Pontus De la Gardie
Baron Pontus De la Gardie was a French nobleman and general in the service of Denmark and Sweden. He was born Ponce d'Escouperie in Caunes-Minervois, Languedoc, a son of Jacques Escoperier and X Armengaud; as a youngster, he was educated in a monastery. He changed his mind however, left Languedoc to become a mercenary in the service of Denmark. De la Gardie was in charge of a regiment of mercenaries. In 1565, during the Northern Seven Years' War, he was captured by Swedish troops at Varberg, changed allegiance to Sweden. De la Gardie became a favourite of John III of Sweden and in 1569, after only four years in the Swedish service, he received noble status. In 1571, he was given Ekholmen Castle, he was suspected to have taken part in a plot to assassinate John III. The plot was led by Charles de Mornay, in contact with Christina of Denmark and the French ambassador in Copenhagen Charles Dancay. John III was to be killed during a swords dance performed by Scottish mercenaries at the party, to be given in October that year before the Scottish mercenaries departure to the Baltic.
After the assassination, the king's brother Duke Charles was to be placed upon the throne. The plot did not materialize as de Mornay lost his nerve and never gave the sign to the mercenaries to take action. In September 1574, the plot was revealed and Charles de Mornay was arrested and executed, it was never made clear. However, it is noted, that the suspected conspirators Hogenskild Bielke, Gustaf Banér and Pontus De la Gardie gathered at meetings in the apartment of Princess Elizabeth of Sweden, meetings where Princess Cecilia of Sweden had frequently been seen, the two sisters and their brother Charles were somewhat compromised though they were never accused. Pontus De la Gardie was himself never put on trial for his suspected involvement in the affair. After Clas Åkesson Tott's resignation as the supreme commander of the Swedish forces in Finland and Estonia as a consequence of the Siege of Wesenberg during the Livonian War, de la Gardie took over Tott's office. De la Gardie's skills combined with the fact that Sweden's enemy Russia had to transfer troops to defend against Polish attacks further south led to considerable military success for Sweden during the following years.
In the fall of 1580, Karelia was conquered. De la Gardie led his troops over the frozen Gulf of Finland to capture the fortresses of Wesenberg and Tolsburg. In September 1581, Narva was taken after a storming, preceded by a massive bombardment. 4,000 soldiers and civilians were killed, pointing out the fact that De la Gardie was not only a skillful warrior, but a cruel and hard commander as well. De la Gardie and his Swedish troops went on to capture the fortress of Ivangorod and several other fortresses that autumn. In 1582, the war with Russia was ended and Sweden got to keep the conquests made in Karelia and Ingria, but had to withdraw from Livonia. De la Gardie was the most renowned military commander in Sweden during the 16th century and has been credited with much of the country's military success in the 1580s. An example of his ingenuity was the strategy of using zigzag shaped saps during the siege of Narva, a new technique at the time. De la Gardie is buried in St Mary's Cathedral of Tallinn.
His tomb chest is made by architect Arent Passer. On 4 February 1580 De la Gardie married Sofia Johansdotter Gyllenhielm, the illegitimate daughter of John III of Sweden and a Finnish lady, Karin Hansdotter. During the wedding, a gallery in the church collapsed and one person was killed; some sceptics claimed it was a divine act with which God condemned the marriage. Pontus De la Gardie and Sofia Gyllenhielm had three children: Brita Pontusdotter De la Gardie Baron Johan De la Gardie, statesman of the Swedish Empire Count and Field Marshal Jacob De la Gardie Arrhenius-Örnhiälm, Claudius. Vita Illustrissimi Herois Ponti De La Gardie, Excercituum Sveciae Supremi Campi Ducis, Regnante Johanne III. Svecorum Rege Gloriosissimo: Cujus occasione totius fere Livoniae Historia exhibetur. Lipsiae, Leipzig: Apud. Jo. Frider. Gleditsch
A nun is a member of a religious community of women living under vows of poverty and obedience in the enclosure of a monastery. Communities of nuns exist in numerous religious traditions, including Buddhism, Hinduism and Taoism. In the Buddhist tradition, female monastics are known as Bhikkhuni, take several additional vows compared to male monastics. Nuns are most common in Mahayana Buddhism, but have more become more prevalent in other traditions. Within Christianity, women religious, known as nuns or religious sisters, are found in Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Lutheran traditions among others. Though the terms are used interchangeably, nuns take solemn vows and live a life of prayer and contemplation in a monastery or convent, while sisters take simple vows and live an active vocation of prayer and charitable works in areas such as education and healthcare. Examples include the monastic Order of Saint Clare founded in 1212 in the Franciscan tradition, or the Missionaries of Charity founded in 1950 by Mother Teresa to care for people living in grave poverty.
