Anatolia in Classical Antiquity was first divided into several Iron Age kingdom, most notably Lydia in the west, Phrygia in the center and Urartu in the east. Anatolia fell under Achaemenid Persian rule c. 550 BC. In the aftermath of the Greco-Persian Wars, all of Anatolia remained under Persian control except for the Aegean coast, incorporated in the Delian League in the 470s BC. Alexander the Great wrested control of the whole region from Persia in the 330s BC. After Alexander's death, his conquests were split amongst several of his trusted generals, but were under constant threat of invasion from both the Gauls and other powerful rulers in Pergamon and Egypt; the Seleucid Empire, the largest of Alexander's territories, which included Anatolia, became involved in a disastrous war with Rome culminating in the battles of Thermopylae and Magnesia. The resulting Treaty of Apamea in saw the Seleucids retreat from Anatolia; the Kingdom of Pergamum and the Republic of Rhodes, Rome's allies in the war, were granted the former Seleucid lands in Anatolia.
Anatolia subsequently became contested between the neighboring rivalling Romans and the Parthian Empire, which culminated in the Roman-Parthian Wars Anatolia came under Roman rule following the Mithridatic Wars of 88–63 BC. Roman control of Anatolia was strengthened by a'hands off' approach by Rome, allowing local control to govern and providing military protection. In the early 4th century, Constantine the Great established a new administrative centre at Constantinople, by the end of the 4th century a new eastern empire was established with Constantinople as its capital, referred to by historians as the Byzantine Empire from the original name, Byzantium. In the subsequent centuries up to including the advent of the Early Middle Ages, the Parthians were succeeded by the Sassanid Persians, who would continue the centuries long rivalry between Rome and Persia, which again culminated in frequent wars on the eastern fringes of Anatolia. Byzantine Anatolia came under pressure of the Muslim invasion in the southeast, but most of Anatolia remained under Byzantine control until the Turkish invasion of the 11th century.
Lydia had become the predominant power in western Anatolia by the 7th century BC, although subject to Assyrian control. The Lydian empire gained independence from Assyria by the end of the 7th century; the flourishing of Lydia during the first half of the 6th century BC is dubbed the Lydian Empire period. Although the Iranian peoples had existed in the area south of the Caspian Sea from pre-historic times, their major influence began when the Medes united them in 625 BC allowing them to sweep away the Assyrian Empire shortly after, when Cyaxares led the invasion in 612 BC. Lydian king Sadyattes joined forces with Cyaxares the Mede to drive the Cimmerians out of Anatolia; this alliance was short lived, since his successor Alyattes found himself being attacked by Cyaxares, although the neighbouring king of Cilicia intervened, negotiating a peace in 585 BC, whereby the Halys River in north central Anatolia was established as the Medes' frontier with Lydia. Herodotus writes: "On the refusal of Alyattes to give up his supplicants when Cyaxares sent to demand them of him, war broke out between the Lydians and the Medes, continued for five years, with various success.
In the course of it the Medes gained many victories over the Lydians, the Lydians gained many victories over the Medes."Alyattes issued minted electrum coins, his successor Croesus, ruling c. 560–546 BC, became known for being the first to issue gold coins. The southeast of Anatolia was ruled by the Assyrian Empire. Tabal was a Luwian speaking Neo-Hittite kingdom of South Central Anatolia which fell under Assyrian rule in 713 BC; the Medean Empire turned out to be short lived. By 550 BC, the Median Empire of eastern Anatolia, which had existed for a hundred years, was torn apart by a Persian rebellion in 553 BC under Cyrus II, overthrowing his grandfather Astyages in 550 BC; the Medes became subject to the Persians. The Persians, who had scant resources for governing their vast empire, ruled benignly as conquerors, attempting to obtain the cooperation of the local elite in governance, they ruled their vassal states by appointing local rulers, or satraps with responsibility for their satrapies.
