1998 Winter Olympics
The 1998 Winter Olympics the XVIII Olympic Winter Games, known as Nagano 1998, was a winter multi-sport event celebrated from 7 to 22 February 1998 in Nagano, Japan. 72 nations and 2,176 participants contested in 68 events at 15 venues. The Games saw the introduction of women's ice hockey and snowboarding. National Hockey League players were allowed to participate in the men's ice hockey for the first time; the host was selected on June 15, 1991, over Salt Lake City, Östersund and Aosta. They were the third Olympic Games and second Winter Olympics to be held in Japan, after the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo and the 1972 Winter Olympics in Sapporo. Nagano is so far the southernmost city to host a Winter Olympics, next to Squaw Valley, host of the 1960 Winter Olympics; the games were succeeded by the 1998 Winter Paralympics from 5 to 14 March. These were the final Winter Olympic Games under the IOC Presidency of Juan Antonio Samaranch. Other candidate cities for the 1998 Olympics were Italy; the host city selection was held in Birmingham, United Kingdom, on 15 June 1991, at the 97th IOC session.
Nagano prevailed over Salt Lake City by just 4 votes. In June 1995, Salt Lake was chosen as the host of the following 2002 Winter Olympics; the Nagano Olympic bid committee spent $14 million to entertain the 62 International Olympic Committee members and many of their companions. The precise figures are unknown since Nagano, after the IOC asked that the entertainment expenditures not be made public, destroyed the financial records; the 1998 Winter Olympics featured 68 medal events over 14 disciplines in 7 sports. Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of medal events contested in each separate discipline. Hakuba Hakuba Ski Jumping Stadium: Nordic combined, Ski jumping Happo'one Resort: Alpine skiing Snow Harp, Kamishiro: Cross-country skiing, Nordic combined Iizuna Iizuna Kogen Ski Area: Freestyle skiing Spiral, Asakawa: Bobsleigh, LugeKaruizawa Kazakoshi Park Arena: CurlingNagano Minami Nagano Sports Park: Ceremonies Aqua Wing Arena: Ice hockey Big Hat: Ice hockey M-Wave: Speed skating White Ring: Figure skating, Short track speed skatingNozawaonsen: Nozawa Onsen Ski Resort: BiathlonYamanouchi Mount Higashidate: Alpine skiing Mount Yakebitai, Shiga Kogen Resort: Alpine skiing, Snowboarding Kanbayashi Snowboard Park: Snowboarding The Oxford Olympics Study established the outturn cost of the Nagano 1998 Winter Olympics at US$2.2 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 56% in real terms.
This includes sports-related costs only, that is, operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g. expenditures for technology, workforce, security, catering and medical services, direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build, e.g. the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, media and press center, which are required to host the Games. Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games; the cost and cost overrun for Nagano 1998 compares with costs of US$2.5 billion and a cost overrun of 13% for Vancouver 2010, costs of US$51 billion and a cost overrun of 289% for Sochi 2014, the latter being the most costly Olympics to date. Average cost for Winter Games since 1960 is US$3.1 billion, average cost overrun is 142%.
72 nations participated in the 1998 Winter Olympic Games. The nations Azerbaijan, Macedonia and Venezuela participated in their first Winter Olympic Games. All dates are in Japan Standard Time These are the top ten nations that won medals at the 1998 Winter Games. * Host nation Sukki, Nokki and Tsukki known as the Snowlets are the 1998 Winter Olympic mascots and are four snowy owls. They represent fire, air and water and together they represent the four major islands of Japan. AustriaORF AustraliaSeven Network CanadaCBC ChinaCCTV DenmarkDR1 FranceTF1, FTV FinlandYle GermanyARD, ZDF IcelandRÚV ItalyRAI NetherlandsNOS NorwayNRK SwedenSVT United KingdomBBC United StatesCBS Sports, Turner Sports 1998 Winter Olympics flu epidemic Notes Citations "Nagano 1998". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee. "Results and Medalists — 1998 Winter Olympics". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee; the Organizing Committee for the XVIII Olympic Winter Games, Nagano 1998. The XVIII Winter Olympic Games: Official Report.
