Ice skating is the self-propulsion of a person across a sheet of ice, using metal-bladed ice skates to glide on the ice surface. This activity can be carried out for various reasons, including recreation, sport and travel. Ice skating may be performed on specially prepared ice surfaces, both indoors and outdoors, as well as on occurring bodies of frozen water, such as ponds and rivers. Research suggests that the earliest ice skating happened in southern Finland more than 4,000 years ago; this was done to save energy during winter journeys. Skates were sharpened, flattened bone strapped to the bottom of the foot. Skaters did not skate on the ice, but rather glided on top of it. True skating emerged. Skates now cut into the ice instead of gliding on top of it. Adding edges to ice skates was invented by the Dutch in the 13th or 14th century; these ice skates were made with sharpened edges on the bottom to aid movement. The fundamental construction of modern ice skates has stayed the same since although differing in the details in the method of binding and the shape and construction of the steel blades.
In the Netherlands, ice skating was considered proper for all classes of people, as shown in many pictures by the Old Masters. Ice skating was practiced in China during the Song dynasty, became popular among the ruling family of the Qing dynasty. Ice skating was brought to Britain from the Netherlands, where James II was exiled in the 17th century; when he returned to England, this'new' sport was introduced to the British aristocracy, was soon enjoyed by people from all walks of life. The first organised skating club was the Edinburgh Skating Club, formed in the 1740s. An early contemporary reference to the club appeared in the second edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica: The metropolis of Scotland has produced more instances of elegant skaters than any country whatever: and the institution of a skating club about 40 years ago has contributed not a little to the improvement of this elegant amusement. From this description and others, it is apparent that the form of skating practiced by club members was indeed an early form of figure skating rather than speed skating.
For admission to the club, candidates had to pass a skating test where they performed a complete circle on either foot, jumped over first one hat two and three, placed over each other on the ice. On the Continent, participation in ice skating was limited to members of the upper classes. Emperor Rudolf II of the Holy Roman Empire enjoyed ice skating so much, he had a large ice carnival constructed in his court in order to popularise the sport. King Louis XVI of France brought ice skating to Paris during his reign. Madame de Pompadour, Napoleon I, Napoleon III and the House of Stuart were, among others and upper class fans of ice skating; the next skating club to be established was in London and was not founded until 1830. By the mid-19th century, ice skating was a popular pastime among the British upper and middle classes—Queen Victoria became acquainted with her future husband, Prince Albert, through a series of ice skating trips—and early attempts at the construction of artificial ice rinks were made during the "rink mania" of 1841–44.
As the technology for the maintenance of natural ice did not exist, these early rinks used a substitute consisting of a mixture of hog's lard and various salts. An item in the 8 May 1844 issue of Littell's'Living Age' headed the'Glaciarium' reported that "This establishment, removed to Grafton street East' Tottenham Court Road, was opened on Monday afternoon; the area of artificial ice is convenient for such as may be desirous of engaging in the graceful and manly pastime of skating". Skating became popular as a recreation, a means of transport and spectator sport in The Fens in England for people from all walks of life. Racing was the preserve of most of them agricultural labourers, it is not known when the first skating matches were held, but by the early nineteenth century racing was well established and the results of matches were reported in the press. Skating as a sport developed on the lakes of Scotland and the canals of the Netherlands. In the 13th and 14th centuries wood was substituted for bone in skate blades, in 1572 the first iron skates were manufactured.
When the waters froze, skating matches were held in villages all over the Fens. In these local matches men would compete for prizes of clothing or food; the winners of local matches were invited to take part in the grand or championship matches, in which skaters from across the Fens would compete for cash prizes in front of crowds of thousands. The championship matches; the competitors, 16 or sometimes 32, were paired off in heats and the winner of each heat went through to the next round. A course of 660 yards was measured out on the ice, a barrel with a flag on it placed at either end. For a one-and-a-half mile race the skaters completed two rounds of the course, with three barrel turns. In the Fens skates were called fen runners, or Whittlesey runners; the footstock was made of beechwood. A screw at the back was screwed into the heel of the boot, three small spikes at the front kept the skate steady. There were holes in the footstock for leather straps to fasten it to the foot; the metal blades were higher at the back than the front.
