Blaine is a city in Whatcom County, United States. The city's northern boundary is the Canada–US border; the Peace Arch international monument lies in Blaine and in Canada. The population was 4,684 at the 2010 census. Since Blaine is located right on the border with Canada, it is the northernmost city on Interstate 5, while the southernmost city is San Ysidro, California; the area was first settled in the mid-19th century by pioneers who established the town as a seaport for the west coast logging and fishing industries, as a jumping off point for prospectors heading to British Columbia's gold fields. Blaine was incorporated on May 20, 1890, was named after James G. Blaine, a U. S. senator from the state of Maine, Secretary of State, and, in 1884, the unsuccessful Republican presidential candidate. The city has a "turn-of-the-century" theme, marked by remodeled buildings and signs resembling designs that existed during the late 19th century and early 20th century; the world's largest salmon cannery was operated by the Alaska Packers' Association for decades in Blaine.
Several saw mills once operated on Blaine's waterfront, much of the lumber was transported from its wharves and docks to help rebuild San Francisco following the 1906 fire there. The forests were soon logged, but Blaine's fishing industry remained strong and robust into the second half of the 20th century. Into the 1970s Blaine was home to hundreds of commercial purse seiners and gillnetters plying the waters offshore of British Columbia, between Washington State and southeast Alaska. Blaine's two large marinas are still home to hundreds of recreational sailboats and yachts, a small fleet of determined local fishers provide visitors with dockside sale of fresh salmon and oysters. Nature lovers have always appreciated Blaine's coastal location, its accessible bike and walking trails, view of mountains and water. Birdwatchers across the continent have discovered the area's high content of migratory birds and waterfowl: Blaine's Drayton Harbor, Semiahmoo Spit and Boundary Bay are ranked as Important Birding Areas by the Audubon Society.
The Cains are the most notable family in Blaine's short history, credited with its founding and achievements. At one time owning most of present-day Blaine, the Cain brothers erected the biggest store north of Seattle, a lumber and shingle mill, a hotel, the first public wharf, donated large public tracts of land. Nathan Cornish and family moved to Blaine in 1889, he became mayor in 1901. His daughter, Nellie Cornish, having failed to open a successful piano teaching business in Blaine, moved to Seattle, where she founded the Cornish College of the Arts in 1914, which still exists today. During the formative years of her career in the 1950s, country singer Loretta Lynn was a featured star at Bill's Tavern on Peace Portal Drive in Blaine. William Hafstrom owned the tavern. Lynn was living on Loomis Trail Road near Custer, Washington. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.43 square miles, of which, 5.63 square miles is land and 2.80 square miles is water. Blaine's motto is "Where America Begins": the community is known as "The Gateway to the Pacific Northwest", the "Peace Arch City".
All these phrases are commentaries on Blaine's unique locale. It lies at the northernmost point of the north-south U. S. Interstate 5 and next to Drayton Harbor and Boundary Bay. Blaine had a small airport, popular with light aircraft owners for its low fuel prices and because it had less fog than other nearby airports; the runway measured 2539 × 40 feet. The Blaine city government operated automated fuel pumps. In the spring of 2006 the city government removed several tall trees south of the runway as a safety precaution. In 2007, the City Council voted to close the airport before the end of 2008; the airport was closed on December 31, 2008. The land upon which the airport rests is adjacent to light industrial park; the area is now zoned for mixed use development, including light industrial manufacturing and commercial. Blaine lies between the mountains east of Vancouver, the flatlands of Skagit County, the North Cascades, the south end of Vancouver Island; the coastal climate of the area provides mild weather from the rest of the Pacific Northwest.