The Organizing Committee for the XVIII Olympic Winter Games. Downloadable PDF: Volume 1, Volume 2, Volume 3, retrieved on 17 January 2010. 1998 Winter Olympics Official website
Lydia Lassila is an Australian Olympic freestyle skier gold medalist who competed in the 2002 Winter Olympic Games in Salt Lake City, the 2006 Winter Olympic Games in Turin, the 2010 Winter Olympic Games in Vancouver, the 2014 Winter Olympic Games in Sochi and the 2018 Winter Olympic Games in Pyeongchang, South Korea. She is the 2014 bronze medalist. On 20 October 2010, Lassila was awarded the prestigious'The Don' award by the Sport Australia Hall of Fame, which recognised her ability to inspire as well as her achievements during 2010, including her gold medal performance at the 2010 Winter Olympic Games. Lydia Lassila was born 17 January 1982 in Australia, she is of Italian descent. Her mother is her father Cypriot. Lassila completed her primary schooling at Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception Primary School in Sunshine and completed her secondary education at Methodist Ladies' College and Westbourne Grammar School, she completed a bachelor's degree in Applied Science at RMIT University. She is married to Lauri Lassila, a Finnish former professional freestyle skier, whose career included placing 2nd in moguls at the FIS Freestyle Skiing World Championships in 1999.
She gave birth to a boy on 8 May 2011. She has a son Alek. Lassila appears in television endorsements for them, she is sponsored by Suzuki, Cadbury and Under Armour. Lassila supports the Essendon Bombers in the AFL. In June 2005, Lassila suffered a ruptured anterior cruciate ligament and underwent radical knee reconstruction in which a cadaver's achilles tendon was grafted into her knee to replace her damaged ACL; this allowed for a faster recovery and a swift return to the slopes in time for the start of the 2006 Winter Olympic Games in February. During the second qualifying round of the Torino aerials competition, Lassila's knee collapsed on impact after she attempted to land a difficult jump, re-rupturing her ACL and forcing her to withdraw. However, taking inspiration from compatriots and teammates Jacqui Cooper and Alisa Camplin, both of whom have suffered similar knee injuries, the 24-year-old Lassila vowed to return to the sport when she recovered. Lassila made her comeback to World Cup competition 16 months in China in December 2007, collecting a silver medal in her first event.
She ended the 2007/08 season ranked second in the World Cup standings, went on to win her first World Cup title in the following 2008/09 season. At the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, Lassila won gold in the aerials, getting Australia's second gold medal for the games after snowboarder Torah Bright won gold in the halfpipe at Cypress Mountain; this medal was the second gold for an Australian in the aerials at all Winter Olympic Games, after Alisa Camplin in 2002. There was a lot of pressure and hype from the Australian press for Lassila to do well as world number one, she was in second position after the first jump of the final, before posting the highest scoring second round jump. The leader after the first jump, Xu Mengtao, had the last jump, but scored more than 25 points below Lassila's second jump to fall down the rankings into sixth, due to a failed landing. Lassila had a combined score of 214.74. Australian team-mates Jacqui Cooper and Elizabeth Gardner finished 5th with 194.29 and 12th with 86.70 respectively.
Lassila achieved a Bronze medal in the Freestyle Skiing Women's Aerials event. Her jump was a quad-twisting triple somersault. If she had'landed' it she would have been the first woman to do so, but she landed hard and'slapped' down on her back on landing, her score for the aerial was 72.12. Lassilas' prior jumps were scored at 95.76 and 99.22. At the beginning of 2017, Lassila returned to competition in a bid to return to the Winter Olympics for 2018. On February 3, 2017 she won her first World Cup event since 2014, clinching a close fought victory ahead of Kiley McKinnon and Xu Mengtao at Deer Valley, she went on to obtain the second and the third World Cup wins at the end of February in Minsk and in the beginning of March 2017 in Moscow. Apart from her sporting medals, Lassila has received other honours and awards: 2010 Australian Institute of Sport'Athlete of the Year' 2010 Sport Australia Hall of Fame,'The Don' Award 2010 Governor’s Award for the Victorian Sportsperson of the Year 2010 Victorian Female Athlete of the Year- Kitty McEwan Award 2010 Ski and Snowboard Australia Athlete of the Year Lydia is the subject of a feature documentary film called The Will To Fly that chronicles her life and sport pursuits.
