Douglas Park (Chicago)
Douglas Park is a large Chicago Park District park that serves as a cultural and community center on the West Side of Chicago, Illinois. It is named after the U. S. Senator Stephen A. Douglas. Named South Park, its 173 acres are in the North Lawndale community area with an official address of 1401 S. Sacramento Drive. In 1869, the Illinois state legislature established the West Park Commission, responsible for three large parks and interlinking boulevards; that year, on November 4, 1869 the commissioners named the southernmost park in honor of Stephen A. Douglas. Best remembered for his pre-Civil War presidential defeat by Abraham Lincoln despite superb oratorical skills, Douglas was a United States Senator who helped bring the Illinois Central Railroad to Chicago. In 1871, designer William Le Baron Jenney completed plans for the entire West Park System which included Douglas and Humboldt parks. Jenney's engineering expertise was helpful for transforming Douglas Park's poor natural site into parkland.
He had manure from the Union Stock Yards and sand added to the marshy site. This process brought the 173 acres of land to grade level. In the center of the landscape, Jenney created a picturesque lake, a small section of the park was formally opened in 1879. Inflated construction costs and post Great Chicago Fire tax collection difficulties resulted in phased projects; the first improvements were made to the park by Oscar DuBuis in the 1880s. Between 1886 and 1888 Douglas Park, like the other West Park System parks, replaced its greenhouse with a conservatory. In 1895, members of several German turners' clubs petitioned for an outdoor gymnasium, the following year one of Chicago's first public facilities was constructed with an outdoor gymnasium, swimming pool, natatorium. By the turn of the century, the West Park Commission was riddled with political graft, the three parks became dilapidated; as part of a reform effort in 1905, Jens Jensen was appointed as General Superintendent and Chief Landscape Architect for the entire West Park System.
Jensen, now recognized as dean of the prairie style of landscape architecture, improved deteriorating sections of the parks and added new features. Among Jensen's improvements were a semi-circular entryway at Marshall Boulevard, a formal garden at the corner of Ogden Avenue and Sacramento Drive. By the time Jensen designed the garden, Ogden Avenue, a diagonal roadway with a major streetcar thoroughfare that would become part of Route 66, had been constructed; the road divided the park into two separate landscapes, creating a busy intersection at the junction of Ogden and Sacramento Avenues. Jensen's solution was a long axial garden on the southeast side of the intersection, providing a buffer between Ogden Avenue and playing fields to the south. Jensen demolished the conservatories in each of the West Park System parks in favor of one grand conservatory at Garfield Park. At the entrance to the garden, the area closest to the busy roadway intersection, Jensen placed a monumental garden shelter, known as Flower Hall, a formal reflecting pool.
The designer of the structure is unknown, however, it was Jensen himself, or his friend, prairie school architect Hugh Garden. East of the building, the garden becomes more naturalistic. Jensen included perennial beds, a lily pool, unique prairie-style benches. In 1928, the West Park Commission constructed a fieldhouse in Douglas Park; the structure was designed by architects Michaelsen and Rognstad, who were responsible for other notable buildings including the Garfield Park Gold Dome Building, the Humboldt and LaFolette Park Fieldhouses, the On Leong Merchants Association Building in Chinatown. In 1934, Douglas Park became part of the Chicago Park District, when the city's 22 independent park commissions merged into a single citywide agency; the park has served as a central location for recreation. It houses a miniature golf course, five playgrounds, an outdoor swimming pool, soccer fields, basketball courts, an oval running track; the park retains its original lagoon, a wide variety of trees, the original Jenney designed stone bridge.
The greenhouse that attracted visitors from throughout the city was torn down in 1905. The statue of Czech patriot, Karel Havlíček Borovský, by Joseph Strachovsky was moved to Solidarity Drive on today's Museum Campus in the vicinity of the Adler Planetarium in 1981. Chicago's 2016 Olympic bid included plans to host the Olympic cycling competitions in this park, including a velodrome and a BMX course. Beginning in 2015, the park is the new home of the Riot Fest. Parks of Chicago List of landmarks in Chicago Chicago Park District Page Douglas Park Advisory Council
Pan-Slavism, a movement which crystallized in the mid-19th century, is the political ideology concerned with the advancement of integrity and unity for the Slavic-speaking peoples. Its main impact occurred in the Balkans, where non-Slavic empires had ruled the South Slavs for centuries; these were the Byzantine Empire, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, Venice. Extensive pan-Slavism began much like Pan-Germanism, both of which grew from the sense of unity and nationalism experienced within ethnic groups after the French Revolution and the consequent Napoleonic Wars against European monarchies. Like other Romantic nationalist movements, Slavic intellectuals and scholars in the developing fields of history and folklore encouraged the passion of their shared identity and ancestry. Pan-Slavism co-existed with the Southern Slavic independence. Used symbols of the Pan-Slavic movement were the Pan-Slavic colours and the Pan-Slavic anthem, Slavs; the first pan-Slavists were the 16th-century Croatian writer Vinko Pribojević and the 17th-century Aleksandar Komulović, Bartol Kašić, Ivan Gundulić and Croatian Catholic missionary Juraj Križanić.
