Emily Elizabeth Dickinson was an American poet. Dickinson was born in Amherst, Massachusetts into a prominent family with strong ties to its community. After studying at the Amherst Academy for seven years in her youth, she attended the Mount Holyoke Female Seminary before returning to her family's house in Amherst; some argue. Considered an eccentric by locals, she developed a noted penchant for white clothing and became known for her reluctance to greet guests or in life, to leave her bedroom. Dickinson never married, most friendships between her and others depended upon correspondence. While Dickinson was a prolific private poet, fewer than a dozen of her nearly 1,800 poems were published during her lifetime; the work, published during her lifetime was altered by the publishers to fit the conventional poetic rules of the time. Her poems are unique for the era. Many of her poems deal with themes of death and immortality, two recurring topics in letters to her friends. Although Dickinson's acquaintances were most aware of her writing, it was not until after her death in 1886—when Lavinia, Dickinson's younger sister, discovered her cache of poems—that the breadth of her work became apparent to the public.
Her first collection of poetry was published in 1890 by personal acquaintances Thomas Wentworth Higginson and Mabel Loomis Todd, though both edited the content. A 1998 New York Times article revealed that of the many edits made to Dickinson's work, the name "Susan" was deliberately removed. At least 11 of Dickinson's poems were dedicated to sister-in-law Susan Huntington Gilbert Dickinson, though all the dedications were obliterated by Todd. A complete, unaltered, collection of her poetry became available for the first time when scholar Thomas H. Johnson published The Poems of Emily Dickinson in 1955. Emily Elizabeth Dickinson was born at the family's homestead in Amherst, Massachusetts, on December 10, 1830, into a prominent, but not wealthy, family, her father, Edward Dickinson was a trustee of Amherst College. Two hundred years earlier, her patrilineal ancestors had arrived in the New World—in the Puritan Great Migration—where they prospered. Emily Dickinson's paternal grandfather, Samuel Dickinson, was one of the founders of Amherst College.
In 1813, he built the Homestead, a large mansion on the town's Main Street, that became the focus of Dickinson family life for the better part of a century. Samuel Dickinson's eldest son, was treasurer of Amherst College for nearly forty years, served numerous terms as a State Legislator, represented the Hampshire district in the United States Congress. On May 6, 1828, he married Emily Norcross from Monson, they had three children: William Austin, known as Austin, Aust or Awe Emily Elizabeth Lavinia Norcross, known as Lavinia or VinnieBy all accounts, young Emily was a well-behaved girl. On an extended visit to Monson when she was two, Emily's Aunt Lavinia described Emily as "perfectly well & contented—She is a good child & but little trouble." Emily's aunt noted the girl's affinity for music and her particular talent for the piano, which she called "the moosic". Dickinson attended primary school in a two-story building on Pleasant Street, her education was "ambitiously classical for a Victorian girl".
Her father wanted his children well-educated and he followed their progress while away on business. When Emily was seven, he wrote home, reminding his children to "keep school, learn, so as to tell me, when I come home, how many new things you have learned". While Emily described her father in a warm manner, her correspondence suggests that her mother was cold and aloof. In a letter to a confidante, Emily wrote she "always ran Home to Awe when a child, if anything befell me, he was an awful Mother, but I liked him better than none."On September 7, 1840, Dickinson and her sister Lavinia started together at Amherst Academy, a former boys' school that had opened to female students just two years earlier. At about the same time, her father purchased a house on North Pleasant Street. Emily's brother Austin described this large new home as the "mansion" over which he and Emily presided as "lord and lady" while their parents were absent; the house overlooked Amherst's burial ground, described by one local minister as treeless and "forbidding".
