Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos Sr. was a Filipino politician and kleptocrat, the tenth President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. A leading member of the far-right New Society Movement, he ruled as a dictator under martial law from 1972 until 1981, his regime was infamous for its corruption and brutality. Marcos claimed an active part in World War II, including fighting alongside the Americans in the Bataan Death March and being the "most decorated war hero in the Philippines". A number of his claims were found to be false and the United States Army documents described Marcos's wartime claims as "fraudulent" and "absurd". Marcos started as an attorney served in the Philippine House of Representatives from 1949 to 1959 and the Philippine Senate from 1959 to 1965, he was elected President in 1965, presided over a growing economy during the beginning and intermediate portion of his 20-year rule, but ended in loss of livelihood, extreme poverty, a crushing debt crisis. Marcos placed the Philippines under martial law on September 23, 1972, during which he revamped the constitution, silenced the media, used violence and oppression against the political opposition, communist rebels, ordinary citizens.
Martial law was ratified by 90.77% of the voters during the Philippine Martial Law referendum, 1973 though the referendum was marred with controversy. Public outrage led to the snap elections of 1986. Allegations of mass cheating, political turmoil, human rights abuses led to the People Power Revolution in February 1986, which removed him from power. To avoid what could have been a military confrontation in Manila between pro- and anti-Marcos troops, Marcos was advised by US President Ronald Reagan through Senator Paul Laxalt to "cut and cut cleanly", after which Marcos fled to Hawaii. Marcos was succeeded by Corazon "Cory" Aquino, widow of the assassinated opposition leader Senator Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino Jr. who had flown back to the Philippines to face Marcos. According to source documents provided by the Presidential Commission on Good Government, the Marcos family stole US$5–10 billion; the PCGG maintained that the Marcos family enjoyed a decadent lifestyle, taking away billions of dollars from the Philippines between 1965 and 1986.
His wife Imelda Marcos, whose excesses during the couple's conjugal dictatorship made her infamous in her own right, spawned the term "Imeldific". Two of their children, Imee Marcos and Ferdinand "Bongbong" Marcos Jr. are still active in Philippine politics. Ferdinand Edralin Marcos was born on September 11, 1917, in the town of Sarrat, Ilocos Norte, to Mariano Marcos and Josefa Edralin, he was baptized into the Philippine Independent Church, but was first baptized in the Roman Catholic Church at the age of three. Marcos studied law at the University of the Philippines, he excelled in both curricular and extra-curricular activities, becoming a valuable member of the university's swimming and wrestling teams. He was an accomplished and prolific orator and writer for the student newspaper. While attending the UP College of Law, he became a member of the Upsilon Sigma Phi, where he met his future colleagues in government and some of his staunchest critics; when he sat for the 1939 Bar Examinations, he received a near-perfect score of 98.8%, but allegations of cheating prompted the Philippine Supreme Court to re-calibrate his score to 92.35%.
He graduated cum laude. He was elected to the Pi Gamma Mu and the Phi Kappa Phi international honor societies, the latter giving him its Most Distinguished Member Award 37 years later. In Seagrave's book The Marcos Dynasty, he mentioned that Marcos possessed a phenomenal memory and exhibited this by memorizing complicated texts and reciting them forward and backward such as the 1935 Constitution of the Philippines. Senator Miriam Defensor-Santiago, in an interview with the Philippine Star on March 25, 2012, shared her experience as a speech writer to President Marcos: "One time, the Secretary of Justice forgot to tell me that the President had requested him to draft a speech that the President was going to deliver before graduates of the law school, and on the day the President was to deliver the speech, he remembered because Malacañang was asking for the speech, so he said,'This is an emergency. You just have to produce something.' And I just dictated the speech. He liked long speeches. I think, 20 or 25 pages.