In the 1890s, fen skaters started to race in Norwegian style skates. On Saturday 1 February 1879, a number of professio
John Robert Cocker, known as Joe Cocker, was an English singer. He was known for his gritty voice, spasmodic body movement in performance, distinctive versions of popular songs of varying genres. Cocker's recording of the Beatles' "With a Little Help from My Friends" reached number one in the UK in 1968, he performed the song live at Woodstock in 1969 and performed the same year at the Isle of Wight Festival, at the Party at the Palace concert in 2002 for the Golden Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II. His version became the theme song for the TV series The Wonder Years, his 1974 cover of "You Are So Beautiful" reached number five in the US. Cocker was the recipient of several awards, including a 1983 Grammy Award for his US number one "Up Where We Belong", a duet with Jennifer Warnes. In 1993, Cocker was nominated for the Brit Award for Best British Male, in 2007 was awarded a bronze Sheffield Legends plaque in his hometown and in 2008 he received an OBE at Buckingham Palace for services to music.
Cocker was ranked number 97 on Rolling Stone's 100 greatest singers list. Cocker was born on 20 May 1944 at 38 Tasker Road, Sheffield, he was the youngest son of a civil servant, Harold Cocker, Madge Cocker, née Lee. According to differing family stories, Cocker received his nickname of Joe either from playing a childhood game called "Cowboy Joe", or from a local window cleaner named Joe. Cocker's main musical influences growing up were Lonnie Donegan. Cocker's first experience singing in public was at age 12 when his elder brother Victor invited him on stage to sing during a gig of his skiffle group. In 1960, along with three friends, Cocker formed the Cavaliers. For the group's first performance at a youth club, they were required to pay the price of admission before entering; the Cavaliers broke up after a year and Cocker left school to become an apprentice gasfitter working for the East Midlands Gas Board British Gas, while pursuing a career in music. Cocker was not related to fellow Sheffield-born musician Jarvis Cocker, despite a rumour to this effect.
In 1961, under the stage name Vance Arnold, Cocker continued his career with a new group, Vance Arnold and the Avengers. The name was a combination of Vince Everett, Elvis Presley's character in Jailhouse Rock, country singer Eddy Arnold; the group played in the pubs of Sheffield, performing covers of Chuck Berry and Ray Charles songs. Cocker developed an interest in blues music and sought out recordings by John Lee Hooker, Muddy Waters, Lightnin' Hopkins and Howlin' Wolf. In 1963, they booked their first significant gig when they supported the Rolling Stones at Sheffield City Hall. In 1964, Cocker signed a recording contract as a solo act with Decca and released his first single, a cover of the Beatles' "I'll Cry Instead". Despite extensive promotion from Decca lauding his youth and working-class roots, the record was a flop and his recording contract with Decca lapsed at the end of 1964. After Cocker recorded the single, he dropped his stage name and formed a new group, Joe Cocker's Blues Band.
There is only one known recording of Joe Cocker's Blues Band on an EP given out by The Sheffield College during Rag Week and called Rag Goes Mad at the Mojo. In 1966, after a year-long hiatus from music, Cocker teamed up with Chris Stainton, whom he had met several years before, to form the Grease Band; the Grease Band was named after Cocker read an interview with jazz keyboardist Jimmy Smith, where Smith positively described another musician as "having a lot of grease." Like the Avengers, Cocker's group played in pubs in and around Sheffield. The Grease Band came to the attention of Denny Cordell, the producer of Procol Harum, the Moody Blues and Georgie Fame. Cocker recorded the single "Marjorine" without the Grease Band for Cordell in a London studio, he moved to London with Chris Stainton, the Grease Band was dissolved. Cordell set Cocker up with a residency at the Marquee Club in London, a "new" Grease Band was formed with Stainton and keyboardist Tommy Eyre. After minor success in the United States with the single "Marjorine", Cocker found commercial success with a rearrangement of "With a Little Help from My Friends," another Beatles cover, many years was used as the opening theme for The Wonder Years.
