A given name is a part of a person's personal name. It identifies a person, differentiates that person from the other members of a group who have a common surname; the term given name refers to the fact that the name is bestowed upon a person to a child by their parents at or close to the time of birth. A Christian name, a first name, given at baptism, is now typically given by the parents at birth. In informal situations, given names are used in a familiar and friendly manner. In more formal situations, a person's surname is more used—unless a distinction needs to be made between people with the same surname; the idioms "on a first-name basis" and "being on first-name terms" refer to the familiarity inherent in addressing someone by their given name. By contrast, a surname, inherited, is shared with other members of one's immediate family. Regnal names and religious or monastic names are special given names bestowed upon someone receiving a crown or entering a religious order; such a person typically becomes known chiefly by that name.
The order given name – family name known as the Western order, is used throughout most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by European culture, including North and South America. The order family name – given name known as the Eastern order, is used in East Asia, as well as in Southern and North-Eastern parts of India, in Hungary; this order is common in Austria and Bavaria, in France, Belgium and Italy because of the influence of bureaucracy, which puts the family name before the given name. In China and Korea, part of the given name may be shared among all members of a given generation within a family and extended family or families, in order to differentiate those generations from other generations; the order given name – father's family name – mother's family name is used in Spanish-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. Today the order can be changed in Spain and Uruguay using given name – mother's family name – father's family name.
The order given name – mother's family name – father's family name is used in Portuguese-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. In many Western cultures, people have more than one given name. One of those, not the first in succession might be used as the name which that person goes by, such as in the cases of John Edgar Hoover and Mary Barbara Hamilton Cartland. A child's given name or names are chosen by the parents soon after birth. If a name is not assigned at birth, one may be given at a naming ceremony, with family and friends in attendance. In most jurisdictions, a child's name at birth is a matter of public record, inscribed on a birth certificate, or its equivalent. In western cultures, people retain the same given name throughout their lives. However, in some cases these names may be changed by repute. People may change their names when immigrating from one country to another with different naming conventions. In certain jurisdictions, a government-appointed registrar of births may refuse to register a name that may cause a child harm, considered offensive or which are deemed impractical.
In France, the agency can refer the case to a local judge. Some jurisdictions, such as Sweden, restrict the spelling of names. Parents may choose a name because of its meaning; this may be a personal or familial meaning, such as giving a child the name of an admired person, or it may be an example of nominative determinism, in which the parents give the child a name that they believe will be lucky or favourable for the child. Given names most derive from the following categories: Aspirational personal traits. For example, the name Clement means "merciful". English examples include Faith and August. Occupations, for example George means "earth-worker", i.e. "farmer". Circumstances of birth, for example Thomas meaning "twin" or the Latin name Quintus, traditionally given to the fifth male child. Objects, for example Peter means "rock" and Edgar means "rich spear". Physical characteristics, for example Calvin means "bald". Variations on another name to change the sex of the name or to translate from another language.
Surnames, for example Winston and Ross. Such names can honour other branches of a family, where the surname would not otherwise be passed down. Places, for example Brittany and Lorraine. Time of birth, for example day of the week, as in Kofi Annan, whose given name means "born on Friday", or the holiday on which one was born, for example, the name Natalie meaning "born on Christmas day" in Latin. Tuesday, May, or June. Combination of the above, for example the Armenian name Sirvart means "love rose". In many cultures, given names are reused to commemorate ancestors or those who are admired, resulting in a limited repertoire of names that sometimes vary by orthography; the most familiar example of this, to Western readers, is the use of Biblical and saints' names in most of the Christian countries (with Ethiopia, in which names were ideals or abstractions
Texas Instruments Inc. is an American technology company that designs and manufactures semiconductors and various integrated circuits, which it sells to electronics designers and manufacturers globally. Its headquarters are in Dallas, United States. TI is one of the top ten semiconductor companies worldwide, based on sales volume. Texas Instruments's focus is on developing analog chips and embedded processors, which accounts for more than 80% of their revenue. TI produces TI digital light processing technology and education technology products including calculators and multi-core processors. To date, TI has more than 43,000 patents worldwide. Texas Instruments emerged in 1951 after a reorganization of Geophysical Service Incorporated, a company founded in 1930 that manufactured equipment for use in the seismic industry, as well as defense electronics. TI produced the world's first commercial silicon transistor in 1954, designed and manufactured the first transistor radio in 1954. Jack Kilby invented the integrated circuit in 1958 while working at TI's Central Research Labs.