Some of the earliest manifestations of Pan-Slavic thought within the Habsburg Monarchy have been attributed to Adam Franz Kollár and Pavel Jozef Šafárik. The movement began following the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815. In the aftermath, the leaders of Europe sought to restore the pre-war status quo. At the Congress of Vienna, Austria's representative, Prince von Metternich, felt the threat to this status quo in Austria was the nationalists demanding independence from the empire. While their subjects were composed of numerous ethnic groups, most of the subjects were Slavs; the First Pan-Slav congress was held in Prague, Bohemia in June, 1848, during the revolutionary movement of 1848. The Czechs had refused to send representatives to the Frankfurt Assembly feeling that Slavs had a distinct interest from the Germans; the Austroslav, František Palacký, presided over the event. Most of the delegates were Slovak. Palacký called for the co-operation of the Habsburgs and had endorsed the Habsburg monarchy as the political formation most to protect the peoples of central Europe.
When the Germans asked him to declare himself in favour of their desire for national unity, he replied that he would not as this would weaken the Habsburg state: “Truly, if it were not that Austria had long existed, it would be necessary, in the interest of Europe, in the interest of humanity itself, to create it.” The Pan-Slav congress met during the revolutionary turmoil of 1848. Young inhabitants of Prague had taken to the streets and in the confrontation, a stray bullet had killed the wife of Field Marshal Alfred I, Prince of Windisch-Grätz, the commander of the Austrian forces in Prague. Enraged, Windischgrätz seized the city, disbanded the congress, established martial law throughout Bohemia; the first Pan-Slavic convention was held in Prague on June 2 through 16, 1848. The delegates at the Congress were both anti-Austrian and anti-Russian. Still "the Right"—the moderately liberal wing of the Congress—under the leadership of František Palacký, a Czech historian and politician, Pavol Jozef Šafárik, a Slovak philologist and archaeologist, favored autonomy of the Slav lands within the framework of Austrian monarchy.
In contrast "the Left"—the radical wing of the Congress—under the leadership of Karel Sabina, a Czech writer and journalist, Josef Václav Frič, a Czech nationalist, Karol Libelt, a Polish writer and politician, others, pressed for a close alliance with the revolutionary-democratic movement going on in Germany and Hungary in 1848. A national rebirth in the Hungarian "Upper Land" awoken in a new light, both before the Slovak Uprising in 1848 and after; the driving force of this rebirth movement were Slovak writers and politicians who called themselves Štúrovci, the followers of Ľudovít Štúr. As the Slovak nobility was Magyarized and most of Slovaks were farmers or priests, this movement failed to attract much attention. Nonetheless, the campaign was successful as a brotherly cooperation between the Croats and the Slovaks brought its fruit throughout the war. Most of the battles between Slovaks and Hungarians however, did not turn out in favor for the Slovaks who were logistically supported by the Austrians, but not sufficiently.
The shortage of manpower proved to be decisive as well. During the war, the Slovak National Council brought its demands to the young Austrian emperor, Franz Joseph I, who seemed to take a note of it and promised support for the Slovaks against the revolutionary radical Hungarians; however the moment the revolution was over, Slovak demands were forgotten. These demands included an autonomous land within the Austrian Empire called "Slovenský kraj" which would be led by a Serbian prince; this act of ignorance from the Emperor convinced the Slovak and the Czech elite who proclaimed the concept of Austroslavism as dead. Disgusted by the Emperor's policy, in the year of 1849, Ľudovít Štúr, the person who codified the first official Slovak language, wrote a book he would name Slavdom and the World of the Future; this book served him as a manifesto. He wrote a sentence that serves as a quote until this day: "Every nation has its time under God's sun, the linden is blossoming, while the oak bloomed long ago."He expressed confidence in the Russian Empire however, as it was the only country of Slavs that
The Adler Planetarium is a public museum dedicated to the study of astronomy and astrophysics. It was founded in 1930 by Chicago business leader Max Adler, it is located on the northeast tip of Northerly Island at the shore of Lake Michigan in Chicago, Illinois. The Adler was the first planetarium in the United States and is part of Chicago's Museum Campus, which includes the John G. Shedd Aquarium and The Field Museum; the Adler's mission is to inspire understanding of the universe. The Adler Planetarium opened to the public on May 12, 1930. For its design, architect Ernest A. Grunsfeld, Jr. was awarded the gold medal of the Chicago chapter of the American Institute of Architects in 1931. It was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1987; the Adler is home to three full size theaters, extensive space science exhibitions, a significant collection of antique scientific instruments and print materials. In addition, the Adler boasts the Doane Observatory, one of the only research-active, public urban observatories.