The film was released in Australia in 2016 to much critical acclaim. The international release is intended for 2017. In 2018, Lassila appeared as a contestant on Australian Survivor: Champions vs. Contenders, competing in the fifth season of the competitive reality television series Australian Survivor as part of the Champions tribe. In the beginning of the game, Lassila dominated in challenges, winning for her tribe in many instances. Lassila made strong relationships in the game, notably with fellow contestants Mat Rogers and Shane Gould. Come the merge, Lassila was seen as a physical threat by many contestants and was voted out in 12th place
Cinema of Tanzania
Tanzania's film industry known as Swahiliwood, was established around 2001. Films produced with low budgets, short schedules and camcorders are referred to colloquially as "bongo films" and are mass-released in DVD format. In 2011, bongo films were produced on a regular basis, but only a few higher quality Tanzanian feature films have been released in cinemas. Most Tanzanian film production studios are based in Dar es Salaam. Before Tanzania's independence in 1961, some foreign movies were filmed in Zanzibar. Tanzania offers opportunities not otherwise available to young African filmmakers; the Zanzibar International Film Festival hosts films, exhibitions, Dhow races and performing arts, as well as panoramas of women and villages. Tanzanians inherited parts of their cinematic culture from British colonialists, including the production of both commercial films and government-funded instructional films. After independence, the newly formed government led by the President Julius Kambarage Nyerere sent home South African film expats, established the country's own film industry under the Ministry of Community Development.
South Africa was plagued by apartheid, Tanzania and other independent African countries broke ties with them until it ended. Replacing the South African filmmakers were Yugoslavian filmmakers, who started aiding the film industry of Tanzania in 1963, helping establish the industry. Many of the films created during this time were instructional or educational, made by the government, distributed across Tanzania. In 2001, Maangamizi: The Ancient One was the first and up to now the last submission of Film from Tanzania for the Academy Awards category Best Foreign Film. Mapenzi Ya Mungu was released in 2014 Tanzanian movies list. Bongoland, a film about a US immigrant from Tanzania, was released in 2003. Other notable films include Ni Noma, released in June 2016. Well known artists include Steven Kanumba, Elizabeth Michael, Kajala Masanja, Mzee Chillo, Baby Madaha, Wema Sepetu, Vincent Kigosi. Many foreign films were shot in and around Tanzania prior to independence, including adventure and war movies.
Eight months of footage were required for the U. S. film Men of Two Worlds at Tanganyika in 1943. John Wayne's movie Hatari! was shot in Tanzania. Nature documentaries have been filmed in Tanzania, including a few parts of Impressionen unter Wasser and The Crimson Wing: Mystery of the Flamingos. In 1992, Dutch documentary Isingiro Hospital was made about a hospital in Tanzania treating AIDS patients. In 2010, filmmaker Nick Broomfield produced the documentary Albino United, about an albino football team in Tanzania in 2010, filmed an adaption of the Ronan Bennett's novel The Catastrophist in the city of Mwanza. Ylvis, a Norwegian comedy troupe, did several episodes with the title Swahiliwood for their comedy show I kveld med YLVIS. A mini-series features a group in Tanzania exploring and developing roles to become Tanzanian film stars. ImDb's list of "Tanzania in movies" list
2002 Winter Olympics
The 2002 Winter Olympics the XIX Olympic Winter Games and known as Salt Lake 2002, was a winter multi-sport event, celebrated from 8 to 24 February 2002 in and around Salt Lake City, United States. 2,400 athletes from 78 nations participated in 78 events in fifteen disciplines, held throughout 165 sporting sessions. The 2002 Winter Olympics and the 2002 Paralympic Games were both organized by the Salt Lake Organizing Committee. Utah became the fifth state in the United States to host the Olympic Games and the 2002 Winter Olympics were the last Olympics to be held in the United States until the 2028 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles; these were the first Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Jacques Rogge. The opening ceremony was held on February 8, 2002, sporting competitions were held up until the closing ceremony on February 24, 2002. Production for both ceremonies was designed by Seven Nielsen, music for both ceremonies was directed by Mark Watters. Salt Lake City became the most populous area to have hosted the Winter Olympics, although the two subsequent host cities' populations were larger.