TI invented the hand-held calculator in 1967, introduced the first single-chip microcontroller in 1970, which combined all the elements of computing onto one piece of silicon. In 1987, TI invented the digital light processing device, which serves as the foundation for the company's award-winning DLP technology and DLP Cinema. In 1990, TI came out with the popular TI-81 calculator which made them a leader in the graphing calculator industry. In 1997, its defense business was sold to Raytheon, which allowed TI to strengthen its focus on digital solutions. After the acquisition of National Semiconductor in 2011, the company had a combined portfolio of nearly 45,000 analog products and customer design tools, making it the world's largest maker of analog technology components. Texas Instruments was founded by Cecil H. Green, J. Erik Jonsson, Eugene McDermott, Patrick E. Haggerty in 1951. McDermott was one of the original founders of Geophysical Service Inc. in 1930. McDermott and Jonsson were GSI employees who purchased the company in 1941.
In November, 1945, Patrick Haggerty was hired as general manager of the Laboratory and Manufacturing division, which focused on electronic equipment. By 1951, the L&M division, with its defense contracts, was growing faster than GSI's Geophysical division; the company was reorganized and renamed General Instruments Inc. Because there existed a firm named General Instrument, the company was renamed Texas Instruments that same year. From 1956 to 1961, Fred Agnich of Dallas a Republican member of the Texas House of Representatives, was the Texas Instruments president. Geophysical Service, Inc. became a subsidiary of Texas Instruments. Early in 1988 most of GSI was sold to the Halliburton Company. Texas Instruments exists to create and market useful products and services to satisfy the needs of its customers throughout the world. In 1930, J. Clarence Karcher and Eugene McDermott founded Geophysical Service, an early provider of seismic exploration services to the petroleum industry. In 1939, the company reorganized as Coronado Corp. an oil company with Geophysical Service Inc, now as a subsidiary.
On December 6, 1941, McDermott along with three other GSI employees, J. Erik Jonsson, Cecil H. Green, H. B. Peacock purchased GSI. During World War II, GSI expanded their services to include electronics for the U. S. Army, Signal Corps, the U. S. Navy. In 1951, the company changed its name to Texas Instruments, with GSI becoming a wholly owned subsidiary of the new company. An early success story for TI-GSI came in 1965 when GSI was able to monitor the Soviet Union's underground nuclear weapons testing under the ocean in Vela Uniform, a subset of Project Vela, to verify compliance of the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Texas Instruments continued to manufacture equipment for use in the seismic industry, GSI continued to provide seismic services. After selling GSI, TI sold the company to Halliburton in 1988, at which point GSI ceased to exist as a separate entity. In early 1952, Texas Instruments purchased a patent license to produce germanium transistors from Western Electric Co. the manufacturing arm of AT&T, for $25,000, beginning production by the end of the year.
On January 1, 1953, Haggerty brought Gordon Teal to the company as a research director. Gordon brought with him his expertise in growing semiconductor crystals. Teal's first assignment was to organize what became TI's Central Research Laboratories, which Teal based on his prior experience at Bell Labs. Among his new hires was Willis Adcock who joined TI early in 1953. Adcock, who like Teal was a physical chemist, began leading a small research group focused on the task of fabricating "grown-junction silicon single-crystal small-signal transistors. Adcock became the first TI Principal Fellow. In January 1954 Morris Tanenbaum at Bell Labs created the first workable silicon transistor; this work was reported in the spring of 1954, at the IRE off-the-record conference on Solid State Devices, was published in the Journal of Applied Physics. Working independently in April 1954, Gordon Teal at TI created the first commercial silicon transistor and tested it on April 14, 1954. On May 10, 1954, at the Institute of Radio Engineers National Conference on Airborne Electronics in Dayton, OH,Teal presented a paper: "Some Recent Developments in Silicon and Germanium Materials and Devices,".
In 1954, Texas Instruments manufactured the first transistor radio. The Regency TR-1 used germanium transistors, as silicon transistors were much more expensive at the time; this was an effort b
Alfred Kärcher GmbH & Co. KG is a German family-owned company that operates worldwide and is known for its high-pressure cleaners, floor care equipment, parts cleaning systems, wash water treatment, military decontamination equipment and window vacuum cleaners. Headquartered in Winnenden, Germany, it produces full cleaning systems; the world market leader in cleaning technology, employs more than 10,000 people worldwide. In 2017 the company sold more than 13 million machines. Kärcher has 100 subsidiaries in 60 countries; the inventor Alfred Kärcher from Baden-Württemberg founded the company in 1935 in Stuttgart Bad-Cannstatt. Kärcher specialised in the design of industrial submersible heating elements, i.e. in salt smelters which were heated with immersion heaters. After numerous experiments, a hardening furnace for alloys was produced, the so-called “Kärcher Salt-Bath Furnace”; some 1,200 units were sold up to 1945. Karcher invented the first modern pressure washer, the DS 350 in 1950; the company’s main focus switched to cleaning equipment for professional and private users.