However, the Greeks referred to these satraps as'tyrants', meaning they were neither democratically elected or derived authority from dynasty. The Achaemenid Persian Empire, continued its expansion under Darius the Great; the satrap system of local governors continued to be used and upgraded and other governmental upgrades were carried out. Anatolia was carved up under Persian hegemony into regional administrations which replaced the hegemonic kingdoms prior to the conquest. Kings were replaced by Satraps. Satrap and Satrapy corresponding to Province respectively; the administration was hierarchical referred to as Great and Minor Satrapies. The main administrative units in Anatolia were the Great Satrapy of Sardis in the west, Main satrapy of Cappadocia centrally, Main Satrapy of Armenia in the north-east and Main Satrapy of Assyria in the south-east; these correspond to Herodotus's Districts I-IV. However, the number of satrapies and their boundaries varied over time. Within the hierarchical system, Sparda was a Great Satrapy consisting of the Major Satrapies of Sarda and Cappadocia.
Europe is a continent located in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, it comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe is most considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity; the division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The geographic border does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey and Kazakhstan being transcontinental countries. A strict application of the Caucasus Mountains boundary places two comparatively small countries and Georgia, in both continents.
Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million as of 2016; the European climate is affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast. Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization; the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic and social change in Western Europe and the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals, it includes all European states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation.
The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most used among Europeans. In classical Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess; the word Europe is derived from her name. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, "wide, broad" and ὤψ "eye, countenance", hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" or Phoenician'ereb "evening, west", at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. Michael A. Barry, professor in Princeton University's Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, sunset", in opposition to Asu " sunrise", i.e. Asia.
The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή. Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is poor." Next to these hypotheses there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning "darkness", which produced Greek Erebus. Most major world languages use words derived from Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu. In some Turkic languages the Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa; the prevalent definition of Europe as a geographical term has been in use since the mid-19th century. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water
Lycia was a geopolitical region in Anatolia in what are now the provinces of Antalya and Muğla on the southern coast of Turkey, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, Burdur Province inland. Known to history since the records of ancient Egypt and the Hittite Empire in the Late Bronze Age, it was populated by speakers of the Luwian language group. Written records began to be inscribed in stone in the Lycian language after Lycia's involuntary incorporation into the Achaemenid Empire in the Iron Age. At that time the Luwian speakers were decimated, Lycia received an influx of Persian speakers. Ancient sources seem to indicate. Lycia fought for the Persians in the Persian Wars, but on the defeat of the Achaemenid Empire by the Greeks, it became intermittently a free agent. After a brief membership in the Athenian Empire, it seceded and became independent, was under the Persians again, revolted again, was conquered by Mausolus of Caria, returned to the Persians, fell under Macedonian hegemony upon the defeat of the Persians by Alexander the Great.
Due to the influx of Greek speakers and the sparsity of the remaining Lycian speakers, Lycia was Hellenized under the Macedonians, the Lycian language disappeared from inscriptions and coinage. On defeating Antiochus III in 188 BC the Romans gave Lycia to Rhodes for 20 years, taking it back in 168 BC. In these latter stages of the Roman republic Lycia came to enjoy freedom as a Roman protectorate; the Romans validated home rule under the Lycian League in 168 BC. This native government was an early federation with republican principles. Despite home rule, Lycia had not been since its defeat by the Carians. In 43 AD the Roman emperor Claudius dissolved the league, Lycia was incorporated into the Roman Empire with provincial status, it became an eparchy of the Eastern, or Byzantine Empire, continuing to speak Greek after being joined by communities of Turkish language speakers in the early 2nd millennium. After the fall of the Byzantine Empire in the 15th century, Lycia was under the Ottoman Empire, was inherited by the Turkish Republic on the fall of that empire.
The Greek and Turkish population was exchanged when the border between Greece and Turkey was negotiated in 1923. The borders of Lycia varied over time, but at its centre was the Teke peninsula of southwestern Turkey, which juts southward into the Mediterranean Sea, bounded on the west by the Gulf of Fethiye, on the east by the Gulf of Antalya. Lycia comprised what is now the westernmost portion of Antalya Province, the easternmost portion of Muğla Province, the southernmost portion of Burdur Province. In ancient times the surrounding districts were, from west to east, Caria and Pamphylia, all as ancient, each speaking its own Anatolian language; the name of the Teke Peninsula comes from the former name of Antalya Province, Teke Province, named from the Turkish tribe that settled in the region. Four ridges extend from northeast to southwest forming the western extremity of the Taurus Mountains. Furthest west of the four are Boncuk Dağlari, or "the Boncuk Mountains," extending from about Altinyayla, southwest to about Oren north of Fethiye.
