A Shinto shrine is a structure whose main purpose is to house one or more kami. Its most important building is used for the safekeeping of sacred objects, not for worship. Although only one word is used in English, in Japanese Shinto shrines may carry any one of many different, non-equivalent names like gongen, -gū, jingū, mori, myōjin, -sha, ubusuna or yashiro. Structurally, a Shinto shrine is characterized by the presence of a honden or sanctuary, where the kami is enshrined; the honden may however be absent, as for example when the shrine stands on a sacred mountain to which it is dedicated, and, worshiped directly. The honden may be missing when there are nearby altar-like structures called himorogi or objects believed capable of attracting spirits called yorishiro that can serve as a direct bond to a kami. There may be a haiden and other structures as well. However, a shrine's most important building is used for the safekeeping of sacred objects rather than for worship. Miniature shrines can be found on roadsides.
Large shrines sometimes have on their precincts miniature shrines. The portable shrines which are carried on poles during festivals enshrine kami and are therefore true shrines. In 927 CE, the Engi-shiki was promulgated; this work listed all of the 2,861 Shinto shrines existing at the time, the 3,131 official-recognized and enshrined Kami. That number has grown and exceeded this figure through the following generations. In Agency for Cultural Affairs in Japan placed the number of shrines at 79,467 affiliated with the Association of Shinto Shrines; some shrines, such as the Yasukuni Shrine are independent of any outside authority. The number of Shinto shrines in Japan is estimated to be around 100,000; this figure may, or may not, include private shrines in homes and owned by small groups, abandoned or derelict shrines, roadside Hokora. etc. Ancestors are kami to be worshiped. Yayoi-period village councils sought the advice of ancestors and other kami, developed instruments to evoke them. Yoshishiro means "approach substitute" and were conceived to attract the kami to allow them physical space, thus making kami accessible to human beings.
Village-council sessions were held in quiet spots in the mountains or in forests near great trees or other natural objects that served as yorishiro. These sacred places and their yorishiro evolved into today's shrines, whose origins can be still seen in the Japanese words for "mountain" and "forest", which can mean "shrine". Many shrines have on their grounds one of the original great yorishiro: a big tree, surrounded by a sacred rope called shimenawa; the first buildings at places dedicated to worship were huts built to house some yorishiro. A trace of this origin can be found in the term hokura, "deity storehouse", which evolved into hokora, is considered to be one of the first words for shrine. True shrines arose with the beginning of agriculture, when the need arose to attract kami to ensure good harvests; these were, just temporary structures built for a particular purpose, a tradition of which traces can be found in some rituals. Hints of the first shrines can still be found there. Ōmiwa Shrine in Nara, for example, contains no sacred images or objects because it is believed to serve the mountain on which it stands.
Those images or objects are therefore unnecessary. For the same reason, it has a worship hall but no place to house the kami. Archeology confirms that, during the Yayoi period, the most common shintai in the earliest shrines were nearby mountain peaks that supplied stream water to the plains where people lived. Besides the mentioned Ōmiwa Shrine, another important example is Mount Nantai, a phallus-shaped mountain in Nikko which constitutes Futarasan Shrine's shintai; the name Nantai means "man's body". The mountain not only provides water to the rice paddies below but has the shape of the phallic stone rods found in pre-agricultural Jōmon sites. In 905 CE, Emperor Daigo ordered a compilation of Shinto rules. Previous attempts at codification are known to have taken place, neither the Konin nor the Jogan Gishiki survive. Under the direction of Fujiwara no Tokihira, the project stalled at his death in April 909. Fujiwara no Tadahira, his brother, took charge and in 912 CE and in 927 CE the Engi-shiki was promulgated in fifty volumes.