The recording features lead guitar from Jimmy Page, drumming by B. J. Wilson, backing vocals from Sue and Sunny, Tommy Eyre on organ; the single made the Top Ten on the UK Singles Chart, remaining there for thirteen weeks and reaching number one, on 9 November 1968. It reached number 68 on the US charts. Upon hearing about Cocker's death in 2014, Paul McCartney said the following about Cocker's version of the Beatles 1967 song: He was a lovely northern lad who I loved a lot and, like many people, I loved his singing. I was pleased when he decided to cover "With a Little Help from My Friends" and I remember him and Denny Cordell coming round to the studio in Savile Row and playing me what they'd recorded and it was just mind-blowing turned the song into a soul anthem and I was forever grateful to him for doing that; the new touring line-up of Cocker's Grease Band featured Henry McCullough on lead guitar, who would go on to play with McCartney's Wings. After touring the UK with the Who in autumn 1968 and Gene Pitney and Marmalade in early winter 1969, the Grease Band embarked on their first tour of the United States in spring 1969.
Cocker's album With a Little Help from My Fri
The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta
Armenia the Republic of Armenia, is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located in Western Asia on the Armenian Highlands, it is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh and Azerbaijan to the east, Iran and Azerbaijan's exclave of Nakhchivan to the south. Armenia is a multi-party, democratic nation-state with an ancient cultural heritage. Urartu was established in 860 BC and by the 6th century BC it was replaced by the Satrapy of Armenia; the Kingdom of Armenia reached its height under Tigranes the Great in the 1st century BC and became the first state in the world to adopt Christianity as its official religion in the late 3rd or early 4th century AD. The official date of state adoption of Christianity is 301; the ancient Armenian kingdom was split between the Byzantine and Sasanian Empires around the early 5th century. Under the Bagratuni dynasty, the Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia was restored in the 9th century. Declining due to the wars against the Byzantines, the kingdom fell in 1045 and Armenia was soon after invaded by the Seljuk Turks.
An Armenian principality and a kingdom Cilician Armenia was located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea between the 11th and 14th centuries. Between the 16th and 19th centuries, the traditional Armenian homeland composed of Eastern Armenia and Western Armenia came under the rule of the Ottoman and Iranian empires ruled by either of the two over the centuries. By the 19th century, Eastern Armenia had been conquered by the Russian Empire, while most of the western parts of the traditional Armenian homeland remained under Ottoman rule. During World War I, Armenians living in their ancestral lands in the Ottoman Empire were systematically exterminated in the Armenian Genocide. In 1918, following the Russian Revolution, all non-Russian countries declared their independence after the Russian Empire ceased to exist, leading to the establishment of the First Republic of Armenia. By 1920, the state was incorporated into the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, in 1922 became a founding member of the Soviet Union.
In 1936, the Transcaucasian state was dissolved, transforming its constituent states, including the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, into full Union republics. The modern Republic of Armenia became independent in 1991 during the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Armenia recognises the Armenian Apostolic Church, the world's oldest national church, as the country's primary religious establishment; the unique Armenian alphabet was invented by Mesrop Mashtots in 405 AD. Armenia is a member of the Eurasian Economic Union, the Council of Europe and the Collective Security Treaty Organization. Armenia supports the de facto independent Artsakh, proclaimed in 1991; the original native Armenian name for the country was Հայք, however it is rarely used. The contemporary name Հայաստան became popular in the Middle Ages by addition of the Persian suffix -stan.. However the origins of the name Hayastan trace back to much earlier dates and were first attested in circa 5th century in the works of Agathangelos, Faustus of Byzantium, Ghazar Parpetsi and Sebeos.
The name has traditionally been derived from Hayk, the legendary patriarch of the Armenians and a great-great-grandson of Noah, according to the 5th-century AD author Moses of Chorene, defeated the Babylonian king Bel in 2492 BC and established his nation in the Ararat region. The further origin of the name is uncertain, it is further postulated that the name Hay comes from one of the two confederated, Hittite vassal states—the Ḫayaša-Azzi. The exonym Armenia is attested in the Old Persian Behistun Inscription as Armina; the Ancient Greek terms Ἀρμενία and Ἀρμένιοι are first mentioned by Hecataeus of Miletus. Xenophon, a Greek general serving in some of the Persian expeditions, describes many aspects of Armenian village life and hospitality in around 401 BC, he relates that the people spoke a language that to his ear sounded like the language of the Persians. According to the histories of both Moses of Chorene and Michael Chamchian, Armenia derives from the name of Aram, a lineal descendant of Hayk.