This is a low range peaking at about 2,340 m. To the west of it the steep gorges of Dalaman Çayi, the ancient Indus, formed the traditional border between Caria and Lycia; the stream, 229 km long, enters the Mediterranean to the west of modern-day Dalaman. Upstream it is dammed in four places, after an origin in the vicinity of Sarikavak in Denizli Province; the next ridge to the east is Akdağlari, "the White Mountains," about 150 km long, with a high point at Uyluktepe, "Uyluk Peak," of 3,024 m. This massif may have been ancient Mount Cragus. Along its western side flows Eşen Çayi, "the Esen River," anciently the Xanthus, Lycian Arñna, originating in the Boncuk Mountains, flowing south, transecting the several-mile-long beach at Patara; the Xanthus Valley was the country called Tŗmmis in dynastic Lycia, from which the people were the Termilae or Tremilae, or Kragos in the coin inscriptions of Greek Lycia: Kr or Ksan Kr. The name of western Lycia was given by points of Lycia west of it; the next ridge to the east, Beydağlari, "the Bey Mountains," peaks at Kizlarsevrisi, 3,086 m, the highest point of the Teke Peninsula.
It is most the ancient Masicytus range. Between Beydağlari and Akdağlari is an upland plateau, where ancient Milyas was located; the elevation of the town of Elmali, which means "Apple Town," from the density of fruit-bearing groves in the region, is 1,100 m, the highest part of the valley below it. Fellows considered the valley to be central Lycia; the Akçay, or "White River," the ancient Aedesa, brought water from the slopes to the plain, where it pooled in two lakes below the town, Karagöl and Avlangöl. The two lakes are dry, the waters being captured on an ongoing basis by irrigation systems for the trees; the Aedesa once drained the plain through a chasm to the east, but now flows through pipelines covering the same route, but emptying into the water supplies of Arycanda and Arif. An effort has been made to restore some of the cedar forests cleared in antiquity; the easternmost ridge extends along the east coast of the Teke Peninsula, is called Tahtali Dağlari, "The Tahtali Mo
Ionia was an ancient region on the central part of the western coast of Anatolia in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir, Smyrna. It consisted of the northernmost territories of the Ionian League of Greek settlements. Never a unified state, it was named after the Ionian tribe who, in the Archaic Period, settled the shores and islands of the Aegean Sea. Ionian states were identified by their use of Eastern Greek. Ionia proper comprised a narrow coastal strip from Phocaea in the north near the mouth of the river Hermus, to Miletus in the south near the mouth of the river Maeander, included the islands of Chios and Samos, it was bounded by Aeolia to Lydia to the east and Caria to the south. The cities within the region figured large in the strife between the Persian Empire and the Greeks. According to Greek tradition, the cities of Ionia were founded by colonists from the other side of the Aegean, their settlement was connected with the legendary history of the Ionic people in Attica, which asserts that the colonists were led by Neleus and Androclus, sons of Codrus, the last king of Athens.
In accordance with this view the "Ionic migration", as it was called by chronologers, was dated by them one hundred and forty years after the Trojan War, or sixty years after the return of the Heracleidae into the Peloponnese. Ionia was of small extent, not exceeding 150 kilometres in length from north to south, with a breadth varying from 60 to 90 kilometres, but to this must be added the peninsula of Mimas, together with the two islands. So intricate is the coastline that the voyage along its shores was estimated at nearly four times the direct distance. A great part of this area was, occupied by mountains. Of these the most lofty and striking were Mimas and Corycus, in the peninsula which stands out to the west, facing the island of Chios. None of these mountains attains a height of more than 1,200 metres; the district comprised three fertile valleys formed by the outflow of three rivers, among the most considerable in Asia Minor: the Hermus in the north, flowing into the Gulf of Smyrna, though at some distance from the city of that name.