This, the first formal codification of Shinto rites and Norito to survive, became the basis for all subsequent Shinto liturgical practice and efforts. In addition to the first ten volumes of this fifty volume work, sections in subsequent volumes addressing the Ministry of Ceremonies and the Ministry of the Imperial Household regulated Shinto worship and contained liturgical rites and regulation. Felicia Gressitt Brock published a two-volume annotated English language translation of the first ten volumes with an introduction entitled Engi-shiki; the arrival of Buddhism changed the situation, introducing to Japan the concept of the permanent shrine. A great number of Buddhist temples were built next to existing shrines in mixed complexes called jingū-ji (神宮寺, lit. shri
Kabuto is a type of helmet first used by ancient Japanese warriors, in periods, they became an important part of the traditional Japanese armour worn by the samurai class and their retainers in feudal Japan. Note that in Japanese language the word kabuto is an appellative, not a type description, can refer to any combat helmet. Japanese helmets dating from the fifth century have been found in excavated tombs. Called mabizashi-tsuke kabuto, the style of these kabuto came from China and Korea and they had a pronounced central ridge; the kabuto was an important part of the equipment of the samurai, played a symbolic role as well, which may explain the Japanese expressions and codes related to them. One example is Katte kabuto no o o shimeyo; this means don't lower your efforts after succeeding. Kabuto o nugu means to surrender. Media related to Kabuto at Wikimedia Commons The basic parts of the kabuto include: Hachi, a dome composed of overlapping elongated plates called tate hagi-no-ita Tehen, a small opening at the top of the hachi fitted with a tehen kanamono Mabizashi, a brim or visor on the front of the hachi Ukebari, a cloth lining inside the hachi Tsunamoto, mounting points for attaching crests Kasa jirushi no kan, a ring at the back of the hachi for securing a kasa jirushi Fukigaeshi, wing-like or ear-like projections to the sides of the hachi Shikoro, a suspended neck guard composed of multiple overlapping lames Shinobi-no-o used to secure the mengu A typical kabuto features a central dome constructed of anywhere from three to over a hundred metal plates riveted together.
These were arranged vertically, radiating from a small opening in the top. The rivets securing these metal plates to each other could be hammered flat; some of the finer hachi were signed by their makers from one of several known families, such as the Myochin, Haruta, Unkai, or Nagasone families. A small opening in the top of the kabuto, called the tehen or hachimanza, was thought to be for passing the warrior's top knot through. Although this practice was abandoned after the Muromachi period, this opening may have been retained for purposes of ventilation or as an artifact of how the plates were riveted together; the tehen was decorated with tehen kanamono, which were rings of intricately worked, soft metal bands resembling a chrysanthemum. Zunari kabuto and momonari kabuto were two helmet forms that did not have an opening at the top. Kabuto incorporated a suspended neck guard called a shikoro composed of three to seven semicircular, lacquered metal or oxhide lames and articulated by silk or leather lacing, although some shikoro were composed of 100 or more small metal scales in a row.
This lamellar armour style, along with kusari, was the standard technology of Japanese body armour, some shikoro were made of mail sewn to a cloth lining. The kabuto was secured to the head by a chin cord called shinobi-no-o, which would be tied to posts or hooks on the mengu or tied under the chin. Kabuto are adorned with crests called datemono or tatemono; these can be family crests, or flat or sculptural objects representing animals, mythical entities, prayers or other symbols. Horns are common, many kabuto incorporate kuwagata, stylized deer horns. Suji bachi kabuto is a multiple-plate type of Japanese helmet with raised ridges or ribs showing where the helmet plates come together. Hoshi-bachi kabuto with protruding rivet heads, have large rivets, small rivets and a rivet with a chrysantemoid-shaped washer at its base. Hoshi-bachi kabuto could be suji bachi kabuto if there were raised ribs or ridges showing where the helmet plates came together. Hari bachi kabuto is multiple-plate Japanese hachi with no ribs or ridges showing where the helmet plates come and the rivets are filed flush.
The zunari kabuto is a five-plate design. A great number of simpler, folding, portable armours for lower-ranking samurai and foot soldiers were produced; these were called tatami armour, some featured collapsible tatami kabuto, made from articulated lames. Tatami kabuto did not use rivets in their construction. Kaji kabuto were a type of helmet worn by firemen. Jingasa were war hats made in a variety of shapes, worn by ashigaru and samurai, which could be made from leather or metal. During the Momoyama period of intense civil warfare, kabuto were made to a simpler design of three or four plates, lacking many of the ornamental features of earlier helmets. To offset the plain, utilitarian form of the new helmet, to provide visibility and presence on the battlefield, armorers began to build fantastic shapes on top of the simple helmets in harikake, though some were constructed of iron; these shape
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Samurai were the military nobility and officer caste of medieval and early-modern Japan. In Japanese, they are referred to as bushi or buke. According to translator William Scott Wilson: "In Chinese, the character 侍 was a verb meaning'to wait upon','accompany persons' in the upper ranks of society, this is true of the original term in Japanese, saburau. In both countries the terms were nominalized to mean'those who serve in close attendance to the nobility', the Japanese term saburai being the nominal form of the verb." According to Wilson, an early reference to the word samurai appears in the Kokin Wakashū, the first imperial anthology of poems, completed in the first part of the 10th century. By the end of the 12th century, samurai became entirely synonymous with bushi, the word was associated with the middle and upper echelons of the warrior class; the samurai were associated with a clan and their lord, were trained as officers in military tactics and grand strategy. While the samurai numbered less than 10% of Japan's population, their teachings can still be found today in both everyday life and in modern Japanese martial arts.