All Buddhist traditions have nuns. The Buddha is reported to have allowed women into the sangha only with great reluctance, predicting that the move would lead to Buddhism's collapse after 500 years, rather than the 1,000 years it would have enjoyed otherwise. Ordained Buddhist nuns have more Patimokkha rules than the monks; the important vows are the same, however. As with monks, there is quite a lot of variation in nuns' dress and social conventions between Buddhist cultures in Asia. Chinese nuns possess the full bhikkuni ordination, Tibetan nuns do not. In Theravada countries it is believed that the full ordination lineage of bhikkunis died out, though in many places they wear the "saffron" colored robes, observing only ten precepts like novices. In Thailand, a country which never had a tradition of ordained nuns, there developed a separate order of non-ordained female renunciates called mae ji. However, some of them have played an important role in dhamma-practitioners' community. There are in Thai Forest Tradition foremost nuns such as Mae Ji Kaew Sianglam, the founder of the Nunnery of Baan Huai Saai, believed by some to be enlightened as well as Upasika Kee Nanayon.
At the beginning of the 21st century, some Buddhist women in Thailand have started to introduce the bhikkhuni sangha in their country as well if public acceptance is still lacking. Dhammananda Bhikkhuni the successful academic scholar Dr. Chatsumarn Kabilsingh, established a controversial monastery for the training of Buddhist nuns in Thailand; the active roles of Taiwanese nuns were noted by some studies. Researcher Charles Brewer Jones estimates that from 1952 to 1999, when the Buddhist Association of the ROC organized public ordination, female applicants outnumbered males by about three to one, he adds: "All my informants in the areas of Taipei and Sanhsia considered nuns at least as respectable as monks, or more so. In contrast, Shiu-kuen Tsung found in Taipei county that female clergy were viewed with some suspicion by society, she reports that while outsiders did not regard their vocation as unworthy of respect, they still tended to view the nuns as social misfits."Wei-yi Cheng studied the Luminary order in southern Taiwan.
Cheng reviewed earlier studies which suggest that Taiwan's Zhaijiao tradition has a history of more female participation, that the economic growth and loosening of family restriction have allowed more women to become nuns. Based on studies of the Luminary order, Cheng concluded that the monastic order in Taiwan was still young and gave nuns more room for development, more mobile believers helped the order; the August 2007 International Congress on Buddhist Women's Role in the Sangha, with the support of H. H. XIVth Dalai Lama, reinstated the Gelongma lineage, having been lost, in India and Tibet, for centuries. Gelongma ordination requires the presence of ten ordained people keeping the same vows; because ten nuns are required to ordain a new one, the effort to establish the Dharmaguptaka bhikkhu tradition has taken a long time. It is permissible for a Tibetan nun to receive bhikkhuni ordination from another living tradition, e.g. in Vietnam. Based on this, Western nuns ordained in Tibetan tradition, like Thubten Chodron, took full ordination in another tradition.
The ordination of monks and nuns in Tibetan Buddhism distinguishes three stages: rabjung-ma, getshül-ma and gelong-ma. The clothes of the nuns in Tibet are the same as those of monks, but there are differences between novice and gelong robes. Hokke-ji in 747 was established by the consort of the Emperor, it took charge of provincial convents, performed ceremonies for the protection of the state, became the site of pilgrimages. Aristocratic Japanese women became Buddhist nuns in the premodern period, it was thought they could not gain salvation because of the Five Hindrances, which said women could not attain Buddhahood until they changed into men. However, in 1249, 12 women received full ordination as priests. In the Roman Catholic tradition, there are a large number of religious institutes of nuns and sisters, each with its own charism or special character. Traditionally, nuns are members of enclosed religious orders and take solemn religious vows, while sisters do not live in the papal enclosu
Catherine Jagiellon was a Polish princess and the wife of John III of Sweden. As such, she was Queen of Sweden and Grand Princess of Finland. Catherine had significant influence over state affairs during the reign of her spouse, negotiated with the pope to introduce a counter reformation in Sweden. Catherine Jagiellon was born in Kraków as the youngest daughter of King Sigismund I the Old of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and his wife Bona Sforza of Milan. Catherine became the spouse of King John III of Sweden and mother of the future Sigismund III Vasa, King of Poland. After the death of her father in 1548, she and her sisters Anna and Sophia moved to Masovia with their mother. After their mother's departure to Italy in 1558, they lived there alone; the sisters were not close to their brother Sigismund II Augustus of Poland. Catherine could speak Italian and Latin, was described as more attractive than Anna, most marriage suggestions were directed toward her. Duke Albert of Prussia, Archduke Ferdinand II of Austria and Tsar Ivan IV of Russia were among her suitors.