With the advantage of a peculiarly fine climate, for which this part of Asia Minor has been famous in all ages, Ionia enjoyed the reputation in ancient times of being the most fertile of all the rich provinces of Asia Minor. The geography of Ionia placed it in a strategic position, both advantageous and disadvantageous. Ionia was always a maritime power founded by a people who made their living by trade in peaceful times and marauding in unsettled times; the coast was rocky and the arable land slight. The native Luwians for the most part kept their fields further inland and used the rift valleys for wooded pasture; the coastal cities were placed in defensible positions on islands or headlands situated so as to control inland routes up the rift valleys. The people of those valleys were of different ethnicity; the populations of the cities came from many civilizations in the eastern Mediterranean. Ancient demographics are available only from literary sources. Herodotus states that in Asia the Ionians kept the division into twelve cities that had prevailed in Ionian lands of the north Peloponnese, their former homeland, which became Achaea after they left.
These Asian cities were Miletus, Priene, Colophon, Teos, Erythrae and Phocaea, together with Samos and Chios. Smyrna an Aeolic colony, was afterwards occupied by Ionians from Colophon, became an Ionian city — an event which had taken place before the time of Herodotus; these cities do not match those of Achaea. Moreover, the Achaea of Herodotus' time spoke Doric, but in Homer it is portrayed as being in the kingdom of Mycenae, which most spoke Mycenaean Greek, not Doric. If the Ionians came from Achaea, they departed during or after the change from East Greek to West Greek there. Mycenaean continued to evolve in the mountainous region of Arcadia. There is no record of any people named Ionians in Late Bronze Age Anatolia but Hittite texts record the Achaeans of Ahhiyawa, of location not certain, but in touch with the Hittites of that time. Miletus and some other cities founded earlier by non-Greeks received populations of Mycenaean Greeks under the name of Achaeans; the tradition of Ionian colonizers from Achaea suggests that they may have been known by both names then.
In the absence of archaeological evidence of discontinuity at Miletus the Achaean population whatever their name appears to have descended to archaic Ionia, which does not exclude the possibility of another colonizing and founding event from Athens. In the Indian historic literary texts, the Ionians are referred to as "yavana" or "yona", are described as wearing leather and wielding whips. In modern Turkish, the people of that region and the Greeks were called "yunan" and
Balıkesir Province is a province in northwestern Turkey with coastlines on both the Sea of Marmara and the Aegean. Its adjacent provinces are Çanakkale to the west, İzmir to the southwest, Manisa to the south, Kütahya to the southeast, Bursa to the east; the provincial capital is Balıkesir City. Most of the province lies in the Marmara Region except the southern parts of Bigadiç Edremit, Kepsut, İvrindi, Savaştepe and Sındırgı districts and ones of Ayvalık, Dursunbey, Gömeç and Havran, that bound the Aegean Region. Kaz Dağı, known as Mount Ida, is located in this province. Balıkesir province is famous for its olives, thermal spas, clean beaches, making it an important tourist destination; the province hosts immense deposits of kaolinite and borax, with some open-pit mines. The Kaz mountains are threatened with the expansion of gold mining using cyanide which puts the villagers' lives, the agricultural economy, tourism at risk. Balıkesir is home to a number including Kuş Cenneti National Park. Among the cultural attractions of Balıkesir are the ruins of Cyzicus and Saraylar on the Sea of Marmara and Antandrus.
There are a city museum and a fine arts centre in Balıkesir. There are a number of camping facilities in Erdek, Altınoluk, Akçay, Güre, Ören. Balıkesir Kuvayi Milliye Museum Bandırma Archaeological Museum Edremit Ayşe Sıdıka Erke Ethnography Museum Balıkesir National Photography Museum Edremit Tahtakuşlar Ethnography Museum Gönen Mosaic Museum Balıkesir Municipality's Devrim Erbil Modern Arts Museum Bigadiç Museum House Marmara District Palaces Open Air Museum Altınoluk Antardos Open Air Museum Erdek Belkıs Ruins Open Air Museum Daskyleon ruins Prokonnessos ruins Adyramytteon ruins Yortan ruins Erdek Kapıdağ region Kaz Dağı national park Kuş Cenneti national park Alaçam mountains Ayvalık Islands natural park Madra mountains Celebrating its 18th anniversary in 2010, the young Balıkesir University has been increasing its supports to the higher education of the province from the past to the future, it has been determined to meet the new age, the Age of Information, with 5 Faculties, 4 Applied Schools, 11 Vocational Schools giving vocational training for 2 years, 2 Graduate Schools, 2 Research Institutes and 9 Research Centers presenting modern academic services with dynamic, productive academic and administrative staff appropriate to the age.