Since Kärcher has made lead in the design and development of pressure washers. The company's product range now covers the entire field of cleaning. Kärcher offers pumps and watering systems. In 1974 the corporate color was changed from blue to yellow. From that year, under the leadership of Alfred Kärcher’s widow Irene Kärcher, the company launched the HD 555, the first pressure washer for private users. Today the family-owned company, based in Winnenden near Stuttgart, is represented in 160 countries with 100 subsidiaries all over the world, selling commercial cleaning equipment as well as cleaning equipment for the private consumer. Kärcher owns the American brands of Landa and Shark pressure washers, Cuda parts washers, Watermaze water treatment systems, Windsor Kärcher Group floor cleaning systems, Italian manufacturing company Hawk Pumps, or Woma Pumps in Germany, they are the primary supplier of cleaning systems to the US Military. In some countries such as Germany, Poland, Georgia or Mexico, United States Kärcher is now colloquially used as synonymous with a cleaning system using high-pressure water, used to clean cars, outdoor equipment etc.
French politician Nicolas Sarkozy once declared that La Courneuve, a banlieue outside of Paris where a boy was killed by a stray gunshot, would be "cleaned out with a Kärcher" — meaning all criminals and other undesirables should be removed and washed out. This comment was controversial, as many French associate the banlieues with immigrants North Africans. Sarkozy's use of the word led to it becoming a verb: "to Karcher" or "Karcherize". Presidential candidate Jean-Marie Le Pen told residents of Argenteuil, many of them immigrants, "If some want to Karcherize you, to exclude you, we want to help you get out of these ghettos." As a response, Kärcher France sent a letter to all of the candidates in the 2007 presidential election asking them not to use the company's name this way, has run ads in newspapers disassociating itself from the remarks. Under its cultural sponsorship program, Kärcher has supported more than 90 projects to clean internationally prominent buildings such as the London Eye in London, the Space Needle in Seattle, the Presidents’ heads at the Mount Rushmore National Memorial, the Colossi of Memnon in Luxor, the Colonnades on St Peter’s Square in Rome, the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin the Statue of Liberty in New York City and the Statue of Christ in Rio de Janeiro.
In 2011 it cleaned the N Seoul Tower. Kärcher is a partner of SOS Children’s Villages and a member of the UN Global Compact network. Kärcher is the official cleaning equipment supplier to the 2016 Summer Olympics and the Sochi 2014 winter Olympic Games. High pressure cleaning
Carl Nicholas Karcher was an American businessman who founded the Carl's Jr. hamburger chain, now owned by parent company CKE Restaurants, Inc. Born on a farm near Upper Sandusky, Karcher was the son of Ohio natives Leo and Anna Maria Karcher. Leo Karcher's grandparents immigrated from Belgium. Carl N. Karcher moved to Anaheim, where his uncle ran a small business, he was hired by his uncle and worked for him for three years, dropped that job to work at a bakery as a delivery boy which increased his weekly salary by $6. He married Margaret Magdalen Heinz Karcher in 1939. Karcher and his wife started their first business, a hot dog stand, on July 17, 1941, in Los Angeles when they borrowed $311 against their Plymouth automobile and added $15 from Margaret's purse; the stand sold hot dogs and Mexican tamales. On his 28th birthday, January 16, 1945, they opened their first restaurant, Carl's Drive-In Barbecue, in Anaheim, their restaurant expanded, with the restaurants numbering 100 by 1974 and over 300 by 1981.
Karcher was investigated and sued by the Securities and Exchange Commission for insider trading after telling family members to sell their stock in advance of a poor earnings report. Karcher settled the case in July 1989 for $664,000. Karcher served as chairman and CEO of the company until its own board of directors voted him out in 1993 after years of infighting over strategy. Karcher objected to the sexualized nature of the Carl's Jr. ad campaigns of the 2000s, was said to have been "heartbroken that a company he founded on Christian principles has taken such an amoral act."Karcher died on January 11, 2008, from complications of Parkinson's Disease, at age 90, just five days before he would have turned 91. Karcher received numerous awards for his philanthropy, including, in 1979, the Horatio Alger Award "for his distinction in accomplishments through individual initiative, hard work and adherence to traditional ideals."On January 16, 2007, his 90th birthday and his deceased wife Margaret were recognized with the placement of a star on the Anaheim/Orange County Walk of Stars.
Karcher was a devout Catholic and an active member of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta. He attended mass daily at St. Boniface Catholic Church in Anaheim prior to going to work at his office. Carl and Margaret had twelve children, their son, Jerome T. Karcher, a priest in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Orange, received the Man of Character Award from the Boy Scouts of America for founding Mercy House in Orange County for the homeless and those with AIDS. Karcher was a lifelong supporter of conservative causes and was known to lead the Pledge of Allegiance to the American flag at the beginning of CKE board meetings. Karcher was an early supporter of John Schmitz, a Republican and member of the John Birch Society, who represented Orange County in the California State Senate and Congress. Schmitz was the presidential nominee of the American Independent Party in 1972. In 1978, he contributed US$1 million to California's Proposition 6 initiative known as the Briggs Initiative, which would have banned LGBT people from serving in California public schools.
He was the initiative's biggest financial supporter. A remarkable lunch with Carl Karcher