Dickinson spent seven years at the Academy, taking classes in English and classical literature, botany, history, "mental philosophy," and arithmetic. Daniel Taggart Fiske, the school's principal at the time, would recall that Dickinson was "very bright" and "an excellent scholar, of exemplary deportment, faithful in all school duties". Although she had a few terms off due to illness—the longest of, in 1845–1846, when she was enrolled for only eleven weeks—she enjoyed her strenuous studies, writing to a friend that the Academy was "a fine school". Dickinson was troubled from a young age by the "deepening menace" of death the deaths of those who were close to her; when Sophia Holland, her second cousin and a close friend, grew ill from typhus and died in April 1844, Emily was traumatized. Recalling the incident two years Emily wrote that "it seemed to me I should die too if I could not be permitted to watch over her or look at her face." She became so melancholic. With her health and spirits restored, she soon returned to Amherst A
Milton Byron Babbitt was an American composer, music theorist, teacher. He is noted for his serial and electronic music. Babbitt was born in Philadelphia to Albert E. Sarah Potamkin, he was Jewish. He was raised in Jackson and began studying the violin when he was four but soon switched to clarinet and saxophone. Early in his life he was attracted to theater music, he was making his own arrangements of popular songs at seven, when he was thirteen, he won a local songwriting contest. Babbitt's father was a mathematician, it was mathematics that Babbitt intended to study when he entered the University of Pennsylvania in 1931. However, he soon left and went to New York University instead, where he studied music with Philip James and Marion Bauer. There he became interested in the music of the composers of the Second Viennese School and went on to write a number of articles on twelve tone music, including the first description of combinatoriality and a serial "time-point" technique. After receiving his bachelor of arts degree from New York University College of Arts and Science in 1935 with Phi Beta Kappa honors, he studied under Roger Sessions and later at Princeton University.
At the university, he joined the music faculty in 1938 and received one of Princeton's first Master of Fine Arts degrees in 1942. During the Second World War, Babbitt divided his time between mathematical research in Washington, D. C. and Princeton, where he became a member of the mathematics faculty from 1943 to 1945. In 1948, Babbitt returned to Princeton University's music faculty and in 1973 became a member of the faculty at the Juilliard School in New York. Among his more notable former students are music theorists David Lewin and John Rahn, composers Bruce Adolphe, Michael Dellaira, Kenneth Fuchs, Laura Karpman, Paul Lansky, Donald Martino, John Melby, Kenneth Lampl, Tobias Picker, J. K. Randall, the theatre composer Stephen Sondheim and pianists Frederic Rzewski and Richard Aaker Trythall, the jazz guitarist and composer Stanley Jordan. In 1958, Babbitt achieved unsought notoriety through an article in the popular magazine High Fidelity. Babbitt said his own title for the article was "The Composer as Specialist" (as it was published several times, including in Babbitt 2003, 48–54, but that "The editor, without my knowledge and—therefore—my consent or assent, replaced my title by the more'provocative' one:'Who Cares if You Listen?'
A title which reflects little of the letter and nothing of the spirit of the article". More than 30 years he commented: "For all that the true source of that offensively vulgar title has been revealed many times, in many ways, even—eventually—by the offending journal itself, I still am far more to be known as the author of'Who Cares if You Listen?' than as the composer of music to which you may or may not care to listen". Babbitt became interested in electronic music, he was hired by RCA as consultant composer to work with its RCA Mark II Synthesizer at the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center, in 1961 produced his Composition for Synthesizer. Babbitt was less interested in producing new timbres than in the rhythmic precision he could achieve using the Mark II synthesizer, a degree of precision unobtainable in live performances. Although he would shift his focus away from electronic music, the genre that first gained for him public notice, by the 1960s Babbitt was writing both electronic music and music for conventional musical instruments combining the two.
Philomel, for example, was written for soprano and a synthesized accompaniment stored on magnetic tape. From 1985 until his death he served as the Chairman of the BMI Student Composer Awards, the international competition for young classical composers. Milton Babbitt died in Princeton, New Jersey on January 29, 2011 at the age of 94. 1965 – Member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters 1974 – Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 1982 – Pulitzer Prize, Special Citation, "for his life's work as a distinguished and seminal American composer" (Columbia University 1991, 70. 2000 – National Patron of Delta Omicron, an international, professional music fraternity 2010 – The Max Reger Foundation of America – Extraordinary Life Time Musical Achievement Award. "Some Aspects of Twelve-Tone Composition". The Score and I. M. A. Magazine 12:53–61.. "Who Cares if You Listen?". High Fidelity.. "Twelve-Tone Invariants as Compositional Determinants," Musical Quarterly 46/2.. "Set Structure as Compositional Determinant," Journal of Music Theory 5/1..