Outdoor sculptures at the planetarium include Spiral Galaxy by John David Mooney, Man Enters the Cosmos by Henry Moore, America's Courtyard by Ary Perez and Denise Milan. In 1913, Oskar von Miller of the Deutsches Museum commissioned the Carl Zeiss Works to design a mechanism that projects an image of celestial bodies onto a dome; this was achieved by Walther Bauersfeld and the invention became known as a planetarium when it debuted in 1923. Its popularity spread, by 1929, there were fifteen in Germany, two in Italy, one in Russia, one in Austria. Max Adler, a former executive with Sears, Roebuck & Co. in Chicago, had retired to focus on philanthropic endeavors on behalf of the local musical and Jewish communities. However, after listening to a friend describe a Munich planetarium, Adler decided that a planetarium would fit in well within the emerging Museum Campus in Chicago. Adler visited the Munich planetarium with his cousin, architect Ernest Grunsfeld, Jr. whom Adler would commission to design the Chicago structure.
He learned about a sale of astronomical instruments and antiques by W. M. Mensing in Amsterdam, which he purchased the following year; the Mensing Collection became the focus of the Astronomical Museum. Adler offered $500,000 in 1928 for the construction of the first planetarium in the Western Hemisphere; the planetarium was considered for part of the Museum of Science and Industry, an endeavor led by Adler's brother-in-law Julius Rosenwald. Rosenwald was determined to convert the former Palace of Fine Arts of the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition into a museum, but was struggling to manage the many required renovations; these delays caused Adler to look elsewhere for a location. The South Park Commissioners, the precursor to the Chicago Park District, had just completed Northerly Island, the first of five intended recreational islands that were to be consistent with Daniel Burnham's 1909 Plan of Chicago; the Adler Planetarium and Astronomical Museum opened on Adler's birthday, May 12, 1930. The Chicago chapter of the American Institute of Architects awarded Grunsfield a gold medal for his design.
The planetarium hosted the 44th meeting of the American Astronomical Society that year. 1923 – Walther Bauersfeld, scientific director of the firm of Carl Zeiss in Jena, designs an optical projection device that creates the illusion of a night sky. With this innovation, the modern planetarium is born. 1928 – Max Adler and architect Ernest Grunsfeld travel to Germany. Adler is so impressed by the modern planetarium that he donates funds to construct the first planetarium in the Western Hemisphere.1930 – Max Adler purchases the collection of A. W. Mensing at an auction in Amsterdam; this impressive collection of antique scientific instruments provided the foundation for the Adler's collection. The Adler Planetarium opened to the public on Max Adler's birthday, May 12. Phillip Fox, Ph. D. a well-known professor of astronomy at Northwestern University, is appointed the Planetarium's first director. 1933 – The Century of Progress Exposition takes place on what is now the Museum Campus. 1941 – Philip Fox is deployed to the Army.
1952 – Max Adler passes away. 1967 – The Board of Trustees is created to share in the responsibilities and management of the Adler Planetarium with the commissioners of the Chicago Park District. The Adler refurbishes the building and replaces the original Zeiss projector with a new Mark VI Zeiss unit. 1973 – A new underground expansion opens to the public on May 12, 1973, the Adler's 43rd birthday. 1976 – The Board of Trustees assume full management responsibility of the Adler, but continue to receive support from the Chicago Park District. 1977 – The Doane Observatory opens. 1991 – The museum unveils the results of its $6.5 million renovation project. After 23 years of leadership, Dr. Joseph M. Chamberlain retires. 1999 – The 60,000 square foot Sky Pavilion, designed by Lohan Associates of Chicago, opens to the public. This new addition features four new exhibition galleries, including the historic Atwood Sphere and the Definiti Theater. 2005 – Retired NASA Astronaut James A. Lovell, Jr. serves as chairman of Adler's 75th anniversary celebration.