And in the evening, I was there, of course. President Marcos recited the speech from memory." In December 1938, Ferdinand Marcos was prosecuted for the murder of Julio Nalundasan. He was not the only accused from the Marcos clan. Nalundasan, one of the elder Marcos's political rivals, had been shot and killed in his house in Batac on September 21, 1935 – the day after he had defeated Mariano Marcos a second time for a seat in the National Assembly. According to two witnesses, the four had conspired to assassinate Nalundasan, with Ferdinand Marcos pulling the trigger. In late January 1939, they were denied bail and in the year, they were convicted. Ferdinand and Lizardo received the death penalty for premeditated murder, while Mariano and Pio were found guilty of contempt of court; the Marcos family took their appeal to the Supreme Court of the Philippines, which overturned the lower court's decision on 22 October 1940, acquitting them of all charges except contempt. Marcos' military service during World War II has been the subject of debate and controversy, both in the Philippines and in international military circles.
Marcos, who had received ROTC training, was activate
University of Amsterdam
The University of Amsterdam is a public university located in Amsterdam, Netherlands. The UvA is one of two large, publicly funded research universities in the city, the other being the VU University Amsterdam. Established in 1632 by municipal authorities and renamed for the city of Amsterdam, the University of Amsterdam is the third-oldest university in the Netherlands, it is one of the largest research universities in Europe with 31,186 students, 4,794 staff, 1,340 PhD students and an annual budget of €600 million. It is the largest university in the Netherlands by enrollment; the main campus is located with a few faculties located in adjacent boroughs. The university is organised into seven faculties: Humanities and Behavioural Sciences and Business, Law and Dentistry; the University of Amsterdam has produced six Nobel Laureates and five prime ministers of the Netherlands. In 2014, it was ranked 50th in the world, 15th in Europe, 1st in the Netherlands by the QS World University Rankings; the university placed in the top 50 worldwide in seven fields in the 2011 QS World University Rankings in the fields of linguistics, philosophy, science and econometrics, accountancy and finance.
In 2018 and 2019 the two departments of Media and Communication were ranked 1st in the world by subject by QS Ranking. Close ties are harbored with other institutions internationally through its membership in the League of European Research Universities, the Institutional Network of the Universities from the Capitals of Europe, European University Association, the International Student Exchange Programs, Universitas 21. In January 1632, the Athenaeum Illustre of Amsterdam was founded by the municipal authorities in Amsterdam, it was devoted to medical teaching. The first two professors were Gerardus Vossius and Caspar Barlaeus; the Athenaeum Illustre provided education comparable to other higher education institutions, although it could not confer doctoral degrees. After training at the Athenaeum, students could complete their education at a university in another town. At the time, Amsterdam housed several other institutions of higher education, including the Collegium Chirugicum, which trained surgeons, other institutions that provided theological courses for the Remonstrant and the Mennonite communities.
Amsterdam's large degree of religious freedom allowed for the establishment of these institutions. Students of the Colegium Chirugicum and the theological institutions attended classes at the Athenaeum Illustre. In 1815 it was given the statutory obligation “to disseminate taste and learning" and “to replace, at least in part, the institutes of higher education and an academic education for those young men whose circumstances unable them to spend the time necessary for an academic career at an institute of higher education.” The Athenaeum began offering classes for students attending non-academic professional training in pharmacy and surgery in 1800. The Athenaeum Illustre worked together with Amsterdam's theological institutions such as the Evangelisch-Luthers Seminarium and the Klinische School, the successor to the Collegium Chirurgicum; the Athenaeum remained a small institution until the 19th century, with no more than 250 students and eight professors. Alumni of the Athenaeum include Cornelis Petrus Tiele.
In 1877, the Athenuem Illustre became the Municipal University of Amsterdam and received the right to confer doctoral degrees. This gave the university the same privileges as national universities while being funded by the city of Amsterdam; the professors and lecturers were appointed by the municipal council. This resulted in a staff, in many ways more colorful than the staffs of national universities. During its time as a municipal university, the university flourished, in particular in the science department, which counted many Nobel prize winners: Tobias Asser, Christiaan Eijkman, Jacobus Henricus van't Hoff, Johannes Diderik van der Waals, Pieter Zeeman, Frits Zernike; the University of Amsterdam's municipal status brought about the early addition of the faculties of Economics and Social Sciences. After the World War II the dramatic rise in the cost of university education put a constraint on the university's growth. In 1961, the national government made the university a national university, giving it its current name, the University of Amsterdam.