With annual precipitation of about 1000 mm and its milder location, Blaine enjoys more sunny days and a milder climate than neighboring communities. Blaine is home to two main West Coast ports of entry between the United States and Canada; the Peace Arch Border Crossing, the northern terminus of I-5 and southern terminus of B. C. provincial Highway 99, serves as the primary passenger vehicle port of entry. The Pacific Highway Border Crossing one mile to the east, serves as the primary point of entry for heavy truck traffic, thus is known as the Truck Crossing; the latter is reached via Washington State Route 543 which departs I-5 on the south side of Blaine and connects at the border to B. C.'s Highway 15 and to the Trans-Canada Highway. Construction of a new Land Port of Entry was completed by the U. S. General Services Administration in 2011. A large public art installation entitled "Non-Sign II" was erected near the crossing booths; the art piece is a "blank space" in the shape of a billboard sign, surr
Curry is a variety of dishes originating in the Indian subcontinent that use a complex combination of spices or herbs including ground turmeric, coriander and fresh or dried chilies. Curry is prepared in a sauce. Curry dishes prepared in the southern states of India, where the word originated, may be spiced with leaves from the curry tree. There are many varieties of dishes called'curries'. For example, in original traditional cuisines, the precise selection of spices for each dish is a matter of national or regional cultural tradition, religious practice, and, to some extent, family preference; such dishes are called by specific names that refer to their ingredients and cooking methods. Spices are used both whole and ground, cooked or raw, they may be added at different times during the cooking process to produce different results; the main spices found in most curry powders of the Indian subcontinent are coriander and turmeric. A wide range of additional spices may be included depending on the geographic region and the foods being included.
Curry powder, a commercially prepared mixture of spices, is a Western creation, dating to the 18th century. Such mixtures are thought to have first been prepared by Indian merchants for sale to members of the British Colonial government and army returning to Britain. Dishes called'curry' may contain fish, poultry, or shellfish, either alone or in combination with vegetables. Additionally, many instead are vegetarian, eaten among those who hold ethical or religious proscriptions against eating meat or seafood. Curries may be either'dry' or'wet'. Dry curries are cooked with little liquid, allowed to evaporate, leaving the other ingredients coated with the spice mixture. Wet curries contain significant amounts of sauce or gravy based on broth, coconut cream, coconut milk, dairy cream, legume purée, sautéed crushed onion, tomato purée or yogurt. Curry was adopted and anglicized from the Tamil word kaṟi meaning'sauce' or'relish for rice', it is understood to mean vegetables or meat cooked with spices with or without a gravy, used first in English in 1747 when a curry recipe was published by Hannah Glasse.
Cury appeared in the 1390s in an English cookbook, The Forme of Cury, kari was first described in a mid-17th century Portuguese cookbook by members of the British East India Company trading with Tamil merchants along the Coromandel Coast of southeast India, becoming known as a "spice blend used for making kari dishes... called kari podi or curry powder". Archaeological evidence dating to 2600 BCE from Mohenjo-daro suggests the use of mortar and pestle to pound spices including mustard, fennel and tamarind pods with which they flavoured food. Black pepper is native to the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia and has been known to Indian cooking since at least 2000 BCE; the oldest surviving Roman cookbook, details numerous recipes that require meats to be seasoned with vinegar and ground herbs and spices including pepper, lovage, mint and coriander. The establishment of the Mughal Empire, in the early 15th century, influenced some curries in the north. Another influence was the establishment of the Portuguese trading centre in Goa in 1510, resulting in the introduction of chili pepper to India from the Americas, as a byproduct of the Columbian Exchange.
Curry was introduced to English cuisine starting with Anglo-Indian cooking in the 17th century as spicy sauces were added to plain boiled and cooked meats. The 1758 edition of Hannah Glasse's The Art of Cookery contains a recipe "To make a curry the Indian way". Curry was first served in coffee houses in Britain from 1809, has been popular in Great Britain, with major jumps in the 1940s and the 1970s. During the 19th century, curry was carried to the Caribbean by Indian indentured workers in the British sugar industry. Since the mid-20th century, curries of many national styles have become popular far from their origins, become part of international fusion cuisine. From the culinary point of view, it is useful to consider the Indian subcontinent to be the entire historical region encompassed prior to independence since August 1947, it is usual to distinguish broadly between northern and southern styles of Indian cuisine, recognising that within those categories are innumerable sub-styles and variations.