"The Structure and Function of Musical Theory," College Music Symposium 5.. "Contemporary Music Composition and Music Theory as Contemporary Intellectual History", Perspectives in Musicology: The Inaugural Lectures of the Ph. D. Program in Music at the City University of New York, edited by Barry S. Brook, Edward Downes, Sherman Van Solkema, 270–307. New York: W. W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-02142-4. Reprinted, New York: Pendragon Press, 1985. ISB
G. Schirmer, Inc.
G. Schirmer, Inc. is an American classical music publishing company based in New York City, founded in 1861. The oldest active music publisher in the United States, Schirmer publishes sheet music for sale and rental, represents some well-known European music publishers in North America, such as the Music Sales Affiliates ChesterNovello, Breitkopf & Härtel and many Russian and former Soviet composers' catalogs; the company was founded in 1861 in the United States by German-born Gustav Schirmer, Sr. the son of a German immigrant. In 1891, the company established its own printing plant; the next year it inaugurated the Schirmer's Library of Musical Classics. The Musical Quarterly, the oldest academic journal on music in the U. S. was founded by Schirmer in 1915 together with musicologist Oscar Sonneck, who edited the journal until his death in 1928. In 1964, Schirmer acquired Associated Music Publishers which had built up an important catalog of American composers including Elliott Carter, Henry Cowell, Roy Harris, Charles Ives, Walter Piston, William Schuman, adding to a Schirmer's ASCAP roster which had included Samuel Barber, Leonard Bernstein, Morton Gould, Gian Carlo Menotti, Virgil Thomson, as well as composers from the earlier part of the century such as Charles Tomlinson Griffes, Charles Martin Loeffler, John Alden Carpenter, Percy Grainger.
The company was owned by the Schirmer family for over 100 years until Macmillan, a major book publisher, purchased it in 1968. Macmillan sold G. Schirmer to its current owner, Robert Wise, in 1986, the owner of popular music publisher, Music Sales Group, Inc. According to a spokesman, the purchase price was around US$7 million; as the sale of Schirmer did not include The Musical Quarterly, the future of the journal remained uncertain until its transition in 1989 to publisher Oxford University Press. In 1986 Schirmer joined with the Hal Leonard Corporation, a print distributor of jazz and popular music, who became the sole distributors of Schirmer's printed music; the last member of the family named for the founder was Gus Schirmer the 4th, a theatrical director and agent, who died in 1992 at the age of 73. The Schirmer/AMP catalog includes composers such as John Corigliano, Richard Danielpour, Avner Dorman, Gabriela Lena Frank, John Harbison, Aaron Jay Kernis, Leon Kirchner, Peter Lieberson, André Previn, Bright Sheng, Tan Dun, Augusto Brandt, Robert Xavier Rodriguez and Joan Tower.
The company publishes The G. Schirmer Manual of Style and Usage. G. Schirmer is a member of the Music Sales Group of Companies, the Music Publishers Association, the National Music Publishers Association, the Church Music Publishers Association. Schirmer.com, Home page ArtistsHouseMusic.org, Interview with Peggy Monastra on G. Schirmer Music Publishers G. Schirmer, Inc.: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
Leoš Janáček was a Czech composer, musical theorist, folklorist and teacher. He was inspired by other Slavic folk music to create an original, modern musical style; until 1895 he devoted himself to folkloristic research. While his early musical output was influenced by contemporaries such as Antonín Dvořák, his mature works incorporate his earlier studies of national folk music in a modern original synthesis, first evident in the opera Jenůfa, premiered in 1904 in Brno; the success of Jenůfa at Prague in 1916 gave Janáček access to the world's great opera stages. Janáček's works are his most celebrated, they include operas such as Káťa Kabanová and The Cunning Little Vixen, the Sinfonietta, the Glagolitic Mass, the rhapsody Taras Bulba, two string quartets, other chamber works. Along with Antonín Dvořák and Bedřich Smetana, he is considered one of the most important Czech composers. Leoš Janáček, son of schoolmaster Jiří and Amalie Janáčková, was born in Moravia, he was a gifted child in a family of limited means, showed an early musical talent in choral singing.