Following the Battle of Hakusukinoe against Tang China and Silla in 663 AD which led to a retreat from Korean affairs, Japan underwent widespread reform. One of the most important was that of the Taika Reform, issued by Prince Naka-no-Ōe in 646 AD; this edict allowed the Japanese aristocracy to adopt the Tang dynasty political structure, culture and philosophy. As part of the Taihō Code of 702 AD, the Yōrō Code, the population was required to report for the census, a precursor for national conscription. With an understanding of how the population was distributed, Emperor Monmu introduced a law whereby 1 in 3–4 adult males were drafted into the national military; these soldiers were required to supply their own weapons, in return were exempted from duties and taxes. This was one of the first attempts by the Imperial government to form an organized army modeled after the Chinese system, it was called "Gundan-Sei" by historians and is believed to have been short-lived. The Taihō Code classified most of the Imperial bureaucrats into 12 ranks, each divided into two sub-ranks, 1st rank being the highest adviser to the Emperor.
Those of 6th rank and below were dealt with day-to-day affairs. Although these "samurai" were civilian public servants, the modern word is believed to have derived from this term. Military men, would not be referred to as "samurai" for many more centuries. In the early Heian period, during the late 8th and early 9th centuries, Emperor Kanmu sought to consolidate and expand his rule in northern Honshū, sent military campaigns against the Emishi, who resisted the governance of the Kyoto-based imperial court. Emperor Kanmu introduced the title of sei'i-taishōgun, or shōgun, began to rely on the powerful regional clans to conquer the Emishi. Skilled in mounted combat and archery, these clan warriors became the Emperor's preferred tool for putting down rebellions. Though this is the first known use of the title shōgun, it was a temporary title and was not imbued with political power until the 13th century. At this time, the Imperial Court officials considered them to be a military section under the control of the Imperial Court.
Emperor Kanmu disbanded his army. From this time, the emperor's power declined. While the emperor was still the ruler, powerful clans around Kyoto assumed positions as ministers, their relatives bought positions as magistrates. To amass wealth and repay their debts, magistrates imposed heavy taxes, resulting in many farmers becoming landless. Through protective agreements and political marriages, the aristocrats accumulated political power surpassing the traditional aristocracy; some clans were formed by farmers who had taken up arms to protect themselves from the Imperial magistrates sent to govern their lands and collect taxes. These clans formed alliances to protect themselves against more powerful clans, by the mid-Heian period, they had adopted characteristic Japanese armor and weapons; the Emperor and non-warrior nobility employed these warrior nobles. In time they amassed enough manpower and political backing, in the form of alliances with one another, to establish the first samurai-dominated government.
As the power of these regional clans grew, their chief was a distant relative of the Emperor and a lesser member of either the Fujiwara, Minamoto, or Taira clans. Though sent to provincial areas for fixed four-year terms as magistrates, the toryo declined to return to the capital when their terms ended, their sons inherited their positions and continued to lead the clans in putting down rebellions throughout Japan during the middle- and later-Heian period; because of their rising military and economic power, the warriors became a new force in the politics of the Imperial court. Their involvement in the Hōgen Rebellion in the late Heian period consolidated their power, which pitted the rivalry of Minamoto and Taira clans against each other in the Heiji Rebellion of 1160; the victor, Taira no Kiyomori, became an imperial advisor and was the first warrior to attain such a position. He seized control of the central government, establishing the first samurai-dominated government and relegating the Emperor to figurehead status.
However, the Taira clan was still conservative when compared to its eventual successor, the Minamoto, instead of expanding or stre
Takeda Shingen, of Kai Province, was a pre-eminent daimyō in feudal Japan with exceptional military prestige in the late stage of the Sengoku period. Shingen was called Katsuchiyo during his childhood; when he celebrated his coming of age, he was given the formal name Harunobu, which included a character from the name of Ashikaga Yoshiharu, the 12th Ashikaga shōgun. It was a common practice in feudal Japan for a higher-ranked warrior to bestow a character from his own name to his inferiors as a symbol of recognition. From the local Lord's perspective, it was an honour to receive a character from the shogunate, although the authority of the latter had degenerated in the mid-16th century. Both the Ashikaga and the Takeda clans descended from the Minamoto clan. Technically, Harunobu, as well as his forefathers, had borne the surname of Minamoto. Therefore, Harunobu would be referred to as "Minamoto-no Harunobu" in official records kept by the Imperial Court when he was conferred the official title of "Daizen Dayu".