Funding was now given by the national government instead of the city and the appointment of professors was transferred to the board of governors. The city of Amsterdam retained a limited influence until 1971, when the appointment was handed over to the executive board. During May 1969, the university became the focus of nationwide news when UvA's administrative centre at the Maagdenhuis was occupied by hundreds of students who wanted more democratic influence in educational and administrative matters; the protest lasted for days and was broken up by the police. During the 1970s and 1980s, the university was the target of nationwide student actions; the university saw considerable expansion since becoming a national university, from 7,500 students in 1960 to over 32,000 in 2010. In 2007, UvA undertook the construction of the Science Park Amsterdam, a 70 hectare campus to house the Faculty of Science along with the new University Sports Center. Much of the park has now been completed; the University of Amsterdam began working in close collaboration with the Hogeschool van Amsterdam.
In 2008, the University of Amsterdam and VU University jointly founded the Amsterdam Univer
Student activism is work by students to cause political, economic, or social change. Although focused on schools and educational funding, student groups have influenced greater political events. Modern student activist movements vary in subject and success, with all kinds of students in all kinds of educational settings participating, including public and private school students; some student protests focus on the internal affairs of a specific institution. Some student protests focus on an institution's impact on the world, such as a disinvestment campaign, while others may focus on a regional or national policy's impact on the institution, such as a campaign against government education policy. Although student activism is associated with left-wing politics, right-wing student movements are not uncommon. Student activism at the university level is nearly as old as the university itself. Students in Paris and Bologna staged collective actions as early as the 13th century, chiefly over town and gown issues.
Student protests over broader political issues have a long pedigree. In Joseon Dynasty Korea, 150 Sungkyunkwan students staged an unprecedented remonstration against the king in 1519 over the Kimyo purge. In Argentina, as elsewhere in Latin America, the tradition of student activism dates back to at least the 19th century, but it was not until after 1900 that it became a major political force. In 1918 student activism triggered a general modernization of the universities tending towards democratization, called the University Revolution; the events were accompanied by similar uprisings across Latin America. Australian Students have a long history of being active in political debates; this is true in the newer universities that have been established in suburban areas. For much of the 20th century, the major campus organizing group across Australia was the Australian Union of Students, founded in 1937 as the Union of Australian University Students; the AUS folded in 1984. It was replaced by the National Union of Students in 1987.
Student politics of Bangladesh is reactive and violent. Student organizations act as the armament of the political parties they are part of. Over the years, political clashes and factional feuds in the educational institutes killed many hampering the academic atmosphere. To check those hitches, universities go to lengthy and unexpected closures. Therefore, classes are not completed on time and there are session jams; the student wings of ruling parties dominate the campuses and residential halls through crime and violence to enjoy various unauthorized facilities. They control the residential halls to manage seats in favor of loyal pupils, they buy for free from the restaurants and shops nearby. They grab tenders to earn illicit money, they take money from the freshmen candidates and put pressure on teachers to get an acceptance for them. They take money from the job seekers and put pressures on university administrations to appoint them. In Canada, New Left student organizations from the late 1950s and 1960s became two: SUPA and CYC.
SUPA grew out of the CUCND at a University of Saskatchewan conference. While CUCND had focused on protest marches, SUPA sought to change Canadian society as a whole; the scope expanded to grass-roots politics in disadvantaged communities and'consciousness raising' to radicalize and raise awareness of the'generation gap' experienced by Canadian youth. SUPA was a decentralized organization, rooted in local university campuses. SUPA however disintegrated in late 1967 over debates concerning the role of working class and'Old Left'. Members moved to the CYC or became active leaders in CUS, leading the CUS to assume the mantle of New Left student agitation. In 1968, SDU was formed at Simon Fraser Universities. SFU SDU former SUPA members and New Democratic Youth, absorbed members from the campus Liberal Club and Young Socialists. SDU was prominent in an Administration occupation in 1968, a student strike in 1969. After the failure of the student strike, SDU broke up; some members joined the Yippies. Other members helped form the Vancouver Liberation Front in 1970.