His father wanted him to follow the family tradition and become a teacher, but he deferred to Janáček's obvious musical abilities. In 1865, young Janáček enrolled as a ward of the foundation of the Abbey of St. Thomas in Brno, where he took part in choral singing under Pavel Křížkovský and played the organ. One of his classmates, František Neumann described Janáček as an "excellent pianist, who played Beethoven symphonies in a piano duet with a classmate, under Křížkovský's supervision". Křížkovský found him a problematic and wayward student but recommended his entry to the Prague Organ School. Janáček remembered Křížkovský as a great conductor and teacher. Janáček intended to study piano and organ but devoted himself to composition, he wrote his first vocal compositions while choirmaster of the Svatopluk Artisan's Association. In 1874, he enrolled under František Skuherský and František Blažek, his student days in Prague were impoverished. His criticism of Skuherský's performance of the Gregorian mass was published in the March 1875 edition of the journal Cecilie and led to his expulsion from the school, but Skuherský relented, on 24 July 1875 Janáček graduated with the best results in his class.
On his return to Brno he earned a living as a music teacher, conducted various amateur choirs. From 1876 he taught music at Brno's Teachers Institute. Among his pupils there was daughter of Emilian Schulz, the Institute director, she was to be Janáček's wife. In 1876, he became a piano student of Amálie Wickenhauserová-Nerudová, with whom he co-organized chamber concertos and performed in concerts over the next two years. In February 1876, he was voted choirmaster of the Beseda brněnská Philharmonic Society. Apart from an interruption from 1879 to 1881, he remained its choirmaster and conductor until 1888. From October 1879 to February 1880, he studied piano and composition at the Leipzig Conservatory. While there, he composed Thema con variazioni for piano in B flat, subtitled Zdenka's Variations. Dissatisfied with his teachers, denied a studentship with Camille Saint-Saëns in Paris, Janáček moved on to the Vienna Conservatory, where from April to June 1880, he studied composition with Franz Krenn.
He concealed his opposition to Krenn's neo-romanticism, but he quit Josef Dachs's classes and further piano study when he was criticised for his piano style and technique. He submitted a violin sonata to a Vienna Conservatory competition, but the judges rejected it as "too academic". Janáček left the conservatory in June 1880, disappointed despite Franz Krenn's complimentary personal report, he returned to Brno where on 13 July 1881, he married his young pupil Zdenka Schulzová. In 1881, Janáček founded and was appointed director of the organ school, held this post until 1919, when the school became the Brno Conservatory. In the mid-1880s, Janáček began composing more systematically. Among other works, he created the Four male-voice choruses, dedicated to Antonín Dvořák, his first opera, Šárka. During this period he began to collect and study folk music and dances. In the early months of 1887, he criticized the comic opera The Bridegrooms, by Czech composer Karel Kovařovic, in a Hudební listy journal review: "Which melody stuck in your mind?
Which motif? Is this dramatic opera? No, I would write on the poster:'Comedy performed together with music', since the music and the libretto aren't connected to each other". Janáček's review led to mutual dislike and professional difficulties when Kovařovic, as director of the National Theatre in Prague, refused to stage Janáček's opera Jenůfa. From the early 1890s, Janáček led the mainstream of folklorist activity in Moravia and Silesia, using a repertoire of folk songs and dances in orchestral and piano arrangements. Most of his achievements in this field were published in 1899–1901 though his interest in folklore would be lifelong, his compositional work was still influenced by the declamatory, dramatic style of Smetana and Dvořák. He expressed negative opinions on German neo-classicism and on Wagner in the Hudební listy journal, which he founded in 1884; the death of his second child, Vladimír, in 1890 was followed by an attempted opera, Beginning
University of Louisville
The University of Louisville is a public university in Louisville, Kentucky, a member of the Kentucky state university system. When founded in 1798, it was the first city-owned public university in the United States and one of the first universities chartered west of the Allegheny Mountains; the university is mandated by the Kentucky General Assembly to be a "Preeminent Metropolitan Research University". The university enrolls students from 118 of 120 Kentucky counties, all 50 U. S. states, 116 countries around the world. The University of Louisville School of Medicine is touted for the first self-contained artificial heart transplant surgery as well as the first successful hand transplantation; the University Hospital is credited with the first civilian ambulance, the nation's first accident services, now known as an emergency department, one of the first blood banks in the US. Between 1999 and 2006 Louisville was one of the fastest growing medical research institutions according to National Institutes of Health rankings.
