (Greek: Αυλών with the meaning channel or glen and a translation of another indigenous name; the city was founded in antiquity as a Greek colony inside the territory of Illyria.
The Latin name is a Latinization of the Ancient Greek name. The medieval and modern Greek name was Αυλώνας /av'lonas/, accusative Αυλώνα /av'lona/, is the source of the Italian name Valona and of the obsolete English Avlona. During the Ottoman era, the Turkish Avlonya was common. In antiquity the region was inhabited by the Greek tribe of the Chaonians; the Ancient Greeks developed the town of Sarandë which they referred to as Onchesmos Onchesmos flourished as the port of the Chaonian capital of Phoenice. Further north another Chaonian settlement was founded, Himarë, while the Corinthians found the colony of Aulon at the bay of Vlorë. Additional ancient settlements in the region included Thronium, Oricum. In the Middle Ages, the region was part of the Byzantine Empire, while during the Slavic invasion there is evidence the Byzantine rule was maintained in the area. In 1204 the region returned to the Byzantine Empire. In 1335 Albanian tribes descended south and were in possession of the area between Berat and the bay of Vlore, while in 1345 after the Serbian invasion an independent principality was formed in Vlorë.
In the middle of the 14th century the aristocratic Delvina family ruled Delvinë and in 1354, Mehmet Ali Pasha Delvina was testified as the owner of the castle and the city. Vlorë is one of 12 counties of Albania, located southwest of the Southern Region, it is divided into seven municipalities. These are Delvinë, Himarë, Sarandë, Selenicë and Vlorë; the municipalities are further subdivided into 200 villages in total. The county lies between latitudes 41° N, longitudes 20° E; the county area is 2,706 km2 and the fifth unit of the Albanian county in area and the third in the Southern Region, behind Korçë County and Gjirokastër County. It is limited to the counties of Fier in the north, Gjirokastër in the east, the country of Greece in the south and the Adriatic Sea in the northwest and the Ionian Sea in the west. Phytogeographically, the county falls within the Illyrian deciduous forests terrestrial ecoregion of the Palearctic Mediterranean forests and scrub. Inside the county, there are three national parks, namely Llogara National Park, Karaburun-Sazan Marine Park, Butrint National Park.
Vlorë County forms the Albanian Riviera. The southeastern part of the county borders Greece; the county has a total area of 2,706 km2. The three main cities are Vlorë, Sarandë and Delvinë. In Vlorë there are five islands located; the Ksamil Islands are four small islands located in Vlorë. The combined areas of the four Ksamili islands is only 7.1 hectares and form part of the larger Butrint National Park. Sazan Island is strategically located between the Strait of Otranto and the entrance to the Bay of Vlorë and has an area of 5.7 km2 with no civil population. In addition to being the largest island in Albania, it is a military facility and sometimes in clear weather it may be seen by eye from the coast of Salento, Italy. More than half of the island's surrounding marine area forms part of the Karaburun-Sazan National Marine Park. Stillo Island is sparsely vegetated, it has an area of half an hectare, with an approximate length of 80 meters and a width of 100 meters. It is located in the Ionian Sea, 200 meters off the coast of Cape Stillo.
Tongo Island is a rocky island, its waters are rich in aquatic life. The island is situated about 300 metres off the Greek coast, it has an area of 2.5 hectares. Z
Karst is a topography formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone and gypsum. It is characterized by underground drainage systems with caves, it has been documented for more weathering-resistant rocks, such as quartzite, given the right conditions. Subterranean drainage may limit surface water, with few to no lakes. However, in regions where the dissolved bedrock is covered or confined by one or more superimposed non-soluble rock strata, distinctive karst features may occur only at subsurface levels and be missing above ground; the study of karst is considered of prime importance in petroleum geology because as much as 50% of the world's hydrocarbon reserves are hosted in porous karst systems. The English word karst was borrowed from German Karst in the late 19th century, which entered German much earlier. According to one interpretation the term is derived from the German name for a number of geological and hydrological features found within the range of the Dinaric Alps, stretching from the northeastern corner of Italy above the city of Trieste, across the Balkan peninsula along the coast of the eastern Adriatic to Kosovo and North Macedonia, where the massif of the Šar Mountains begins, more the karst zone at the northwestern-most section, described in early topographical research as a plateau, between Italy and Slovenia.