BAU has aimed to be an educational institution of the 21st century and has taken special care to direct its experience from the past towards this objective. Other guiding objectives of BAU are to bring up democratic, independent, young citizens, loyal to Atatürk’s principles and revolutions and the basic principles of the Republic, respectful not only to their country and culture but to universal values as well. BAU forms an environment to produce information and knowledge to be benefited by the country and the world, to share it with both the society and the science world for the wealth and well-being of humanity. BAU is well aware of its responsibilities for both Turkish Higher science world, it fulfills the requirements of a modern institution of education with 25 000 students, 650 members of academic staff. BAU is aware that it is not only enough for a modern university to provide education of high quality but to produce science and technology; the students are encouraged to participate in social and sports activities.
The administration and academic personnel of the university support and direct a variety of extracurricular activities. BAU aims at meeting academic and research needs of students and administrative staff and of the society to enhance scientific productivity with modern libraries, increasing the number and quality of undergraduate programs and scientific studies. Çağış Campus The units listed below are all located on the main Çağış Campus, which lies on the outskirts of the city. Buses and minibuses provide regular services to Çağış Campus from the city center between the hours 07:00 and 23:00. Rectorate building, with administrative departments Faculty of Engineering and Architecture Faculty of Sciences and Arts School of Tourism and Hotel Management Balıkesir Vocational School Central Library Main Sports Hall Graduate School of Science Graduate School of Social Sciences NEF Campus NEF Campus, located in the center of the town, was the original site of the university; the units listed below are all located on this campus: Faculty of Education, School of Physical Education and Sports Teaching.
NEF Conference Hall, Halil İnalcık Conference Hall Sports Hall University Fitness Center Outdoor sports facilities Continuing Education Center Balıkesir is accessible on Turkey's most travelled road, linking the metropolises of İstanbul and İzmir. Hande Erçel-Actress and Model from Bandırma city. Hülya Avşar - Actress, producer from Ayvalık Fikret Hakan - Actor from Balıkesir Imam Birgivi - Muslim scholar from Balıkesir Zağanos Pasha - Ottoman military commander from Balıkesir Ömer Seyfettin - Renowned writer from Gönen Mehmet Çoban - Olympian Greco-Roman wrestler from Balıkesir Kurtdereli Mehmet Pehlivan - World
Lydia was an Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located east of ancient Ionia in the modern western Turkish provinces of Uşak, Manisa and inland İzmir. Its population spoke an Anatolian language known as Lydian, its capital was Sardis. The Kingdom of Lydia existed from about 1200 BC to 546 BC. At its greatest extent, during the 7th century BC, it covered all of western Anatolia. In 546 BC, it became a province of the Achaemenid Persian Empire, known as the satrapy of Lydia or Sparda in Old Persian. In 133 BC, it became part of the Roman province of Asia. Coins are said to have been invented in Lydia around the 7th century BC; the endonym Śfard survives in bilingual and trilingual stone-carved notices of the Achaemenid Empire: the satrapy of Sparda, Aramaic Saparda, Babylonian Sapardu, Elamitic Išbarda, Hebrew סְפָרַד. These in the Greek tradition are associated with Sardis, the capital city of King Gyges, constructed during the 7th century BC; the region of the Lydian kingdom was during the 15th-14th centuries part of the Arzawa kingdom.