2007 – The Adler unveils its new Space Visualization Laboratory, bringing the latest images of space science to the public. 2010 – The Adler begins transformation of the historic Sky Theater. The renamed Grainger Sky Theater opened in May 2011; the Grainger becomes the most technologically advanced dome theater in the world. Thomas Roszak Architecture designed the Clark Family Welcome Gallery using an LED lit fabric and aluminum structure that
Božena Němcová was a Czech writer of the final phase of the Czech National Revival movement. Her image features on the 500 CZK denomination of the banknotes of the Czech koruna. According to the dating up to now accepted by the majority of Czech authors, Božena Němcová was born in 1820 as Barbara Pankel in Vienna as a daughter of Johann Pankel from Lower Austria and Teresie Novotná, a maid of Bohemian origin. In her childhood she lived near the small town of Ratibořice, where her grandmother Magdalena Novotná played an important part in her life. Němcová would write her most famous novel with the main character inspired by her grandmother; when she was 17 years old, she married Josef Němec, fifteen years her senior, who worked as a customs officer and was therefore a state employee. The marriage was arranged by Barbora's parents and became an unhappy one, as the married couple did not understand each other well. Němec was said to be a authoritarian man, he was a Bohemian patriot, which did not sit well with his superiors, he was transferred to different locations and lost his job.
The couple suffered from a lack of money. Němcová died in poverty, estranged from her husband, she is said to have been in an intimate relationship with the poet Václav Bolemír Nebeský. The Bohemian patriots arranged a magnificent funeral for her; some authors question the birthdate and the real origin of Božena Němcová. According to one hypothesis, Němcová could have been born three to four years earlier than thought, be an illegitimate daughter of Wilhelmine, Duchess of Sagan. Helena Sobková, a writer of popular-history books about Němcová, believes that Němcová may have been the niece of Wilhelmine. In 1816 an illegitimate daughter was born to Wilhelmine's younger sister, Dorothée de Talleyrand-Périgord, Count Karel Jan Clam-Martinic in Bourbon-l'Archambault; the child was not recognized by its mother. The child's further fate is unknown, it is possible that Duchess Wilhelmine of Sagan gave the girl to Němcová's parents to raise her as their own child under the name Barbora Panklová. None of these speculations, have been proven by serious historical research.
Pohorská vesnice Babička – Němcová's best-known novel about a young girl named Barunka and her childhood with her grandmother in the countryside. The book was inspired by Němcová's own childhood in the village of Ratibořice, where she lived with her parents and maternal grandmother Magdalena Novotná. Chýše pod horami O dvanácti měsíčkách Národní báchorky a pověsti Slovenské pohádky a pověsti Selská politika Hospodyně na slovíčko Dopisy z lázní Františkových Listy přítele přítelkyni Silný Ctibor Devět křížů Works by or about Božena Němcová at Internet Archive
Suffrage, political franchise, or franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections. In some languages, in English, the right to vote is called active suffrage, as distinct from passive suffrage, the right to stand for election; the combination of active and passive suffrage is sometimes called full suffrage. Suffrage is conceived in terms of elections for representatives. However, suffrage applies to referenda and initiatives. Suffrage describes not only the legal right to vote, but the practical question of whether a question will be put to a vote; the utility of suffrage is reduced when important questions are decided unilaterally without extensive, full disclosure and public review. In most democracies, eligible voters can vote in elections of representatives. Voting on issues by referendum may be available. For example, in Switzerland this is permitted at all levels of government. In the United States, some states such as California and Washington have exercised their shared sovereignty to offer citizens the opportunity to write and vote on referendums and initiatives.
Referendums in the United Kingdom are rare. Suffrage is granted to qualifying citizens. What constitutes a qualifying citizen depends on the government's decision. Resident non-citizens can vote in some countries, which may be restricted to citizens of linked countries or to certain offices or questions; the word suffrage comes from Latin suffragium, meaning "vote", "political support", the right to vote. The etymology of the Latin word is uncertain, with some sources citing Latin suffragari "lend support, vote for someone", from sub "under" + fragor "crash, shouts", related to frangere "to break". Other sources say; some etymologists think the word may be related to suffrago and may have meant an ankle bone or knuckle bone. Universal suffrage consists of the right to vote without restriction due to sex, social status, education level, or wealth, it does not extend the right to vote to all residents of a region. The short-lived Corsican Republic was the first country to grant limited universal suffrage to all citizens over the age of 25.