As of 2006, the melanoma clinic ranked third in among public universities in NIH funding, the neurology research program fourth, the spinal cord research program 10th. Louisville is known for its Louisville Cardinals athletics programs. Since 2005 the Cardinals have made appearances in the NCAA Division I men's basketball Final Four in 2005, 2012, 2013, football Bowl Championship Series Orange Bowl in 2007 and Sugar Bowl in 2013, the College Baseball World Series 2007, 2013, 2014, 2017, the women's basketball Final Four in 2009, 2013, 2018, the men's soccer national championship game in 2010; the Louisville Cardinals Women's Volleyball program has three-peated as champions of the Big East Tournament, were Atlantic Coast Conference Champions in 2015 and 2017. Women's track and field program has won Outdoor Big East titles in 2008, 2009 and 2010 and an Indoor Big East title in 2011; the University of Louisville traces its roots to a charter granted in 1798 by the Kentucky General Assembly to establish a school of higher learning in the newly founded town of Louisville.
It ordered the sale of 6,000 acres of South Central Kentucky land to underwrite construction, joined on April 3, 1798 by eight community leaders who began local fund raising for what was known as the Jefferson Seminary. It opened 15 years and offered college and high school level courses in a variety of subjects, it was headed by Edward Mann Butler from 1813 to 1816, who ran the first public school in Kentucky in 1829 and is considered Kentucky's first historian. Despite the Jefferson Seminary's early success, pressure from newly established public schools and media critiques of it as "elitist" would force its closure in 1829. Eight years in 1837, the Louisville City council established the Louisville Medical Institute at the urging of renowned physician and medical author Charles Caldwell; as he had earlier at Lexington's Transylvania University, Caldwell led LMI into becoming one of the leading medical schools west of the Allegheny Mountains. In 1840, the Louisville Collegiate institute, a rival medical school, was established after an LMI faculty dispute.
It opened in 1844 on land near the present day Health sciences campus. In 1846, the Kentucky legislature combined the Louisville Medical Institute, the Louisville Collegiate Institution, a newly created law school into the University of Louisville, on a campus just east of Downtown Louisville; the LCI folded soon afterwards. The university experienced rapid growth in the 20th century, adding new schools in the liberal arts, graduate studies, engineering and social work. In 1923, the school purchased what is today the Belknap Campus, where it moved its liberal arts programs and law school, with the medical school remaining downtown; the school had attempted to purchase a campus donated by the Belknap family in The Highlands area in 1917, but a citywide tax increase to pay for it was voted down. The Belknap Campus was named after the family for their efforts. In 1926, the building that would be dedicated as Grawemeyer Hall, was built. In 1931, the university established the Louisville Municipal College for Negroes on the former campus of Simmons University, as a compromise plan to desegregation.
As a part of the university, the school had an equal standing with the school's other colleges. It was dissolved in 1951. During World War II, Louisville was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. In the second half of the 20th century, schools were opened for business and justice administration. Talk of Louisville joining the public university system of Kentucky began in the 1960s; as a municipally funded school, the movement of people to the suburbs of Louisville created budget shortfalls for the school and forced tuition prices to levels unaffordable for most students. At the same time, the school's well established medicine and law schools were seen as assets for the state system. Still, there was opposition to the university becoming public, both from faculty and alumni who feared losing the small, close-knit feel of the campus, from universities in the state system who feared funding cuts.
After several years of heated debate, the university joined the state system in 1970, a move orchestrated by Kentucky governor and Louisville alumnus Louie Nunn. The first years in the public system
Juliette Nadia Boulanger was a French composer and teacher. She is notable for having taught many of the leading musicians of the 20th century, she performed as a pianist and organist. From a musical family, she achieved early honours as a student at the Paris Conservatoire but, believing that she had no particular talent as a composer, she gave up writing music and became a teacher. In that capacity, she influenced generations of young composers those from the United States and other English-speaking countries. Among her students were those who became leading composers, soloists and conductors, including Aaron Copland, Roy Harris, Virgil Thomson, Darius Milhaud, Elliott Carter, David Diamond, Dinu Lipatti, Igor Markevitch, İdil Biret, Daniel Barenboim, John Eliot Gardiner, Philip Glass, Lalo Schifrin, Astor Piazzolla, Quincy Jones, Michel Legrand, her female students, whose chances in the 20th century for recognition were lower than that of the men, include notable American women composers, such as Louise Talma, Elaine Bearer, Eugenie Kuffler, Elise Grant Cieslak, Anne Robertson.