However, the Lydian language is not categorized as part of the Luwic subgroup, as are the other nearby Anatolian languages Luwian and Lycian. An Etruscan/Lydian association has long been a subject of conjecture; the Greek historian Herodotus stated that the Etruscans came from Lydia, repeated in Virgil's epic poem the Aeneid, Etruscan-like language was found on the Lemnos stele from the Aegean Sea island of Lemnos. However, the decipherment of Lydian and its classification as an Anatolian language mean that Etruscan and Lydian were not part of the same language family. Furthermore, a mitochondrial DNA study suggests that the Etruscans were an indigenous population, showing that Etruscans appear to fall close to a Neolithic population from Central Europe and to other Tuscan populations suggesting that the Etruscan civilization developed locally from the Villanovan culture, genetic links between Tuscany and Anatolia date back to at least 5,000 years ago during the Neolithic; the boundaries of historical Lydia varied across the centuries.
It was bounded first by Mysia, Caria and coastal Ionia. The military power of Alyattes and Croesus expanded Lydia, with its capital at Sardis, controlled all Asia Minor west of the River Halys, except Lycia. After the Persian conquest the River Maeander was regarded as its southern boundary, during imperial Roman times Lydia comprised the country between Mysia and Caria on the one side and Phrygia and the Aegean Sea on the other; the Lydian language was an Indo-European language in the Anatolian language family, related to Luwian and Hittite. Due to its fragmentary attestation, the meanings of many words are unknown but much of the grammar has been determined. Similar to other Anatolian languages, it featured extensive use of prefixes and grammatical particles to chain clauses together. Lydian had undergone extensive syncope, leading to numerous consonant clusters atypical of Indo-European languages. Lydian became extinct during the 1st century BC. Lydia developed after the decline of the Hittite Empire in the 12th century BC.
In Hittite times, the name for the region had been Arzawa. According to Greek source, the original name of the Lydian kingdom was Maionia, or Maeonia: Homer refers to the inhabitants of Lydia as Maiones. Homer describes their capital not as Hyde. Herodotus adds that the "Meiones" were renamed Lydians after their king Lydus, son of Atys, during the mythical epoch that preceded the Heracleid dynasty; this etiological eponym served to account for the Greek ethnic name Lydoi. The Hebrew term for Lydians, Lûḏîm, as found in the Book of Jeremiah, has been considered, beginning with Flavius Josephus, to be derived from Lud son of Shem. During Biblical times, the Lydian warriors were famous archers; some Maeones still existed during historical times in the upland interior along the River Hermus, where a town named Maeonia existed, according to Pliny the Elder and Hierocles. Lydian mythology is unknown, their literature and rituals have been lost due to the absence of any monuments or archaeological finds with extensive inscriptions.
For the Greeks, Tantalus was a primordial ruler of mythic Lydia, Niobe his proud daughter. In Greek myth, Lydia had adopted the double-axe symbol, that appears in the Mycenaean civilization, the labrys. Omphale, daughter of the river Iardanos, was a ruler of Lydia, whom Heracles was required to serve for a time, his adventures in Lydia are the adventures of a Greek hero in a peripheral and foreign land: during his stay, Heracles enslaved the Itones.
The Oghuz, Oguz or Ghuzz Turks were a western Turkic people who spoke the Oghuz languages from the Common branch of Turkic language family. In the 8th century, they formed a tribal confederation conventionally named the Oghuz Yabgu State in central Asia; the name Oghuz is a Common Turkic word for "tribe". Byzantine sources call the Oghuz the Uzes. By the 10th century, Islamic sources were calling them Muslim Turkmens, as opposed to shamanist or Buddhist. By the 12th century this term had passed into Byzantine usage and the Oghuzes were overwhelmingly Muslim; the Oghuz confederation migrated westward from the Jeti-su area after a conflict with the Karluk branch of Uigurs. The founders of the Ottoman Empire were descendants of the Oghuzes. Today, a percentage of the residents of Turkey and Turkmenistan are descendants of Oghuz Turks and their language belongs to the Oghuz group of the Turkic languages family. In the 9th century, the Oghuzes from the Aral steppes drove Bechens from the Emba and Ural River region toward the west.