In 1819 60-80,000 men and women from 30 miles around Manchester assembled in the city's St. Peter's Square to protest their lack of any representation in the Houses of Parliament. Historian Robert Poole has called the Peterloo Massacre one of the defining moments of its age.. The film Peterloo featured; this was followed by other experiments in the Paris Commune of 1871 and the island republic of Franceville. The 1840 constitution of the Kingdom of Hawai'i granted universal suffrage to all male and female adults. In 1893, when the Kingdom of Hawai'i was overthrown in a coup, New Zealand became the only independent country to practice universal suffrage, the Freedom in the World index lists New Zealand as the only free country in the world in 1893. Women's suffrage is, by definition, the right of women to vote; this was the goal of the suffragists, who believed in using legal means and the suffragettes, who used extremist measures. Short-lived suffrage equity was drafted into provisions of the State of New Jersey's first, 1776 Constitution, which extended the Right to Vote to unwed female landholders & black land owners.
"IV. That all inhabitants of this Colony, of full age, who are worth fifty pounds proclamation money, clear estate in the same, have resided within the county in which they claim a vote for twelve months preceding the election, shall be entitled to vote for Representatives in Council and Assembly. New Jersey 1776 However, the document did not specify an Amendment procedure, the provision was subsequently replaced in 1844 by the adoption of the succeeding constitution, which reverted to "all white male" suffrage restrictions. Although the Kingdom of Hawai'i granted female suffrage in 1840, the right was rescinded in 1852. Limited voting rights were gained by some women in Sweden and some western U. S. states in the 1860s. In 1893, the British colony of New Zealand became the first self-governing nation to extend the right to vote to all adult women. In 1894 the women of South Australia achieved the right to both stand for Parliament; the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland in the Russian Empire was the first nation to allow all women to both vote and run for parliament.
Those against the women's suffrage movement made public organizations to put down the political movement, with the main argument being that a woman's place was in the home, not polls. Political cartoons and public outrage over women's rights increased as the opposition to suffrage worked day and night to organize legitimate groups campaigning against women's voting rights; the Massachusetts Association Opposed to the Further Extension of Suffrage to Women was one organization that came out of the 1880's to put down the voting efforts. Many anti-suffrage propaganda poked fun at the idea of women in politics. Political cartoons displayed the most sentiment by portraying the issue of women's suffrage to be swapped with men's lives; some mocked the popular suf
Charles University, known as Charles University in Prague or as the University of Prague, is the oldest and largest university in the Czech Republic. Founded in 1348, it was the first university in Central Europe, it is one of the oldest universities in Europe in continuous operation and ranks in the upper 1.5 percent of the world’s best universities. Today, the university consists of 17 faculties located in Hradec Králové and Pilsen, its academic publishing house is Karolinum Press. The university operates several museums and two botanical gardens, its seal shows its protector Emperor Charles IV, with his coats of arms as King of the Romans and King of Bohemia, kneeling in front of St. Wenceslas, the patron saint of Bohemia, it is surrounded by Sigillum Universitatis Scolarium Studii Pragensis. The establishment of a medieval university in Prague was inspired by Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV, he asked Pope Clement VI, to do so. On 26 January 1347 the pope issued the bull establishing a university in Prague, modeled on the University of Paris, with the full number of faculties, including theological.
On 7 April 1348 Charles, the king of Bohemia, gave to the established university privileges and immunities from the secular power in a Golden Bull and on 14 January 1349 he repeated that as the King of the Romans. Most Czech sources since the 19th century—encyclopedias, general histories, materials of the University itself—prefer to give 1348 as the year of the founding of the university, rather than 1347 or 1349; this was caused by an anticlerical shift in the 19th century, shared by both Germans. The university was opened in 1349; the university was sectioned into parts called nations: the Bohemian, Bavarian and Saxon. The Bohemian natio included Bohemians, southern Slavs, Hungarians. Ethnically Czech students made 16–20% of all students. Archbishop Arnošt of Pardubice took an active part in the foundation by obliging the clergy to contribute and became a chancellor of the university; the first graduate was promoted in 1359. The lectures were held in the colleges, of which the oldest was named for the king the Carolinum, established in 1366.