The Table of Nations lists Aram as the son of Shem, to whom the Book of Jubilees attests, "And for Aram there came forth the fourth portion, all the land of Mesopotamia between the Tigris and the Euphrates to the north of the Chaldees to the border of the mountains of Asshur and the land of'Arara." Jubilees 8:21 apportions the Mountains of Ararat to Shem, which Jubilees 9:5 expounds to be apportioned to Aram. The historian Flavius Josephus states in his Antiquities of the Jews, "Aram had the Aramites, which the Greeks called Syrians. Of the four sons of Aram, Uz founded Trachonitis and Damascus: this country lies between Palestine and Celesyria. Ul founded Armenia. Armenia lies in the highlands surrounding the mountains of Ararat. There is evidence of an early civilisation in Armenia in the Bronze Age and earlier, dating to about 4000 BC. Archaeological surveys in 2010 and 2011 at the Areni-1 cave complex have resulted in the discovery of the world's earliest known leather shoe and wine-producing facility.
According to the story of Hayk, the legendary founder of Armenia, around 2107 BC Hayk fought against Belus, the Babylonian God of War, at Çavuştepe along the Engil river to establish the first Armenian state. This event coinc
32nd Chess Olympiad
The 32nd Chess Olympiad, organized by FIDE and comprising an open and a women's tournament, took place between September 15 and October 2, 1996, in Yerevan, Armenia. Both tournament sections were officiated by international arbiter Alesha Khachatrian of Armenia; the Russian team won their third consecutive title, captained by PCA world champion Kasparov. Once again, due to a dispute with the national federation, FIDE champion Anatoly Karpov was not present. Ukraine, led by Ivanchuk, took the silver, the United States returned to the medal ranks for the first time since the fall of the Iron Curtain, beating England by half a point on tie break—somewhat half of the US team were born in Eastern Europe. In addition to the overall medal winners, the teams were divided into seeding groups, with the top finishers in each group receiving special prizes; the open division was contested by 114 teams representing 111 nations plus Armenia "B" and "C" as well as the International Braille Chess Association.
Mali didn't show up and were disqualified. Due to an odd number of participants, the hosts were allowed to field an additional third squad, but when team Yemen arrived after the second round, the number became odd again. However, Afghanistan set a new Olympic record by not showing up until round 8 and once again brought the total number of teams an one; the time control for each game permitted each player 2 hours to make the first 40 of his or her moves an additional 1-hour to make the next 20 moves. In the event of a draw, the tie-break was decided by 1; the Buchholz system. Match points. Performance rating: Garry Kasparov 2873 Board 1: Mohamad Al-Modiahki 8 / 10 = 80.0% Board 2: Richard Robinson 8 / 10 = 80.0% Board 3: Saidali Iuldachev 11 / 14 = 78.6% Board 4: Matthew Sadler 10½ / 13 = 80.8% 1st reserve: Karen Asrian 10 / 12 = 83.3% 2nd reserve: Geoffrey Makumbi 7½ / 8 = 93.8% The'Best game' prize went to Zurab Sturua - Rolando Kutirov from round 3. The women's division was contested by 74 teams representing 72 nations plus Armenia "B" and the International Braille Chess Association.
The time control for each game permitted each player 2 hours to make the first 40 of her moves an additional 1-hour to make the next 20 moves. In the event of a draw, the tie-break was decided by 1; the Buchholz system. Match points; the Georgian team, led by one former world champion, won their third consecutive title. China, led by another former world champion, took the silver, Russia the bronze. Newly crowned champion Susan Polgar did not take part in the event for her new country, so a second-rate US team finished as low as 35th. Performance rating: Zhu Chen 2561 Board 1: Mekhri Ovezova 10½ / 14 = 75.0% Board 2: Zhu Chen 10 / 13 = 76.9% Board 3: Ketevan Arakhamia-Grant 8 / 10 = 80.0% Reserve: Marta Zielińska 6 / 7 = 85.7% Chess in Armenia 32nd Chess Olympiad: Yerevan 1996 OlimpBase
Deep Purple are an English rock band formed in Hertford in 1968. The band is considered to be among the pioneers of heavy metal and modern hard rock, although their musical approach changed over the years. Formed as a progressive rock band, the band shifted to a heavier sound in 1970. Deep Purple, together with Led Zeppelin and Black Sabbath, have been referred to as the "unholy trinity of British hard rock and heavy metal in the early to mid-seventies", they were listed in the 1975 Guinness Book of World Records as "the globe's loudest band" for a 1972 concert at London's Rainbow Theatre, have sold over 100 million copies of their albums worldwide. Deep Purple have had an eight-year hiatus; the 1968–1976 line-ups are labelled Mark I, II, III and IV. Their second and most commercially successful line-up consisted of Ian Gillan, Jon Lord, Roger Glover, Ian Paice, Ritchie Blackmore; this line-up was active from 1969 to 1973, was revived from 1984 to 1989, again from 1992 to 1993. The band achieved more modest success in the intervening periods between 1968 and 1969 with the line-up including Rod Evans and Nick Simper, between 1974 and 1976 with the line-up including David Coverdale and Glenn Hughes, between 1989 and 1992 with the line-up including Joe Lynn Turner.