In the local South Slavic languages, all variations of the word are derived from a Romanized Illyrian base metathesized from the reconstructed form *korsъ into forms such as Bosnian: krš, Croatian: krš, kraš, Serbian: kras, Slovene: kras. Languages preserving the older, non-metathesized form include Italian: Carso, German: Karst, Albanian: karsti; the Slovene common noun kras was first attested in the 18th century, the adjective form kraški in the 16th century. As a proper noun, the Slovene form Grast was first attested in 1177; the word is of Mediterranean origin. It has been suggested that the word may derive from the Proto-Indo-European root karra-'rock'; the name may be connected to the oronym Karsádios oros cited by Ptolemy, also to Latin Carusardius. Johann Weikhard von Valvasor, a pioneer of the study of karst in Slovenia and a fellow of the Royal Society for Improving Natural Knowledge, introduced the word karst to European scholars in 1689, describing the phenomenon of underground flows of rivers in his account of Lake Cerknica.
Jovan Cvijić advanced the knowledge of karst regions, so much that he became known as the "father of karst geomorphology". Discussing the karstic regions of the Balkans, Cvijić's 1893 publication Das Karstphänomen describes landforms such as karren and poljes. In a 1918 publication, Cvijić proposed a cyclical model for karstic landscape development. Karst hydrology emerged as a discipline in early 1960s in France; the activities of cave explorers, called speleologists, had been dismissed as more of a sport than a science, meaning that underground karstic caves and their associated watercourses were, from a scientific perspective, understudied. The development of karst occurs whenever acidic water starts to break down the surface of bedrock near its cracks, or bedding planes; as the bedrock continues to degrade, its cracks tend to get bigger. As time goes on, these fractures will become wider, a drainage system of some sort may start to form underneath. If this underground drainage system does form, it will speed up the development of karst formations there because more water will be able to flow through the region, giving it more erosive power.
The carbonic acid that causes karstic features is formed as rain passes through Earth's atmosphere picking up carbon dioxide, which dissolves in the water. Once the rain reaches the ground, it may pass through soil that can provide much more CO2 to form a weak carbonic acid solution, which dissolves calcium carbonate; the primary reaction sequence in limestone dissolution is the following: In particular and rare conditions such as encountered in the past in Lechuguilla Cave in New Mexico, other mechanisms may play a role. The oxidation of sulfides leading to the formation of sulfuric acid can be one of the corrosion factors in karst formation; as oxygen -rich surface waters seep into deep anoxic karst systems, they bring oxygen, which reacts with sulfide present in the system to form sulfuric acid. Sulfuric acid reacts with calcium carbonate, causing increased erosion within the limestone formation; this chain of reactions is: This reaction chain forms gypsum. The karstification of a landscape may result in a variety of large- or small-scale features both on the surface and beneath.
On exposed surfaces, small features may include solution flutes, limestone pavement, collectively called karren or lapiez. Medium-sized surface features may include sinkholes or cenotes, vertical shafts, disappearing streams, reappearing springs. Large-scale features may include limestone pavements and karst valleys. Mature karst landscapes, where more bedrock has been removed than remains, may result in karst towers, or haystack/eggbox landscapes. Beneath the surface, complex underground drainage systems and extensive caves and cavern systems may form. Erosion along limes
Loggerhead sea turtle
The loggerhead sea turtle called the loggerhead, is a species of oceanic turtle distributed throughout the world. It is a marine reptile; the average loggerhead measures around 90 cm in carapace length when grown. The adult loggerhead sea turtle weighs 135 kg, with the largest specimens weighing in at more than 450 kg; the skin ranges from yellow to brown in color, the shell is reddish brown. No external differences in sex are seen until the turtle becomes an adult, the most obvious difference being the adult males have thicker tails and shorter plastrons than the females; the loggerhead sea turtle is found in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, as well as the Mediterranean Sea. It spends most of its life in saltwater and estuarine habitats, with females coming ashore to lay eggs; the loggerhead sea turtle has a low reproductive rate. The loggerhead has a lifespan of 47 -- 67 years; the loggerhead sea turtle is omnivorous, feeding on bottom-dwelling invertebrates. Its large and powerful jaws serve as an effective tool for dismantling its prey.