The distinction is made with reference to the staple starch: wheat in the form of unleavened breads in the north. Bengali cuisine, which refers to the cuisine of Bangladesh and the West Bengal state of India, includes curries, including seafood and fresh fish. Mustard seeds and mustard oil are added to many recipes. Emigrants from the Sylhet district of Bangladesh founded the curry house industry in Britain and in Sylhet some restaurants run by expatriates specialise in British-style Indian food. Curries are the most well-known part of Indian cuisine. Most Indian dishes are curry based, prepared by adding different types of vegetables, lentils or meats in the curry; the content of the curry and style of preparation varies per the region. Most curries are water based, with occasional use of coconut milk. Curry dishes are thick and spicy and are eaten along with steamed rice and variety of Indian breads. Although wet curries play a smaller role in Gujarat than elsewhere, there are a number of vegetarian examples with gravies based on buttermilk or coconut milk.
Agriculture in Kenya
Agriculture in Kenya dominates Kenya's economy. 15–17 percent of Kenya's total land area has sufficient fertility and rainfall to be farmed, 7–8 percent can be classified as first-class land. In 2006 75 percent of working Kenyans made their living by farming, compared with 80 percent in 1980. About one-half of Kenya's total agricultural output is non-marketed subsistence production. Agriculture is the largest contributor to Kenya’s gross domestic product. In 2005, including forestry and fishing, accounted for about 24 percent of the GDP, as well as 18 percent of wage employment and 50 percent of revenue from exports. Farming is the most important economic sector in Kenya, although less than 8 percent of the land is used for crop and feed production, less than 20 percent is suitable for cultivation. Kenya is a leading producer of tea and coffee, as well as the third-leading exporter of fresh produce, such as cabbages and mangoes. Small farms grow most of the corn and produce potatoes, bananas and peas.
The most common varieties that Kenyan sweet potato farmers grow are white and purple. The yellow-fleshed sweet potato's popularity has increased, due to nutritionists promoting it as a source of vitamin A, lacking in the Kenyan diet; the vitamin A deficiency is not fatal, but it leaves the immune system depleted and susceptible to measles and diarrhoea. The deficiency may cause blindness. Despite efforts to develop resistant plants, little has been achieved so far. Therefore, attention is turning to pseudo-resistance, which includes mitigating weevil damage through deeper storage roots formation and short-season varieties, which are exposed to weevil infestation for less time. Where farmers piecemeal their sweet potato harvest, there can be up to a 10 percent crop loss due to disease and weevils. Beetle pests can destroy sweet potato plantations. Kenya is the world's 3rd largest exporter of cut flowers. Half of Kenya's 127 flower farms are concentrated around Lake Naivasha, 90 kilometers northwest of Nairobi.
To speed their export, Nairobi airport has a terminal dedicated to the transport of flowers and vegetables. The Kenya Flower Council says that the flower industry directly employs 90,000 and a further 500,000 indirectly in auxiliary services. Kenyan flowers make up 30 to 35% of flowers auctioned in Europe. Kenya's roses and summer flowers are popular in Russia and the U. S; because of pests and decreased soil nutrients, farmers are rotating their sweet potato plants as much as possible, which means using a field for sweet potato plants only once every 5 years, not having the crop in the same field for two consecutive years. "Planting rice between two sweet potato crops have long been suggested." When sweet potatoes and rice crops were planted in fields adjacent to each other, the sweet potato weevil infestation level dropped. "Reduced weevil damage was observed when sweet potato was intercropped with proso millet and sesame, but sweet potato yield was considerably reduced. The sweet potato has been found to inhibit germination of proso millet."