Following a trend, the 2002 Olympic Winter Games were larger than all prior Winter Games, with 10 more events than the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan. Norway won the most gold medals; the Salt Lake Games faced a bribery scandal and some local opposition during the bid, as well as some sporting and refereeing controversies during the competitions. From sporting and business standpoints, this was one of the most successful Winter Olympiads in history. Over 2 billion viewers watched more than 13 billion viewer-hours; the Games were financially successful raising more money with fewer sponsors than any prior Olympic Games, which left SLOC with a surplus of $40 million. The surplus was used to create the Utah Athletic Foundation, which maintains and operates many of the remaining Olympic venues; the Games were a major factor in the political rise to power of Mitt Romney, elected Governor of Massachusetts in 2002, was the Republican Party's nominee for President of the United States in 2012 and has served as the junior United States Senator from Utah since 2019.
Salt Lake City was chosen over Canada. Salt Lake City had come in second during the bids for the 1998 Winter Olympics, awarded to Nagano and had offered to be the provisional host of the 1976 Winter Olympics when the original host, Colorado, withdrew; the 1976 Winter Olympics were awarded to Innsbruck, Austria. 1Because of the no-commercialization policy of the Olympics, the Delta Center, now the Vivint Smart Home Arena, was labeled as the "Salt Lake Ice Center". The Oxford Olympics Study established the outturn cost of the Salt Lake City 2002 Winter Olympics at US$2.5 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 24% in real terms. This includes sports-related costs only, that is, operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g. expenditures for technology, workforce, security, catering and medical services, direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build, e.g. the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, media and press center, which are required to host the Games.
Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The cost and cost overrun for Salt Lake City 2002 compares with costs of US$2.5 billion and a cost overrun of 13% for Vancouver 2010, costs of US$51 billion and a cost overrun of 289% for Sochi 2014, the latter being the most costly Olympics to date. Average cost for Winter Games since 1960 is US$3.1 billion, average cost overrun is 142%. A total of 78 National Olympic Committees sent athletes to the 2002 Olympics. Cameroon, Hong Kong, Nepal and Thailand participated in their first Winter Olympic Games; the 2002 Winter Olympics featured 78 medal events over 15 disciplines in 7 sports. Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of medal events contested in each separate discipline. In the following calendar for the 2002 Winter Olympic Games, each blue box represents an event competition, such as a qualification round, on that day.
The yellow boxes represent days. The number in each box represents the number of finals. All dates are in Mountain Standard Time * Host nation Several medals records were tied, they included: Norway tied the Soviet Union at the 1976 Winter Olympics for most gold medals at a Winter Olympics, with 13. Germany set a record for most total medals at a Winter Olympics, with 36; the United States set a record for most gold medals at a home Winter Olympics, with 10, tying Norway at the 1994 Winter Olympics. The opening ceremonies included Grammy Award-winning artist LeAnn Rimes singing "Light the Fire Within", the official song of the 2002 Olympics; the Grammy Award-winning Mormon Tabernacle Choir performed the "Star-Spangled Banner", national anthem of the United States, for the opening ceremonies. John Williams composed a five-minute work for orchestra and chorus, "Call of the Champions", that served as the official theme of the 2002 Winter Olympics, his first for a Winter Oly
Freestyle skiing at the 2002 Winter Olympics
Four freestyle skiing events were held at the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City, at the venue in Deer Valley. There were both women's competition in both aerials and moguls events. In moguls, the athletes ski down a slope littered with moguls, attempting to get down in as fast a time as possible while attempting to get points for technique and their two aerial jumps during the course; the aerials events consisted of two jumps, which were judged by air and landing. Freestyle Skiing History: Olympics 1988-2002
Action sports, adventure sports or extreme sports are activities perceived as involving a high degree of risk. These activities involve speed, height, a high level of physical exertion and specialized gear; the definition of extreme sports is not exact and the origin of the terms is unclear, but it gained popularity in the 1990s when it was picked up by marketing companies to promote the X Games and when the Extreme Sports Channel and the Extreme Sports Company launched. More the used definition from research is "a competitive activity within which the participant is subjected to natural or unusual physical and mental challenges such as speed, depth or natural forces and where fast and accurate cognitive perceptual processing may be required for a successful outcome" by Dr. Rhonda Cohen. While use of the term "extreme sport" has spread everywhere to describe a multitude of different activities which sports are considered'extreme' is debatable. There are, several characteristics common to most extreme sports.