In 1372 the Faculty of Law became an independent university. In 1402 Jerome of Prague in Oxford copied out the Trialogus of John Wycliffe; the dean of the philosophical faculty, Jan Hus, translated Trialogus into the Czech language. In 1403 the university forbade its members to follow the teachings of Wycliffe, but his doctrine continued to gain in popularity. In the Western Schism, the Bohemian natio took the side of king Wenceslaus and supported the Council of Pisa; the other nationes of the university declared their support for the side of Pope Gregory XII, thus the vote was 1:3 against the Bohemians. Hus and other Bohemians, took advantage of Wenceslaus' opposition to Gregory. By the Decree of Kutná Hora on 18 January 1409, the king subverted the university constitution by granting the Bohemian masters three votes. Only a single vote was left for all other three nationes combined, compared to one vote per each natio before; the result of this coup was the emigration of foreign professors and students, founding the University of Leipzig in May 1409.
Before that, in 1408, the university had about 200 doctors and magisters, 500 bachelors, 30,000 students. In the autumn of 1409, Hus was elected rector of the now Czech-dominated rump university. Thus, the Prague university lost the largest part of its students and faculty. From on the university declined to a regional institution with a low status. Soon, in 1419, the faculties of theology and law disappeared, only the faculty of arts remained in existence; the faculty of arts became a centre of the Hussite movement, the chief doctrinal authority of the Utraquists. No degrees were given in the years 1417–30. Emperor Sigismund, son of Charles IV, took what was left into his personal property and some progress was made; the emperor Ferdinand I called the Jesuits to Prague and in 1562 they opened an academy—the Clementinum. From 1541 till 1558 the Czech humanist Mattheus Collinus was a professor of Greek language; some progress was made again. In 1609 the obligatory celibacy of the professors was abolished.
In 1616 the Jesuit Academy became a university. Jesuits were expelled 1618–1621 during the early stages of the Thirty Years' War, started in Prague by anti-Catholic and anti-Imperial Bohemians. By 1622 the Jesuits had a predominant influence over the emperor. An Imperial decree of 19 September 1622 gave the Jesuits supreme control over the entire school system of Bohemia and Silesia; the last four professors at the Carolinum resigned and all of the Carolinum and nine colleges went to the Jesuits. The right of handing out degrees, of holding chancellorships and of appointing the secular professors was granted to the Jesuits. Cardinal Ernst Adalbert von Harrach opposed union of the university with another institution and the withdrawal of the archepiscopal right to the chanc
Museum Campus is a 57-acre park in Chicago that sits alongside Lake Michigan in Grant Park and encompasses five of the city's most notable attractions: the Adler Planetarium, America's first planetarium. Museum Campus sits adjacent to Northerly Island along the waterfront; the Museum Campus was created to transform the vicinity of three of the city's most notable museums – the Adler Planetarium, the Shedd Aquarium, the Field Museum of Natural History – along with Soldier Field stadium, into a scenic pedestrian-friendly area. The area is landscaped with greenery and flora as well as jogging walkways. A picturesque promenade along Solidarity Drive, an isthmus, links Northerly Island to the mainland; the drive itself is lined with a number of grand bronze monuments commemorating Kościuszko, Havliček, Nicholas Copernicus, the last of, a replica of a famous 19th-century work in Warsaw by Danish sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen. The Museum Campus opened on June 4, 1998, when the northbound lanes of Lake Shore Drive were moved west of Soldier Field following the route of the expressway's southbound lanes.
By removing the roadway which bisected the area, Museum Campus was created into a green space for the enjoyment of both residents and tourists. In 2014, a consortium of museums in or near the University of Chicago, formed Museum Campus South. In 2014, filmmaker George Lucas selected Museum Campus as the location of the Lucas Museum of Narrative Art, which would have cost an estimated $700 million, expanded Museum Campus south along the city's waterfront. However, these plans were cancelled in June 2016 due to opposition from the Friends of the Parks advocacy group. In August 2016, in a partnership with the City of Chicago, the Chicago Parks District and Everywhere Wireless, Museum Campus joined many Chicago Beaches and Buckingham Fountain in providing free Wi-Fi to visitors. In celebration of the 2018 Illinois Bicentennial, the Museum Campus was selected as one of the Illinois 200 Great Places by the American Institute of Architects Illinois component. List of museums and cultural institutions in Chicago Museum Campus map View on Google Maps — includes a short video Museum Campus Society of Architectural Historians SAH ARCHIPEDIA entry on Museum Campus