This crop rotation and growing pattern is common in Africa. Weed control requires many hours of manual labour. Uncontrolled weed growth reduces crop yield by as much as 60 percent. "Some farmers solve this problem by cultivating a smaller area, but this reduces total yields. Herbicides are too expensive for most smallholders." When the sweet potato plant is propagated a number of consecutive times, the yield decreases and virus build-up increases. "Viruses can be removed by heat treatment. Kenya’s irrigation sector is categorized into three organizational types: smallholder schemes, centrally-managed public schemes and private/commercial irrigation schemes; the smallholder schemes are owned and managed by individuals or groups of farmers operating as water users or self-help groups. Irrigation is carried out on group farms averaging 0.1-0.4 ha. There are about 3,000 smallholder irrigation schemes covering a total area of 47,000 ha, equivalent to 42% of the total area under irrigation, they produce the bulk of horticultural produce consumed in urban centres in Kenya.
The country has seven large, centrally managed irrigation schemes, namely Mwea, Hola, West Kano and Ahero covering a total commanded area of 18,200 ha and averaging 2,600 ha per scheme. These schemes are managed by the National Irrigation Board and account for 18% of irrigated land area in Kenya; the government developed and managed national schemes with farmers participating as tenants. However, with effect from 2003, NIB handed over to stakeholders responsibility for most services, except for the development, O & M and rehabilitation of the major irrigation facilities. Large-scale private commercial farms cover 45,000 hectares accounting for 40% of irrigated land, they utilize high technology and produce high-value crops for the export market flowers and vegetables. The farms employ a workforce of about 70,000 persons, 41% of the population directly active in irrigated agriculture. An 8-year comparative study, the Sustainable Agriculture Farming Systems project, compared conventional farming systems with differing practices of crop rotation and soil substance.
The results showed that organic methods had yields in the same range as conventional systems for all crops that were studied, for some crop studies, the yield level was higher for organics than conventional systems. The organic systems were noted for "increases in the organic carbon content of the soil and larger pools of stored nutrients, each of, critical for long-term fertility maintenance."Sweet potato is grown organically in Africa. To decrease
Kari Yrjänä Suomalainen was Finland's most famous political cartoonist, known as Kari. His cartoons appeared daily in Helsingin Sanomat from 1951 to 1991 and they became popular throughout the nation. While most of them comment on current politics, some are based on everyday life. Suomalainen received many awards for his work, including the National Cartoonist Society award in 1959, Puupäähattu in 1984 and Pro Finlandia in 1989, he was appointed honorary professor in 1977. Kari’s maternal grandfather was Finnish sculptor Emil Wikström. Before Helsingin Sanomat, Suomalainen drew illustrations for multiple magazines for Lukemista kaikille. During World War II, Suomalainen tried various tasks but became an official war artist in a TK-company, was promoted to rank of sergeant. After the war, he worked for Seura magazine. In 1950, he gave a proposal to the chief editor of Helsingin Sanomat that he would start drawing daily political cartoons, according to the example of foreign newspapers. Suomalainen's first cartoon appeared in the start of the year 1950, showing an infant boy contemplating two toys: a tank and a dove carrying an olive branch.
The boy is saying: "Tank... or dove? I want them both!" Suomalainen started drawing daily political cartoons in Helsingin Sanomat in the year 1951, during Juho Kusti Paasikivi's presidency. One of Suomalainen's most favourite characters was Urho Kekkonen, whom he drew as a bald man with an angular chin and huge eyeglasses; when Kekkonen became president in 1956, Suomalainen stopped, for a while, using the character, due to an "unwritten law" forbidding caricaturing the president. Suomalainen published a cartoon of himself weeping at Kekkonen's portrait, saying he "felt like a man who has just lost a gold mine". Suomalainen continued using the Kekkonen character. Other famous Suomalainen characters include president Mauno Koivisto, prime minister Kalevi Sorsa and the artist himself. Suomalainen was known of his political cartoons and he drew his characters by political party category, they were: A fat priest with a military helmet on his head represented the National Coalition Party. The helmet was replaced with a top hat.