The Imperial Court had maintained a system of ritsuryō, parallel to the shogunate apparatus. In 1551 Harunobu chose to live a pabbajja life and received a dharma name, from his Buddhist master; the kanji of "Shingen" can be pronounced as "Nobuharu", the inversion of his official name, Harunobu. In ancient times, such religious names of recognized Japanese aristocrats would be read in "on'yomi", the Chinese-style pronunciation, instead of "kun'yomi", the indigenous Japanese pronunciation. Although known by the dharma name, Takeda Shingen's formal name remained "Harunobu" throughout the rest of his life. Shingen is sometimes referred to as "The Tiger of Kai" for his martial prowess on the battlefield, his primary rival, Uesugi Kenshin, was called "The Dragon of Echigo" or "The Tiger of Echigo". "These two seemed to have enjoyed meeting in battle." They fought several times at Kawanakajima. Takeda Shingen was the first-born son of Takeda Nobutora, leader of the Takeda clan, daimyō of the province of Kai.
He had been an accomplished poet in his youth. He assisted his father with the older relatives and vassals of the Takeda family, became quite a valuable addition to the clan at a young age. In 1536, at the age of 15, he was instrumental in helping his father win the Battle of Un no Kuchi. At some point in his life after his "coming of age" ceremony, the young man decided to rebel against Nobutora, he succeeded in 1540 taking control of the clan. Events regarding this change of leadership are not clear, but it is thought that Nobutora had planned to name the second son, Nobushige, as his heir instead of Shingen; the end result was a miserable retirement, forced upon him by Shingen and his supporters: he was sent to Suruga Province, on the southern border of Kai, to be kept in custody under the scrutiny of the Imagawa clan, led by his son-in-law Imagawa Yoshimoto, the daimyō of Suruga. For their help in this bloodless coup, an alliance was formed between the Imagawa and the Takeda clans. Shingen's first act was to gain a hold of the area around him.
His goal was to conquer Shinano Province. A number of the major warlords in the Shinano region marched on the border of Kai Province, hoping to neutralize the power of the still-young Shingen before he had a chance to expand into their lands. However, planning to beat him down at Fuchu, they were unprepared when Takeda forces came down upon them at the Battle of Sezawa. Taking advantage of their confusion, Shingen was able to win a quick victory, which set the stage for his drive into Shinano lands that same year and his successful Siege of Uehara; the young warlord made considerable advances into the region, conquering the Suwa headquarters in the Siege of Kuwabara before moving into central Shinano with the defeat of both Tozawa Yorichika and Takato Yoritsugu in the Siege of Fukuyo and Battle of Ankokuji. In 1543, he captured Nagakubo castle, Kojinyama in 1544, Takatō and Ryūgasaki in 1545. In 1546 he won the Battle of Odaihara. In 1547, he took Shika. However, the warlord was checked at Uedahara by Murakami Yoshikiyo, losing two of his generals in a heated battle which Murakami won.
Shingen managed to avenge this loss and the Murakami clan was defeated in the Sieges of Toishi. Murakami fled the region coming to plead for help from the Province of Echigo. In 1548, Shingen defeated Ogasawara Nagatoki in the Battle of Shiojiritoge and took Fukashi in 1550. After conquering Shinano, Shingen faced another rival, Uesugi Kenshin of Echigo; the feud between them became legendary, they faced each other on the battlefield five times in the Battles of Kawanakajima. These battles were confined to controlled skirmishes, neither daimyō willing to devote himself to a single all-out attempt; the conflict between the two that had the fiercest fighting, might have decided victory or defeat for one side or the other, was the fourth battle, during which the famous tale arose of Uesugi Kenshin's forces clearing a path through the Takeda troops and Kenshin engaging Shingen in single combat. The tale has Kenshin attacking Shingen with his sword while Shingen defends with his iron war fan or tessen.
Both lords lost many men in this fight, Shingen in particular lost two of his main generals, Yamamoto Kansuke and his younger brother Takeda Nobushige. After the fourth battle of Kawanakajima, the Takeda clan suffered two internal setbacks. Shingen uncovered tw
An ogre is a legendary monster depicted as a large, man-like being that eats ordinary human beings infants and children. Ogres feature in mythology and fiction throughout the world, they appear in many classic works of literature, are most associated in fairy tales and legend with a taste for infants. In mythology, ogres are depicted as inhumanly large and tall and having a disproportionately large head, abundant hair, unusually colored skin, a voracious appetite, a strong body. Ogres are linked with giants and with human cannibals in mythology. In both folklore and fiction, giants are given ogrish traits. Famous examples of ogres in folklore include the ogre in "Puss in Boots" and the ogre in "Hop-o'-My-Thumb". Other characters sometimes described as ogres include the title character from "Bluebeard", the Beast from Beauty and the Beast, Humbaba from the Epic of Gilgamesh, Grendel from Beowulf, the Cyclops Polyphemus from Homer's Odyssey, the related cyclops in the tales of Sinbad the Sailor, the oni of Japanese folklore.