The FLQ was considered a terrorist organization, causing the use of the War Measures Act after 95 bombings in the October Crisis. This was the only peacetime use of the War Measures Act. Since the 1970s, PIRGs have been created as a result of Student Union referendums across Canada in individual provinces. Like their American counterparts, Canadian PIRGs are student directed and funded. Most operate on a consensus decision making model. Despite efforts at collaboration, Canadian PIRGs are independent of each other. Anti-Bullying Day was created by high school students David Shepherd, Travis Price of Berwick, Nova Scotia, is now celebrated annually across Canada. In 2012, the Quebec Student Movement arose due to an increase of tuition of 75%.
History of Japan
The first human habitation in the Japanese archipelago has been traced to prehistoric times. The Jōmon period, named after its "cord-marked" pottery, was followed by the Yayoi in the first millennium BC when new technologies were introduced from continental Asia. During this period, the first known written reference to Japan was recorded in the Chinese Book of Han in the first century AD. Between the fourth century and the ninth century, Japan's many kingdoms and tribes came to be unified under a centralized government, nominally controlled by the Emperor; this imperial dynasty continues to reign over Japan. In 794, a new imperial capital was established at Heian-kyō, marking the beginning of the Heian period, which lasted until 1185; the Heian period is considered a golden age of classical Japanese culture. Japanese religious life from this time and onwards was a mix of native Shinto practices and Buddhism. Over the following centuries, the power of the Emperor and the imperial court declined and passed to the military clans and their armies of samurai warriors.
The Minamoto clan under Minamoto no Yoritomo emerged victorious from the Genpei War of 1180–85. After seizing power, Yoritomo took the title of shōgun. In 1274 and 1281, the Kamakura shogunate withstood two Mongol invasions, but in 1333 it was toppled by a rival claimant to the shogunate, ushering in the Muromachi period. During the Muromachi period regional warlords called daimyōs grew in power at the expense of the shōgun. Japan descended into a period of civil war. Over the course of the late sixteenth century, Japan was reunified under the leadership of the daimyō Oda Nobunaga and his successor Toyotomi Hideyoshi. After Hideyoshi's death in 1598, Tokugawa Ieyasu came to power and was appointed shōgun by the Emperor; the Tokugawa shogunate, which governed from Edo, presided over a prosperous and peaceful era known as the Edo period. The Tokugawa shogunate imposed a strict class system on Japanese society and cut off all contact with the outside world. Portugal and Japan started their first affiliation in 1543, making the Portuguese the first Europeans to reach Japan by landing in the southern archipelago of Japan.
The Netherlands was the first to establish trade relations with Japan, Japan–Netherlands relations dating back to 1609. The American Perry Expedition in 1853–54 more ended Japan's seclusion; the new national leadership of the following Meiji period transformed the isolated feudal island country into an empire that followed Western models and became a great power. Although democracy developed and modern civilian culture prospered during the Taishō period, Japan's powerful military had great autonomy and overruled Japan's civilian leaders in the 1920s and 1930s; the military invaded Manchuria in 1931, from 1937 the conflict escalated into a prolonged war with China. Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941 led to war with its allies. Japan's forces soon became overextended, but the military held out in spite of Allied air attacks that inflicted severe damage on population centers. Emperor Hirohito announced Japan's unconditional surrender on 15 August 1945, following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Soviet invasion of Manchuria.
The Allies occupied Japan until 1952, during which a new constitution was enacted in 1947 that transformed Japan into a constitutional monarchy. After 1955, Japan enjoyed high economic growth, became a world economic powerhouse. Since the 1990s, economic stagnation has been a major issue. An earthquake, tsunami in 2011 caused massive economic dislocations and a serious nuclear power disaster; the mountainous Japanese archipelago stretches northeast to southwest 3,000 km off the east of the Asian continent at the convergence of four tectonic plates. The steep, craggy mountains that cover two-thirds of its surface are prone to quick erosion from fast-flowing rivers and to mudslides, they have hampered internal travel and communication and driven the population to rely on transportation along coastal waters. There is a great variety to its regions' geographical features and weather patterns, with a Wet season, in most parts in early summer. Volcanic soil that washes along the 13% of the area that makes up the coastal plains provides fertile land, the temperate climate allows long growing seasons, which with the diversity of flora and fauna provide rich resources able to support the density of the population.