The band's line-up has been much more stable in recent years, although keyboardist Jon Lord's retirement from the band in 2002 left Ian Paice as the only original Deep Purple member still in the band. Deep Purple were ranked number 22 on VH1's Greatest Artists of Hard Rock programme and a poll on British radio station Planet Rock ranked them 5th among the "most influential bands ever"; the band received the Legend Award at the 2008 World Music Awards. Deep Purple were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2016. In 1967, former Searchers drummer Chris Curtis contacted London businessman Tony Edwards, in the hope that he would manage a new group he was putting together, to be called Roundabout. Curtis' vision was a "supergroup" where the band members would get on and off, like a musical roundabout. Impressed with the plan, Edwards agreed to finance the venture with his two business partners John Coletta and Ron Hire, who comprised Hire-Edwards-Coletta Enterprises; the first recruit to the band was the classically trained Hammond organ player Jon Lord, Curtis' flatmate who had most notably played with the Artwoods.
Lord was performing in a backing band for the vocal group The Flower Pot Men, along with bassist Nick Simper and drummer Carlo Little. Simper had been in Johnny Kidd and the Pirates and survived the 1966 car crash that killed Kidd. Lord put the two on alert that he'd been recruited for the Roundabout project, after which Simper and Little suggested guitarist Ritchie Blackmore, whom Lord had never met. Simper had known Blackmore since the early 1960s when his first band, the Renegades, debuted around the same time as one of Blackmore's early bands, the Dominators. HEC persuaded Blackmore to return from Hamburg to audition for the new group. Blackmore was making a name for himself as a studio session guitarist, had been a member of the Outlaws, Screaming Lord Sutch, Neil Christian. Curtis' erratic behaviour and lifestyle, fuelled by LSD use, caused a sudden disinterest in the project he had started, forcing HEC to dismiss him from Roundabout, but HEC was now intrigued with the possibilities Lord and Blackmore brought, while Lord and Blackmore were keen to continue.
The two carried on, keeping Tony Edwards as their manager. Lord convinced Simper to join for good, but left Carlo Little behind in favour of drummer Bobby Woodman. Bobby Woodman was the former drummer for Vince Taylor's Play-Boys. In March 1968, Blackmore and Woodman moved into Deeves Hall, a country house in South Mimms, Hertfordshire; the band would live and rehearse at Deeves Hall, kitted out with the latest Marshall amplification and, at Lord's request, a Hammond C3 organ. According to Simper, "dozens" of singers were auditioned until the group heard Rod Evans of the club band The Maze, thought his voice fit their style well. Tagging along with Evans was his band's drummer, Ian Paice. Blackmore had seen an 18-year-old Paice on tour with The Maze in Germany in 1966, had been impressed by his drumming; the band hastily arranged an audition for Paice, given that Woodman was vocally unhappy with the direction of the band's music. Both Paice and Evans won their respective jobs, the line-up was complete.
During a brief tour of Denmark and Sweden in April, in which they were still billed as Roundabout, Blackmore suggested a new name: "Deep Purple", named after his grandmother's favourite song. The group had resolved to choose a name. Second to Deep Purple was "Concrete God", which the band thought was too harsh to take on. In May 1968, the band moved into Pye Studios in London's Marble Arch to record their debut album, Shades of Deep Purple, released in July by American label Tetragammaton, in September by UK label EMI; the group had success in North America with a cover of Joe South's "Hush", by September 1968, the so
George Benson is an American guitarist and songwriter. He began his professional career at the age of 21 as a jazz guitarist. Benson uses a rest-stroke picking technique similar to that of gypsy jazz players such as Django Reinhardt. A former child prodigy, Benson first came to prominence in the 1960s, playing soul jazz with Jack McDuff and others, he launched a successful solo career, alternating between jazz, pop, R&B singing, scat singing. His album Breezin' was certified triple-platinum, hitting no. 1 on the Billboard album chart in 1976. His concerts were well attended through the 1980s, he still has a large following. Benson has been honored with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. Benson was raised in the Hill District in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. At the age of seven, he first played the ukulele in a corner drug store, for which he was paid a few dollars. At the age of eight, he played guitar in an unlicensed nightclub on Friday and Saturday nights, but the police soon closed the club down.