The word ogre is of French origin derived from the Etruscan god Orcus, who fed on human flesh. Its earliest attestation is in Chrétien de Troyes' late 12th-century verse romance Perceval, li contes del graal, which contains the lines: Et s'est escrit que il ert ancore que toz li reaumes de Logres, qui jadis fu la terre as ogres, ert destruite par cele lance. "And it is written that he will come again, to all the realms of Logres, known as the land of ogres, destroy them with that lance." The ogres in this rhyme may refer to the ogres who were, in the pseudohistorical work History of the Kings of Britain by Geoffrey of Monmouth, the inhabitants of Britain prior to human settlement. The Italian author Giambattista Basile used the related Neapolitan word uerco, or in standard Italian, orco in some of his tales; this word is documented in earlier Italian works and has older cognates with the Latin orcus and the Old English orcnēas found in Beowulf lines 112–113, which inspired J. R. R. Tolkien's Orc.
All these words may derive from a shared Indo-European mythological concept. The Dictionary of the Academy of France alternatively states that the name is derived from the word Hongrois, which means Hungarian, as of western cultures referred to Hungarians as a kind of monstrosity. Ogre could also derive from the biblical Og, last of the giants; the word ogre came into wider usage in the works of Charles Perrault or Marie-Catherine Jumelle de Berneville, Comtesse d' Aulnoy, both of whom were French authors. The first appearance of the word ogre in Perrault's work occurred in his Histoires ou Contes du temps Passé, it appeared in several of his other fairy tales, many of which were based on the Neapolitan tales of Basile. The first example of a female ogre being referred to as an ogress is found in his version of Sleeping Beauty, where it is spelled ogresse. Madame d'Aulnoy first employed the word ogre in her story L'Orangier et l'Abeille, was the first to use the word ogree to refer to the creature's offspring.
Hop-o'-My-Thumb Puss in Boots Sleeping Beauty The Bee and the Orange Tree Finette Cendron or Cunning Cinders Bearskin Tale of the Ogre The Flea The Enchanted Doe Green Meadow Violet The Dove Corvetto The Three Crowns The Seven Doves Liisa and the Prince Puss-cat Mew The Selfish Giant Ogres appear as antagonists in the 2018 video game God of War, despite not being traditionally associated with Norse mythology. Ogres exist as a major faction in Warhammer Fantasy Battle and its successor Warhammer: Age of Sigmar as well as in Warhammer 40,000, except they're named Ogryns. Shrek is the eponymous ogre protagonist in the Shrek series of comedy films. Shrek engages in typical ogre behaviors like washing in mud and eating insects, but otherwise isn't monstrous, only feigns nastiness and claims to eat people as a way to deter trespassers in his swamp, the backbone of the first movie's plot; this is only due to years of being mistreated by humans for the fact he is an ogre and not because he did anything.
Ogres in the Shrek series are portrayed as having about the same intelligence levels as humans and are not much different than humans aside from appearance and rather disgusting habits. An ogre named Mulgarath is the main antagonist in The Spiderwick Chronicles, wherein the shapeshifting ability from the Puss in Boots story is shared by all ogres. Ogres are units for the Orc faction in Warlords Battlecry video games. Ogres are a barbaric race in the Warcraft franchise. One of its main characters, Rexxar, is a half-orc/half-ogre. Ogres are enemies in The Elder Scrolls: Oblivion, The Elder Scrolls Online. Ogres make an appearance as shock troops and pillagers from Mount Gundabad in The Hobbit: The Battle of the Five Armies. Ogres are a race in the Dungeons and Dragons role-playing game. Ogres are the monsters in Creepy issue #2 story "Ogre's Castle". Ogres is a name for one of the playable classes in the Changeling: The Lost roleplaying game. Media related to Ogre at Carol. Giants, Monsters, & Dragons: An Encyclopedia of Folklore and Myth.
New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2001. ISBN 0-393-32211-4 Shippey, Tom; the Road to Middle-earth. London: HarperCollins, 1992. ISBN 0-261-10275-3 Sout