A accepted periodization of Japanese history: Land bridges, during glacial periods when the world sea level is lower, have periodically linked the Japanese archipelago to the Asian continent via Sakhalin Island in the north and via the Ryukyu Islands and Taiwan in the south since the beginning of the current Quaternary glaciation 2.58 million years ago. There may have been a land bridge to Korea in the southwest, though not in the 125,000 years or so since the start of the last interglacial; the Korea Strait was, quite narrow at the Last Glacial Maximum from 25,000 to 20,000 years BP. The earliest firm evidence of human habitation is of early Upper Paleolithic hunter-gatherers from 40,000 years ago, when Japan was separated from the continent. Edge-ground axes dating to 32–38,000 years ago found in 224 sites in Honshu and Kyushu are unlike anything found in neighbouring areas of continental Asia, have been proposed as evidence for the first Homo sapiens in Japan. Radiocarbon dating has shown that the earliest fossils in
Giles Scott-Smith is Senior Researcher at the Roosevelt Study Center in Middelburg and Ernst van der Beugel Chair in the Diplomatic History of Atlantic Cooperation since World War II at the University of Leiden. Professor Scott-Smith holds both British passports. After pursuing higher education in Britain, he moved to the Netherlands where he resides since 1996. Giles Scott-Smith received his BA in European and Asian Studies from the University of Ulster in 1991, with a dissertation on the economic and political relations between the European Community and Japan, he received an MA in International Relations at Sussex University in 1993, with a dissertation on the concept of globalization in Sociology and International Relations, he moved to Lancaster University for a PhD in International Relations, where he wrote his dissertation "The Politics of Apolitical Culture: The United States, Western Europe, the Post-War'Culture of Hegemony', graduating in 1998. Since he has been researching and teaching International Relations and Cold War History.
After having received his PhD, Giles Scott-Smith was appointed as a lecturer at the International Relations Department of Webster University in Leiden, at the Amsterdam School for International Relations. He joined the Roosevelt Study Center in Middelburg in January 2002 as a Post-Doctoral Researcher, working on the topic of the US State Department's Foreign Leader Program in Western Europe between the 1950s and the 1970s. In 2005 he became Senior Researcher at the Roosevelt Study Center, in 2008 he joined the former Roosevelt Academy, a small, undergraduate liberal arts college in Middelburg, where he served as Associate Professor of International Relations up to 2012. In 2009 he was awarded the Ernst van der Beugel Chair in the History of Transatlantic Diplomatic Relations since World War II, at Leiden University. In the past few years he has been active both in collaborative research projects and in publishing serving as the convener of numerous conferences and seminars for PhD students.
Giles Scott Smith is the founder of the website "The Holland Bureau", established in December 2009 to provide commentary on the Dutch role in global affairs. He is a regular columnist at the website DutchNews.nl Giles Scott-Smith's research interests involve an exploration of the'Transnational Transatlantic' - tracking the governmental and non-governmental linkages that have bound North America and Europe since World War II. This has branched out in many directions over the years, including political communication and linkages between ideas and power, the'cultural Cold War' US foreign policy, the Atlantic Community, public diplomacy, the role of private individuals and institutions and their connections with the state in domestic and transatlantic foreign affairs. More Giles Scott-Smith's work has delved into: The political and cultural dimensions of transatlantic relations during and after the Cold War; the theory and practice of public diplomacy exchange programs. Western Anti-Communism and the Interdoc Network: Cold War Internationale, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012 Interdoc: Een Geheime Netwerk in de Koude Oorlog, Amsterdam: Boom, 2012 Networks of Empire: The US State Department' s Foreign Leader Program in the Netherlands and Britain 1950-70, Brussels: Peter Lang, 2008 The Politics of Apolitical Culture: The Congress for Cultural Freedom, the CIA and Post-War American Hegemony, London: Routledge, 2002 Obama, US Politics, Transatlantic Relations: Change or Continuity?