A Swedish-Polish dynastic marriage alliance had been suggested in 1526, that time between her half-sister Hedwig and King Gustav I of Sweden, in 1555, a marriage was suggested between her and Crown Prince Eric or his brother John. In 1560, John resumed the negotiations on his own initiative and without the consent of Eric XIV. On 4 October 1562, Catherine was married in the Lower Castle of Vilnius, Lithuania, to Duke John of Finland, the second son of Gustav I and half-brother of the then-reigning King Eric XIV. John had not received his brother's permission for the marriage and there were tensions between them, since John pursued an independent foreign policy; the marriage was conducted in a Catholic ceremony. Catherine brought a large entourage and luxurious possessions, but her dowry and inheritance after her mother was never given; the couple set up house in Turku Castle in Finland. Duke John's dealings in Livonia caused King Eric XIV to declare war on his brother. Eric sent 10,000 men to besiege the castle.
On 12 August 1563 the castle capitulated. Eric offered to allow Catherine to return to Poland, she asked for the larger part of her entourage to be sent home, only keeping some Polish ladies-in-waiting and her Court dwarf Dorothea Ostrelska, mentioned in connection to her. During her incarceration, Catherine gave birth first to her eldest daughter Isabella of Finland in 1564 to her son Sigismund in 1566. Catherine was used as a valuable hostage by Eric, but because of her, the imprisonment was lenient. In October 1567, John reconciled with Eric, the couple was released. Catherine and John developed a close relationship during the years of imprisonment. Catherine's unsuccessful suitor Tsar Ivan was in negotiations with Eric in hopes of separating her from John and sending her to marry him in Russia; this caused alarm with her relations. In popular opinion, this discussion was one of the reasons for the Swedish people's growing dissatisfaction with the insane Eric. King Eric agreed to hand over Catherine to Ivan, but the Swedish king was deposed before Catherine could be sent away.
As his brother John succeeded him, the problem disappeared. Catherine was at Vadstena during the rebellion. Another reason which agitated the nobility against Erik XIV and made them encourage the rebellion of Duke John and his brothers Duke Charles, was the marriage of Erik to the commoner Karin Månsdotter, which the nobility regarded as an insult. Catherine played some part in the rebellion: she was a friend of one of Erik's enemies, Ebba Månsdotter, who had an influential position within the nobility, she was directly approached by Pontus De la Gardie, who appealed to her to persuade the indecisive John to join the rebellion against the King in protest of his scandalous marriage. According to a witness, she answered: "Pontus! I have heard your advise and the reasons you present well and good, they are all correct and just, but hard to realise. My dear friend, show me the curtsy to allow this to remain between us, I will speak to my lord and husband."After the fall of Stockholm, she made her entrance to the city in a grand procession at 7 November 1568.
Catherine was crowned queen of Sweden in the spring of 1569. Her relationship with John III continued to be good during her lifetime, there are no extramarital partners known on either side, she had her own Catholic chapel and her own Catholic staff, among them several Catholic monks and priests, which shocked the Protestants. Her court was headed by Karin Gyllenstierna; as a person, it does not seem to be much slander about her. Her fervent Protestant brother-in-law, the future Charles IX mentioned her in his chronicle when he described King John: "His Princess was full of virtue and piety, still her faith did come from Rome". Queen Catherine had political influence, influenced the monarch within many areas, such as his foreign policy and his interest in renaissance art, it is a revealing fact, that the king's diplomatic contacts with the Catholic powers diminished after her death. Foremost, she is known to have influenced John III in his religious policy in favour of Catholicism and the Counter-Reformation, just as the next queen and spouse of John III, Gunilla Bielke, would influence his religious policy in favor of Protestantism.