While they are not the exclusive domain of youth, extreme sports tend to have a younger-than-average target demographic. Extreme sports are rarely sanctioned by schools for their physical education curriculum. Extreme sports tend to be more solitary than many of the popular traditional sports. Activities categorized by media as extreme sports differ from traditional sports due to the higher number of inherently uncontrollable variables; these environmental variables are weather and terrain related, including wind, snow and mountains. Because these natural phenomena cannot be controlled, they affect the outcome of the given activity or event. In a traditional sporting event, athletes compete against each other under controlled circumstances. While it is possible to create a controlled sporting event such as X Games, there are environmental variables that cannot be held constant for all athletes. Examples include changing snow conditions for snowboarders and ice quality for climbers, wave height and shape for surfers.
Whilst traditional sporting judgment criteria may be adopted when assessing performance, extreme sports performers are evaluated on more subjective and aesthetic criteria. This results in a tendency to reject unified judging methods, with different sports employing their own ideals and indeed having the ability to evolve their assessment standards with new trends or developments in the sports. While the exact definition and what is included as extreme sport is debatable, some attempted to make classification for extreme sports. One argument is. A passenger in a canyon jet boat ride will not fulfill the requirements, as the skill required pertains to the pilot, not the passengers. "Thrill seeking" might in these cases be a more suitable qualification than "extreme sport". Extreme sports may be subdivided into: These sports require the use of snow, ice or water sports and rolling sports. Another subdivision can be made along motorized and non motorized vehicle sports, resulting in the following matrix.
The phrase is. The implication of the phrase was that the word "sport" defined an activity in which one might be killed; the other activities being termed "games". The phrase may have been invented by either writer Barnaby Conrad or automotive author Ken Purdy; the Dangerous Sports Club of Oxford University, England was founded by David Kirke, Chris Baker, Ed Hulton and Alan Weston. They first came to wide public attention by inventing modern day bungee jumping, by making the first modern jumps on 1 April 1979, from the Clifton Suspension Bridge, England, they followed the Clifton Bridge effort with a jump from the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco and with a televised leap from the Royal Gorge Suspension Bridge in Colorado, sponsored by and televised on the popular American television program That's Incredible! Bungee jumping was treated as a novelty for a few years became a craze for young people, is now an established industry for thrill seekers; the Club pioneered a surrealist form of skiing, holding three events at St. Moritz, Switzerland, in which competitors were required to devise a sculpture mounted on skis and ride it down a mountain.
The event reached its limits when the Club arrived in St. Moritz with a London double-decker bus, wanting to send it down the ski slopes, the Swiss resort managers refused. Other Club activities included. In recent decades the term extreme sport was further promoted after the Extreme S
Ylvis is a Norwegian comedy duo consisting of brothers Vegard and Bård Ylvisåker. They debuted as professional variety artists in 2000 and have since appeared in several countries in variety shows, comedy concerts, television shows, radio shows and music videos, they are the hosts of the Norwegian talk show I kveld med Ylvis. Their song and music video "The Fox", written and filmed for the talk show, went viral on YouTube in September 2013, with over 800 million views as of November 2018, they released an album called Ylvis: a compilation of ten older singles. Vegard Urheim and Bård Urheim Ylvisåker were born to parents from the Sogn district of Western Norway, the older two of three brothers; the younger brother is Bjarte Urheim. Their early childhood years were spent in Angola and Mozambique, where their father was an engineer during the civil wars there. After a few years in Africa, the family moved back to Bergen, where the brothers received a musical upbringing and were trained in classical instruments.