Giles Scott-Smith, Peter Lang, 2012 Divided Dreamworlds? The Cultural Cold War in East and West, Peter Romijn, Giles Scott- Smith, Joes Segal, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2012 Atlantic, Euratlantic, or Europe-America? The Atlantic Community and the European Idea from Kennedy to Nixon, Valerie Aubourg and Giles Scott-Smith, Paris: Soleb, 2011 Four Centuries of Dutch-American Relations, Hans Krabbendam, Kees van Minnen, Giles Scott-Smith, Amsterdam: Boom / New York: SUNY Press, 2009 European Community, Atlantic Community? The Atlantic Community and Europe, Valerie Aubourg, Gerard Bossuat, Giles Scott-Smith, Paris: Soleb, 2008 The Cultural Cold War in Western Europe 1945—1960, G. Scott-Smith & H. Krabbendam, London: Frank Cass, 2003.'"A Test of Sentiments"': Civil Aviation, Alliance Politics, the KLM Challenge in Dutch-American Relations,' Diplomatic History, 2014'Maintaining Transatlantic Community: US Public Diplomacy, the Ford Foundation, the Successor Generation Concept in US Foreign Affairs, 1960s-1980s,' Global Society, Vol. 28 No.
1, 2014 The Free Europe University in Strasbourg: US State-Private Networks and Academic'Rollback', Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol. 15 No. 4, 2013'Noblesse Oblige: The Transatlantic Security Dynamic and Dutch Involvement in the JSF,' International Journal Special Issue: The International Politics of the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter, Vol 68 No. 1, 2013.'Cultural Exchange and the Corporate Sector: Moving Beyond Statist Public Diplomacy?' Austrian Journal of Political Science, No. 3, 2011'Mutual Interests? US Public Diplomacy in the 1980s and Nicolas Sarkozy's First Trip to the United States,' Journal of Tr
The Philippines the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon and Mindanao; the capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east, Malaysia and Indonesia to the south; the Philippines' location on the Pacific Ring of Fire and close to the equator makes the Philippines prone to earthquakes and typhoons, but endows it with abundant natural resources and some of the world's greatest biodiversity. The Philippines has an area of 300,000 km2, according to the Philippines Statistical Authority and the WorldBank and, as of 2015, had a population of at least 100 million.
As of January 2018, it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, comprising one of the world's largest diasporas. Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, they were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Malay, Indian and Chinese nations occurred. Various competing maritime states were established under the rule of datus, rajahs and lakans; the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer leading a fleet for the Spanish, in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the first Hispanic settlement in the archipelago was established.
The Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Catholicism becoming the dominant religion. During this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons; as the 19th century gave way to the 20th, the Philippine Revolution followed, which spawned the short-lived First Philippine Republic, followed by the bloody Philippine–American War. The war, as well as the ensuing cholera epidemic, resulted in the deaths of thousands of combatants as well as tens of thousands of civilians. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, when the Philippines was recognized as an independent nation. Since the unitary sovereign state has had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution; the Philippines is a founding member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, the East Asia Summit.
It hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank. The Philippines is considered to be an emerging market and a newly industrialized country, which has an economy transitioning from being based on agriculture to one based more on services and manufacturing. Along with East Timor, the Philippines is one of Southeast Asia's predominantly Christian nations; the Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte and Samar Felipinas after the then-Prince of Asturias; the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other names such as Islas del Poniente and Magellan's name for the islands San Lázaro were used by the Spanish to refer to the islands; the official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history. During the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic.
From the period of the Spanish–American War and the Philippine–American War until the Commonwealth period, American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Philippine Islands, a translation of the Spanish name. Since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. Philippines has gained currency as the common name since being the name used in Article VI of the 1898 Treaty of Paris, with or without the definite article. Discovery in 2018 of stone tools and fossils of butchered animal remains in Rizal, Kalinga has pushed back evidence of early hominins in the archipelago to as early as 709,000 years. However, the metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago remains the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date; this distinction belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago. Negritos were among the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated.