Boulanger taught in the US and England, working with music academies including the Juilliard School, the Yehudi Menuhin School, the Longy School, the Royal College of Music and the Royal Academy of Music, but her principal base for most of her life was her family's flat in Paris, where she taught for most of the seven decades from the start of her career until her death at the age of 92. Boulanger was the first woman to conduct many major orchestras in America and Europe, including the BBC Symphony, Boston Symphony, Hallé, New York Philharmonic and Philadelphia orchestras, she conducted several world premieres, including works by Stravinsky. Nadia Boulanger was born in Paris on 16 September 1887, to French composer and pianist Ernest Boulanger and his wife Raissa Myshetskaya, a Russian princess, who descended from St. Mikhail Tchernigovsky. Ernest Boulanger had studied at the Paris Conservatoire and, in 1835 at the age of 20, won the coveted Prix de Rome for composition, he wrote comic operas and incidental music for plays, but was most known for his choral music.
He achieved distinction as a director of choral groups, teacher of voice, a member of choral competition juries. After years of rejection, in 1872 he was appointed to the Paris Conservatoire as professor of singing. Raissa qualified as a home tutor in 1873. According to Ernest, he and Raissa met in Russia in 1873, she followed him back to Paris, she joined his voice class at the Conservatoire in 1876, they were married in Russia in 1877. Ernest and Raissa had a daughter who died as an infant before Nadia was born on her father's 72nd birthday. Through her early years, although both parents were active musically, Nadia would get upset by hearing music and hide until it stopped. In 1892, when Nadia was five, Raissa became pregnant again. During the pregnancy, Nadia's response to music changed drastically. "One day I heard a fire bell. Instead of crying out and hiding, I tried to reproduce the sounds. My parents were amazed." After this, Boulanger paid great attention to the singing lessons her father gave, began to study the rudiments of music.
Her sister, named Marie-Juliette Olga but known as Lili, was born in 1893. When Ernest brought Nadia home from their friends' house, before she was allowed to see her mother or Lili, he made her promise solemnly to be responsible for the new baby's welfare, he urged her to take part in her sister's care. From the age of seven, Nadia studied hard in preparation for her Conservatoire entrance exams, sitting in on their classes and having private lessons with its teachers. Lili stayed in the room for these lessons and listening. In 1896, the nine-year-old Nadia entered the Conservatoire, she studied there with others. She came in third in the 1897 solfège competition, subsequently worked hard to win first prize in 1898, she took private lessons from Alexandre Guilmant. During this period, she received religious instruction to become an observant Catholic, taking her First Communion on 4 May 1899; the Catholic religion remained important to her for the rest of her life. In 1900 her father Ernest died, money became a problem for the family.
Raissa had an extravagant lifestyle, the royalties she received from performances of Ernest's music were insufficient to live on permanently. Nadia continued to work hard at the Conservatoire to become a teacher and be able to contribute to her family's support. In 1903, Nadia won the Conservatoire's first prize in harmony, she studied composition with Gabriel Fauré and, in the 1904 competitions, she came first in three categories: organ, accompagnement au piano and fugue. At her accompagnement exam, Boulanger met Raoul Pugno, a renowned French pianist and composer, who subsequently took an interest in her career. In the autumn of 1904, Nadia began to teach from the family apartment at rue Ballu. In addition to the private lessons she held there, Boulanger started holding a Wednesday afternoon group class in analysis and sightsinging, she continued these to her death. This class was followed by her famous "at homes", salons at which students could mingle with professional musicians and Boulanger's other friends from the arts, such as Igor Stravinsky, Paul Valéry, Fauré, others.