In the 10th century, they inhabited the steppe of the rivers Sari-su, Emba to the north of Lake Balkhash of modern-day Kazakhstan. A clan of this nation, the Seljuks, embraced Islam and in the 11th century entered Persia, where they founded the Great Seljuk Empire. In the 11th century, a Tengriist Oghuz clan—referred to as Uzes or Torks in the Russian chronicles—overthrew Pecheneg supremacy in the Russian steppe. Harried by another Turkic people, the Kipchaks, these Oghuz penetrated as far as the lower Danube, crossed it and invaded the Balkans, where they were struck down by an outbreak of plague, causing the survivors either to flee or to join the Byzantine imperial forces as mercenaries; the Oghuz seem to have been related to the Pechenegs, some of whom were clean-shaven and others of whom had small'goatee' beards. According to the book Attila and the Nomad Hordes, "Like the Kimaks they set up many carved wooden funerary statues surrounded by simple stone balbal monoliths." The authors of the book go on to note that "Those Uzes or Torks who settled along the Russian frontier were Slavicized, though they played a leading role as cavalry in 1100- and early 1200-era Russian armies, where they were known as Black Hats....
Oghuz warriors served in all Islamic armies of the Middle East from the 1000s onwards, in Byzantium from the 800's, in Spain and Morocco." In centuries, they adapted and applied their own traditions and institutions to the ends of the Islamic world and emerged as empire-builders with a constructive sense of statecraft. Linguistically, the Oghuz are listed together with the old Kimaks of the middle Yenisei of the Ob, the old Kipchaks who emigrated to southern Russia, the modern Kirghiz in one particular Turkic group, distinguished from the rest by the mutation of the initial y sound to j. "The term'Oghuz' was supplanted among the Turks themselves by Türkmen,'Turcoman', from the mid 900's on, a process, completed by the beginning of the 1200s.""The Ottoman dynasty, who took over Anatolia after the fall of the Seljuks, toward the end of the 13th century, led an army, predominantly Oghuz." The original homeland of the Oghuz was to the east of the Altai Mountains of Central Asia, the domain of Turkic peoples since prehistory.
During the 2nd century BC, according to ancient Chinese sources, a steppe tribal confederation known as the Xiongnu and their allies, the Wusun defeated the neighboring Yuezhi and drove them out of western China and into Central Asia. Various scholarly theories link the Xiongnu to Turkic peoples and/or the Huns; the first usage of the word "Oghuz" appears to have been the title of Oğuz Kağan, given in 220 BC to the Xiongnu king Modu Shanyu, who founded the Xiongnu Empire. According to a controversial theory with few scholarly adherents, one transliteration of Yuezhi, as Hu-chieh, may refer to the Turkic Uyghurs. However, the Yuezhi are believed to have spoken an Indo-European language or languages. Sima Qian recorded the name Wūjiē 烏揭 or Hūjiē 呼揭, of a people hostile to the Xiongnu and living west of them, in the area of the Irtysh River, near Lake Zaysan. Golden suggests that these might be Chinese renditions of * Ogur ~ * Oguz. Byzantian emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos mentioned the Uzi and Mazari as neighbours of the Pechenegs.
A number of subsequent tribal confederations bore the name Oghuz affixed to a numeral indicating the number of united tribes included. These include references to the Tokuz-Oghuz; the tribes of the Sekiz-Oghuz and the Tokuz-Oghuz occupied different areas in the vicinity of the Altai Mountains. However, the Transoxanian Oghuz Turks who founded the Oghuz Yabgu State were not the same tribal confederation as the Toquz Oghuz from whom emerged the founders of Uyghur Khaganate. During the establishment of the Göktürk Khaganate—a region extending from east of the Caspian Sea to the east of the Aral Sea and neighbouring the Karakum Desert in the south, similar to modern Kazakhstan—the Oghuz, in the above sense, remained in northeastern areas of the Altai, along the Tula River and near the Barlyk River. By the time of the Orkhon inscriptions "Oghuz" was being applied generically to all inhabitants of the Göktürk Khaganate. Within the khaganate, the Oghuz community expanded, incorporating other tribes.
Ibn al-Athir, an Arab historian, claimed that the Oghuz Turks were settled in Transoxiana, between the Caspian and Ar