Young loggerheads are exploited by numerous predators. Once the turtles reach adulthood, their formidable size limits predation to large marine animals, such as sharks; the loggerhead sea turtle is considered a vulnerable species by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. In total, 9 distinct population segments are under the protection of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, with 4 population segments classified as "threatened" and 5 classified as "endangered" Commercial trade of loggerheads or derived products is prohibited by CITES Appendix I. Untended fishing gear is responsible for many loggerhead deaths. Turtles may suffocate if they are trapped in fishing trawls. Turtle excluder devices have been implemented in efforts to reduce mortality by providing an escape route for the turtles. Loss of suitable nesting beaches and the introduction of exotic predators have taken a toll on loggerhead populations. Efforts to restore their numbers will require international cooperation, since the turtles roam vast areas of ocean and critical nesting beaches are scattered across several countries.
The loggerhead sea turtle is the world's largest hard-shelled turtle larger at average and maximum mature weights than the green sea turtle and the Galapagos tortoise. It is the world's second largest extant turtle after the leatherback sea turtle. Adults have an average weight range of 80 to 200 kg, averaging about 135 kg, a straight-line carapace length range of 70 to 95 cm; the maximum reported weight is 545 kg and the maximum length is 213 cm. The head and carapace range from a yellow-orange to a reddish brown, while the plastron is pale yellow; the turtle's neck and sides are yellow on the sides and bottom. The turtle's shell is divided into two sections: plastron; the carapace scutes. 11 or 12 pairs of marginal scutes rim the carapace. Five vertebral scutes run down the carapace's midline, while five pairs of costal scutes border them; the nuchal scute is located at the base of the head. The carapace connects to the plastron by three pairs of inframarginal scutes forming the bridge of the shell.
The plastron features paired gular, pectoral, abdominal and anal scutes. The shell serves as external armor, although loggerhead sea turtles cannot retract their heads or flippers into their shells. Sexual dimorphism of the loggerhead sea turtle is only apparent in adults. Adult males have longer claws than females; the males' plastrons are shorter than the females' to accommodate the males' larger tails. The carapaces of males are wider and less domed than the females', males have wider heads than females; the sex of juveniles and subadults cannot be determined through external anatomy, but can be observed through dissection, histological examination, radioimmunological assays. Lachrymal glands located behind each eye allow the loggerhead to maintain osmotic balance by eliminating the excess salt obtained from ingesting ocean water. On land, the excretion of excess salt gives the false impression; the loggerhead sea turtle has a cosmopolitan distribution, nesting over the broadest geographical range of any sea turtle.
It inhabits the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and the Mediterranean Sea. In the Atlantic Ocean, the greatest concentration of loggerheads is along the southeastern coast of North America and in the Gulf of Mexico. Few loggerheads are found along the European and African coastlines. Florida is the most popular nesting site, with more than 67,000 nests built per year. Nesting extends as far north as Virginia, as far south as Brazil, as far east as the Cape Verde Islands; the Cape Verde Islands are the only significant nesting site on the eastern side of the Atlantic. Loggerheads found in the Atlantic Ocean feed from Canada to Brazil. In the Indian Ocean, loggerheads feed along the coastlines of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, in the Arabian Sea. Along the African coastline, loggerheads nest from Mozambique's Bazaruto Archipelago to South Africa's St Lucia estuary; the largest Indian Ocean nesting site is Oman, on the Arabian Penins