After leaving the Conservatoire in 1904 and before her sister's death in 1918, Boulanger was a keen composer, encouraged
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia, was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the Czech Republic and Slovakia on 1 January 1993. From 1939 to 1945, following its forced division and partial incorporation into Nazi Germany, the state did not de facto exist but its government-in-exile continued to operate. From 1948 to 1990, Czechoslovakia was part of the Eastern Bloc with a command economy, its economic status was formalized in membership of Comecon from 1949 and its defense status in the Warsaw Pact of May 1955. A period of political liberalization in 1968, known as the Prague Spring, was forcibly ended when the Soviet Union, assisted by several other Warsaw Pact countries, invaded. In 1989, as Marxist–Leninist governments and communism were ending all over Europe, Czechoslovaks peacefully deposed their government in the Velvet Revolution. In 1993, Czechoslovakia split into the two sovereign states of Slovakia.
Form of state1918 – 1938: A democratic republic championed by Tomáš Masaryk. 1938 – 1939: After annexation of Sudetenland by Nazi Germany in 1938, the region turned into a state with loosened connections among the Czech and Ruthenian parts. A large strip of southern Slovakia and Carpatho-Ukraine was annexed by Hungary, the Zaolzie region was annexed by Poland. 1939 – 1945: The region was split into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and the Slovak Republic. A government-in-exile continued to exist in London, supported by the United Kingdom, United States and their Allies. Czechoslovakia adhered to the Declaration by United Nations and was a founding member of the United Nations. 1946 – 1948: The country was governed by a coalition government with communist ministers, including the prime minister and the minister of interior. Carpathian Ruthenia was ceded to the Soviet Union. 1948 – 1989: The country became a socialist state under Soviet domination with a centrally planned economy. In 1960, the country became a socialist republic, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic.
It was a satellite state of the Soviet Union. 1969 – 1990: The federal republic consisted of the Czech Socialist Republic and the Slovak Socialist Republic. 1990 – 1992: Following the Velvet Revolution, the state was renamed the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, consisting of the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic, reverted to a democratic republic. NeighboursAustria 1918 – 1938, 1945 – 1992 Germany Hungary Poland Romania 1918 – 1938 Soviet Union 1945 – 1991 Ukraine 1991 – 1992 TopographyThe country was of irregular terrain; the western area was part of the north-central European uplands. The eastern region was composed of the northern reaches of the Carpathian Mountains and lands of the Danube River basin. ClimateThe weather is mild summers. Influenced by the Atlantic Ocean from the west, Baltic Sea from the north, Mediterranean Sea from the south. There is no continental weather. 1918–1920: Republic of Czechoslovakia /Czecho-Slovak State, or Czecho-Slovakia/Czechoslovakia 1920–1938: Czechoslovak Republic, or Czechoslovakia 1938–1939: Czecho-Slovak Republic, or Czecho-Slovakia 1945–1960: Czechoslovak Republic, or Czechoslovakia 1960–1990: Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, or Czechoslovakia April 1990: Czechoslovak Federative Republic and Czecho-Slovak Federative Republic The country subsequently became the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic, or Československo and Česko-Slovensko.
The area was long a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the empire collapsed at the end of World War I. The new state was founded by Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, who served as its first president from 14 November 1918 to 14 December 1935, he was succeeded by his close ally, Edvard Beneš. The roots of Czech nationalism go back to the 19th century, when philologists and educators, influenced by Romanticism, promoted the Czech language and pride in the Czech people. Nationalism became a mass movement in the second half of the 19th century. Taking advantage of the limited opportunities for participation in political life under Austrian rule, Czech leaders such as historian František Palacký founded many patriotic, self-help organizations which provided a chance for many of their compatriots to participate in communal life prior to independence. Palacký supported Austro-Slavism and worked for a reorganized and federal Austrian Empire, which would protect the Slavic speaking peoples of Central Europe against Russian and German threats.
An advocate of democratic reform and Czech autonomy within Austria-Hungary, Masaryk was elected twice to the Reichsrat, first from 1891 to 1893 for the Young Czech Party, again from 1907 to 1914 for the Czech Realist Party, which he had founded in 1889 with Karel Kramář and Josef Kaizl. During World War I small numbers of Czechs, the Czechoslovak Legions, fought with the Allies in France and Italy, while large numbers deserted to Russia in exchange for its support for the independence of Czechoslovakia from the Austrian Empire. With the outbreak of World War I, Masaryk began working for Czech independence in a union with Slovakia. With Edvard Beneš and Milan Rastislav Štefánik, Masaryk visited several Western countries and won support from influential publicists. Bohemia and Moravi