There are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos. F. Landa Jocano theorizes. Wilhelm Solheim's Island Origin Theory postulates that the peopling of the archipelago transpired via trade networks originating in the Sundaland area around
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China and Japan, east of India, west of Papua New Guinea, north of Australia. Southeast Asia is bordered to the north by East Asia, to the west by South Asia and the Bay of Bengal, to the east by Oceania and the Pacific Ocean, to the south by Australia and the Indian Ocean; the region is the only part of Asia that lies within the Southern Hemisphere, although the majority of it is in the Northern Hemisphere. In contemporary definition, Southeast Asia consists of two geographic regions: Mainland Southeast Asia known as Indochina, comprising parts of Northeast India, Laos, Thailand and West Malaysia. Maritime Southeast Asia known as Nusantara, the East Indies and Malay Archipelago, comprises the Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India, East Malaysia, the Philippines, East Timor, Christmas Island, the Cocos Islands. Taiwan is included in this grouping by many anthropologists; the region lies near the intersection of geological plates, with both heavy seismic and volcanic activities.
The Sunda Plate is the main plate of the region, featuring all Southeast Asian countries except Myanmar, northern Thailand, northern Laos, northern Vietnam, northern Luzon of the Philippines. The mountain ranges in Myanmar and peninsular Malaysia are part of the Alpide belt, while the islands of the Philippines are part of the Pacific Ring of Fire. Both seismic belts meet in Indonesia, causing the region to have high occurrences of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Southeast Asia covers about 4.5 million km2, 10.5% of Asia or 3% of earth's total land area. Its total population is about 8.5 % of the world's population. It is the third most populous geographical region in the world after East Asia; the region is culturally and ethnically diverse, with hundreds of languages spoken by different ethnic groups. Ten countries in the region are members of ASEAN, a regional organization established for economic, military and cultural integration amongst its members; the region, together with part of South Asia, was well known by Europeans as the East Indies or the Indies until the 20th century.
Chinese sources referred the region as 南洋, which means the "Southern Ocean." The mainland section of Southeast Asia was referred to as Indochina by European geographers due to its location between China and the Indian subcontinent and its having cultural influences from both neighboring regions. In the 20th century, the term became more restricted to territories of the former French Indochina; the maritime section of Southeast Asia is known as the Malay Archipelago, a term derived from the European concept of a Malay race. Another term for Maritime Southeast Asia is Insulindia, used to describe the region between Indochina and Australasia; the term "Southeast Asia" was first used in 1839 by American pastor Howard Malcolm in his book Travels in South-Eastern Asia. Malcolm only included the Mainland section and excluded the Maritime section in his definition of Southeast Asia; the term was used in the midst of World War II by the Allies, through the formation of South East Asia Command in 1943.
SEAC popularised the use of the term "Southeast Asia," although what constituted Southeast Asia was not fixed. However, by the late 1970s, a standard usage of the term "Southeast Asia" and the territories it encompasses had emerged. Although from a cultural or linguistic perspective the definitions of "Southeast Asia" may vary, the most common definitions nowadays include the area represented by the countries listed below. Ten of the eleven states of Southeast Asia are members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, while East Timor is an observer state. Papua New Guinea has stated that it might join ASEAN, is an observer. Sovereignty issues exist over some territories in the South China Sea; some southern parts of Mainland China, as well as Hong Kong and Taiwan, are considered as part of Southeast Asia by some authors. * Administrative centre in Putrajaya. Southeast Asia is geographically divided into two subregions, namely Mainland Southeast Asia and Maritime Southeast Asia. Mainland Southeast Asia includes: Maritime Southeast Asia includes: The Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India are geographically considered part of Maritime Southeast Asia.
Eastern Bangladesh and Northeast India have strong cultural ties with Southeast Asia and sometimes considered both South Asian and Southeast Asian. Sri Lanka has on some occasions been considered a part of Southeast Asia because of its cultural ties to mainland Southeast Asia; the rest of the island of New Guinea, not part of Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, is sometimes included, so are Palau and the Northern Mariana Islands, which were all part of the Spanish East Indies with strong cultural and linguistic ties to the region the Philippines. The eastern half of Indonesia and East Timor are considered to be biogeographically part of Oceania due to its distinctive faunal features. New Guinea and its surrounding islands are geologically considered as a part of Australian continent, connected via the Sahul Shelf; the region