At the age of 9, he started to record. Out of the four sides he cut, two were released: "She Makes Me Mad" backed with "It Should Have Been Me", with RCA-Victor in New York; the single was produced by Leroy Kirkland for Groove Records. As he has stated in an interview, Benson's introduction to showbusiness had an effect on his schooling; when this was discovered his guitar was impounded. Luckily, after he spent time in a juvenile detention centre his stepfather made him a new guitar.* Benson attended and graduated from Schenley High School. As a youth he learned how to play straight-ahead instrumental jazz during a relationship performing for several years with organist Jack McDuff. One of his many early guitar heroes was country-jazz guitarist Hank Garland. At the age of 21, he recorded his first album as The New Boss Guitar, featuring McDuff. Benson's next recording was It's Uptown with the George Benson Quartet, including Lonnie Smith on organ and Ronnie Cuber on baritone saxophone. Benson followed it up with The George Benson Cookbook with Lonnie Smith and Ronnie Cuber on baritone and drummer Marion Booker.
Miles Davis employed Benson in the mid-1960s, featuring his guitar on "Paraphernalia" on his 1968 Columbia release, Miles in the Sky before going to Verve Records. Benson signed with Creed Taylor's jazz label CTI Records, where he recorded several albums, with jazz heavyweights guesting, to some success in the jazz field, his 1974 release, Bad Benson, climbed to the top spot in the Billboard jazz chart, while the follow-ups, Good King Bad and Benson and Farrell, both reached the jazz top-three sellers. Benson did a version of The Beatles's 1969 album Abbey Road called The Other Side of Abbey Road released in 1969, a version of "White Rabbit" written and recorded by San Francisco rock group Great Society, made famous by Jefferson Airplane. Benson played on numerous sessions for other CTI artists during this time, including Freddie Hubbard and Stanley Turrentine, notably on the latter's acclaimed album Sugar. By the mid-to-late 1970s, as he recorded for Warner Bros. Records, a whole new audience began to discover Benson.
With the 1976 release Breezin', Benson sang a lead vocal on the track "This Masquerade", which became a huge pop hit and won a Grammy Award for Record of the Year. The rest of the album is instrumental, including his rendition of the 1975 Jose Feliciano composition "Affirmation". In 1976, Benson toured with soul singer Minnie Riperton, diagnosed with terminal breast cancer earlier that year and, in addition, appeared as a guitarist and backup vocalist on Stevie Wonder's song "Another Star" from Wonder's album Songs in the Key of Life. During the same year, 1976, the top selling album'Breezin' was released on the Warner Brothers label featuring the Bobby Womack penned title track and the Leon Russell penned This Masquerade, now a jazz standard. Both tracks won Grammy awards that year and the LP put Benson into the musical limelight both in the USA and in Europe. Benson had been discouraged up until this time, from using his singing skills as the company decision makers felt he wasn't competent enough vocally, he should stick to playing the guitar.
It was here that he proved them wrong. He recorded the original version of "The Greatest Love of All" for the 1977 Muhammad Ali bio-pic, The Greatest, covered by Whitney Houston as "Greatest Love of All". During this time Benson recorded with the German conductor Claus Ogerman; the live take of "On Broadway", recorded a few months from the 1978 release Weekend in L. A. won a Grammy. He has worked with Freddie Hubbard on a number of his albums throughout the 1970s and 1980s; the Qwest record label released Benson's breakthrough pop album Give Me The Night, produced by Jones. Benson made it into the pop and R&B top ten with the song "Give Me the Night", he had many hit singles such as "Love All the Hurt Away", "Turn Your Love Around", "Inside Love", "Lady Love Me", "20/20", "Shiver", "Kisses in the Moonlight". More Quincy Jones encouraged Benson to search his roots for further vocal inspiration, he rediscovered his love for Nat Cole, Ray Ch