A skinny worker dressed in an overall represented the Social Democratic Party of Finland. A fat, red-nosed yokel with stubble in ragged clothes and a scarf around the neck represented the Communist Party of Finland. A fat landlord/farmer represented the Agrarian Union and when it changed its name to Centre Party, he drew the character with collared shirt, tie and a fedora hat. Small parties were drawn with skinny characters; the People's Party were drawn with a ridiculously exaggerated white collar. The Swedish People's Party was a small snob in a suit and with a bowler hat; the Christian Party was represented by a small man in black körtti suit. Veikko Vennamo himself represented his own party, as did Emil Skog and Aarre Simonen, they were drawn with realistic proportions, but they became exaggerated into cartoonish proportions. He used the same motifs to draw a variety of characters. A top hat over a character used to refer to ministers. One cartoon, based on Ilya Repin's painting Barge Haulers on the Volga, created an international hubbub in 1958: Nikita Khrushchev, on the barge pulled by Eastern bloc countries, is shouting "Imperialists!" to the US and UK on the shore.
Suomalainen and the newspapers editor-in-chief Janne Virkkunen had an quarrel in 1991, after Helsingin Sanomat refused to publish Kari's cartoons criticizing Somali refugees, because they were considered to be too racist. He kept on drawing after that and his cartoons were published in several minor Finnish newspapers on a more irregular basis. A film, Kari ja hänen 9 presidenttiään, was made by documentary filmmaker Juho Gartz in 1994. Suomalainen died in 1999 at the age of 78
Korea Aerospace Research Institute
The Korea Aerospace Research Institute established in 1989, is the aeronautics and space agency of Republic of Korea. Its main laboratories are located in the Daedeok Science Town. KARI's vision is to continue building upon indigenous launch capabilities, strengthen national safety and public service, industrialize satellite information and applications technology, explore the moon, develop environmentally-friendly and highly-efficient cutting-edge aircraft and core aerospace technology. Current projects include the KSLV-2 launcher. Past projects include the 1999 Arirang-1 satellite; the agency was founded in 1989. Prior to South Korea's entry into the IAE in 1992, it focused on aerospace technology. KARI began on October 10, 1989 as a national aerospace research institute with the purpose of contributing to sound development of the national economy and enhancement of people's lives through a new exploration, technological advancement and dissemination in the field of aerospace science and technology.
KARI began in 1989 to develop its own rockets. It produced the KSR-II, one and two-stage rockets in the early 1990s. In December 1997 it began development of a LOX/kerosene rocket engine. KARI wished to develop satellite launch capability. A test launch of the KSR-III took place in 2002. 1989.10 Establishment of KARI affiliated to KIMM 1990.12 Cornerstone – Laying ceremony for the building of the institute 1992.07 Authorized as the Inspection Agency, designated by the AIDP Law 1992.10 Completion of construction of the research building complex 1993.04 Experimental Aircraft Kachi Development 1993.06.09 Launch of Single-stage Sounding Rocket 1993.09 EXPO Unmanned Airship Development 1995. Korea launched its first communications satellite named Koreasat * 1996.11 Independent organization as KARI, an Incorporated Foundation 1997.03 Twin-engine composite Aircraft Development 1997.04 Authorized as the Type Certification Agency, designated by the Aviation Law 1998.06 Launch of Two-stage Sounding Rocket 1999.01 Change of Type Certification Agency 1999.12 Launch of Korea Multiple Purpose Satellite known as Arirang I 2001.01 Change of name to Korea Aerospace Research Institute 2001.09 Canard Aircraft Development 2002.11 Launch of Liquid-propellant Rocket 2003.05 Cornerstone – laying ceremony for the Aircraft Flight Test Center 2003.08 Cornerstone – laying ceremony for the NARO Space Center 2003.09 Launch of STSAT -1 2003.10 Multi-Purpose Stratosphere unmanned-airship Development 2004.10 Completion of Jeju island Tracking Station 2005.01 Installation of South pole ground station 2006.07 Launch of Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite known as Arirang II 2008.03 Transfer to KRCF(Korea Research Council of Fundamental Science o& Technology 2008.04 The first Korean astronaut 2008.12 Medium Aero stats Development 2009.06 Completion of NARO Space center 2009.08 The 1st launch of Korea's 1st space launch vehicle KSLV-1 2010.06 Launch of COMS 2010.06 The 2nd launch of Korea's 1st space launch vehicle KSLV-1 2011.11 Smart UAV Development 2012.05 Launch of Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3 2012.06 Korean Utility Helicopter Surion Development 2013.01 The 3rd launch of Korea's 1st space launch vehicle KSLV-1 2013.08 Launch of Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite -5 2013.11 STSAT-3 Development 2013.12 4KC-100 Development 2014.05 OPV Development 2014 Research on lunar exploration cooperation began 2015.03 Launch of Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite -3A 2015.08 EAV-3 development 2015.12 The completion of KSLV-II’s engine combustion test facility 2016.12 Designated as a National Space Development Agency KARI is developing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, high-altitude airships, a next-generation multi-purpose helicopter project, next- generation medium satellite, a lunar exploration project.
In addition, several satellites, including the KOMPSAT Series, the COMS, the STSAT, are developed, operated, or under development by KARI. On January 30, 2013, they launched a satellite into space from their own soil for the first time. Perform basic and applied studies in aerospace technologyDevelopment of leading-edge technology aircraft, aircraft evaluation and testing, support of national development projectsResearch and development of comprehensive system and core technology of aircraft and space launch vehicleSupport national aerospace development policy establishment and diffusion of aerospace technology informationDevelopment and KSLV and Operation of Space CenterPerform government-delegated tasks and support policy developmentDevelopment of technology for assuring aerospace safety and quality, maintenance of legal quality certification and internationally recognized certification systems Establishment and support of the National Aerospace Development Policy and dissemination of knowledge on aerospace technologySupport industries and transfer technologyJoint utilization of testing facilities and equipment with industries and academia, training of scientists and engineers Transfer of technology from research and development and provisions for commercialization support KSLV-1 launched on August 25, 2009.
It was a cluster indigenous liquid KSR-III rockets with a solid propellant to form a multistage launcher. However, KARI experienced more difficulties than expected in SLV development, because it required much stronger propellant power than KSR-III possessed to launch a satellite into orbit. After several failed attempts, KARI turned to Russia's Khrunichev Design Bureau for
Kari Motor Speedway
Kari Motor Speedway is a purpose built Formula 3 auto racing circuit or race track, located in Chettipalayam, India. The 2.1 kilometres long track was inaugurated in 2003. The circuit is named after S. Karivardhan. Part of the existing track was used as a runway for power gliders, as a part of an ultralight aviation manufacturing company owned by S. Karivardhan; the stretch was used in the late 1990s for drag racing events. In 2002, the land was purchased by former racer B. Vijay Kumar to build a track to conduct national motorsport events and the track was inaugurated in 2003; the track is named after S. Karivardhan, who designed and built entry level race cars; the track conducts the National Championship races for go-karts, motorcycle road racing and formula racing events. The track is approved by the CIK and FIA to hold races up to the Formula 3 category; the category of cars that race in this track include Formula Maruti, Formula LGB, Formula Rolon Chevrolet. The track is used by motorcycle clubs and karting schools and others for vehicle tests and driver training.
The track hosts Formula Bharat on a yearly basis since January 2017. The track hosted first edition of FFS India 2017 in October 2017 with its second edition to be conducted in October 2018. Federation of Motor Sports Clubs of India SAEINDIA Indian National Rally Championship Madras Motor Sports Club Kari Motor Speedway and Racing in India