Vegard Bård the violin. However, both quit during their youth, Vegard instead focusing on guitar, piano, double bass and comedy, Bård on guitar, voice and acrobatics such as aerial silk. While attending high school at Fana gymnas, they were involved in school and variety shows as well as the school choir. During a performance, they were spotted by impresario Peter Brandt, who orchestrated their debut as professional variety artists at Ole Bull Teater in Bergen in 2000, their debut show was called "Ylvis en kabaret" and was followed in 2003 by "Ylvis en konsert". In 2006, the brothers signed a management contract with the live production company Stageway, they debuted as hosts on national broadcasting with the radio show O-fag on NRK Radio. In January 2007, they appeared onstage at Ole Bull Theater with a new variety show, Ylvis III, they toured with the show for three years, the last show being played in Odda in western Norway in December 2009. The show was recorded and published on DVD. In 2007, they debuted as hosts on national television with the show Norges herligste, a version of the Swedish show 100 höjdare.
This was released on DVD as well as broadcast on Swedish TV. In 2008 they released a second series of the radio show O-fag and a new TV show based on their Ylvis møter veggen stage show on TVNorge, a game show concept inspired by the "Brain Wall", a feature in the Japanese game show Tonneruzu no Minasan no Okage deshita on Fuji TV; this was followed up by another game show, Hvem kan slå Ylvis in 2009, based on the German show Schlag den Raab. Members of the public were invited to try to beat the brothers at various tasks, with a reward of up to one million Norwegian kroner. In 2010, they hosted a pan-Nordic version of the show. In 2011 they reprised their variety stage show with "Ylvis 4", premiering at the Ole Bull Theater with the entire run sold out before opening night; that year, the brothers launched a comedy talkshow I kveld med Ylvis on TVNorge, with Calle Hellevang-Larsen from comedy trio Raske Menn as a sidekick. Upon being renewed for a second season, the brothers created a production company, Concorde TV, in order to retain rights and creative control of their work.
The second series was broadcast in 2012, with David Batra replacing Hellevang-Larsen in the role of sidekick. In the Fall of 2013, Hellevang-Larsen returned. Despite technical difficulties during the broadcast, the first episode took the top ratings spot. A number of comedy and parody music videos, either featured on I kveld med Ylvis or used to promote the show, have been released onto YouTube and other streaming media. "The Fox" and "Stonehenge" have been released as singles. "The Fox", produced by StarGate and M4SONIC, released on 3 September 2013 to promote the upcoming third series of I kveld med Ylvis, went viral on YouTube and received 31 million views in its first two weeks. It was the most watched video on YouTube worldwide in 2013, as of January 2017, the video had over 650 million views. Ylvis received offers for interviews and major label record contracts from several countries following the release of "The Fox", their first performance abroad was on The Ellen DeGeneres Show in the United States, where they appeared on 20 September 2013.
They made an appearance at the iHeartRadio Music Festival in Las Vegas the next day. On 9 October 2013, Jimmy Fallon brought them to his late night show to perform live. On 11 October 2013, they performed on The Today Show outside the studios. On 15 November 2013 they performed on BBC Children In Need where they were joined on stage by Jedward, The Cheeky Girls and Bucks Fizz. On 22 November 2013 Ylvis attended Mnet Asian Music Awards for the first time, received the International Favorite Artist award. On 12 December 2013, they appeared on Live! with Kelly and Michael to promote their new children's book titled "What Does the Fox Say?" and to perform. The book What Does the Fox Say? debuted as no. 1 on The New York Times Best Seller list. On 15 October 2014 Ylvis released on iTunes a single titled "I Will Never Be A Star", recorded by their younger brother, Bjarte Ylvisåker. On 19 November 2015 Ylvis released their first album Ylvis: Volume