After having become queen, she attracted international attention
John III of Sweden
John III was King of Sweden from 1568 until his death. He was the son of his second wife Margaret Leijonhufvud, he was quite autonomously, the ruler of Finland, as Duke John from 1556 to 1563. In 1581 he assumed the title Grand Prince of Finland, he attained the Swedish throne after a rebellion against his half-brother Eric XIV. He is remembered for his attempts to close the gap between the newly established Lutheran Church of Sweden and the Catholic church, his first wife was Catherine Jagellonica of the Polish-Lithuanian ruling family, their son Sigismund ascended both the Polish-Lithuanian and Swedish thrones. He was the second son of Gustav Vasa, his mother was a Swedish noblewoman. As a Duke of Finland, he opposed his half-brother Eric XIV of Sweden and was imprisoned in 1563. After his release from prison because of his brother's insanity, John again joined the opposition, deposed Eric and made himself the king, his important ally was his maternal uncle Sten Leijonhufvud, who at deathbed was made Count of Raseborg.
Shortly after this John executed his brother's most trusted counsellor, Jöran Persson, whom he held responsible for his harsh treatment while in prison. John further initiated peace talks with Denmark and Lübeck to end the Scandinavian Seven Years' War, but rejected the resulting Treaties of Roskilde where his envoys had accepted far-reaching Danish demands. After two more years of fighting, this war was concluded without many Swedish concessions in the Treaty of Stettin. During the following years he fought Russia in the Livonian War, concluded by the Treaty of Plussa in 1583, a war that meant a Swedish reconquest of Narva; as a whole his foreign policy was affected by his connection to Poland of which country his son Sigismund III Vasa was made king in 1587. In domestic politics John showed clear Catholic sympathies, inspired by his Polish queen, a fact that created frictions to the Swedish clergy and nobility, he sought to enlist the help of the papacy in gaining release of his wife's family assets, which were frozen in Naples.
He allowed Jesuits to secretly staff the Royal Theological College in Stockholm. However, John himself was a learned follower of the mediating theologian George Cassander, he sought reconciliation between Rome and Wittenberg on the basis of the consensus of the first five centuries of Christianity. John approved the publication of the Lutheran Swedish Church Order of Archbishop Laurentius Petri in 1571 but got the church to approve an addendum to the church order in 1575, Nova ordinantia ecclesiastica that displayed a return to patristic sources; this set the stage for his promulgation of the Swedish-Latin Red Book, which reintroduced several Catholic customs and resulted in the Liturgical Struggle, not to end for twenty years. In 1575, he gave his permission for the remaining Catholic convents in Sweden to start receiving novices again. From time to time he was at odds theologically with his younger brother Duke Charles of Sudermannia, who had Calvinist sympathies, did not promote King John's Liturgy in his duchy.
John III was an eager patron of architecture. In January 1569, John was recognized as king by the same riksdag that forced Eric XIV off the throne, but this recognition was not without influence from John. The nobilities' power and rights were extended and their responsibilities lessened. John was still concerned about his position as king as long; the fear of a possible liberation of the locked up king worried him to the point that in 1571 he ordered the guards to, in any suspicion of liberation attempt, murder the captured king. It is possible this is how his life ended in 1577. John III was reported like his father in propaganda, with repeated claims to have "liberated Sweden" from the "bloodhound" Christian II, as well as rescuing the population from the "tyrant" Eric XIV. John married his first wife, Catherine Jagellonica of Poland, house of Jagiello, in Vilnius on 4 October 1562. In Sweden, she is known as Katarina Jagellonica, she was the sister of king Sigismund II Augustus of Poland. Their children were: Isabella Sigismund, King of Sweden, King of Poland, Grand Duke of Finland and Lithuania Anna He married his second wife Gunilla Bielke on 21 February 1584.
The young duke married his first cousin Maria Elisabet, daughter of Charles IX of Sweden With his mistress Karin Hansdotter he had at least four illegitimate children: Sofia Gyllenhielm, who married Pontus De la Gardie Augustus Gyllenhielm Julius Gyllenhielm Lucretia Gyllenhielm John cared for Karin and their children after he married Catherine Jagellonica, in 1562. He got Karin a husband who would care for her and the children: in 1561, she married nobleman Klas Andersson, a friend and servant of John, they had a daughter named Brita. He continued supporting Karin and his illegitimate children as king, from 1568. In 1572 Karin married again, as her first husband was executed for treason by Eric XIV in 1563, to a Lars Henrikson, whom John ennobled in 1576 to care for his issue with Karin; the same year, he made his daughter Sofia a lady in the castle, as a servant to his sist
Sofia Johansdotter Gyllenhielm in Reval, was a Swedish noble. She was the illegitimate daughter of King John III of Karin Hansdotter. Sofia spent her childhood with her mother in Finland, she became a lady-in-waiting of her aunt Princess Elizabeth of Sweden in 1576. The same year, she was engaged by her father to her father's favourite, the French immigrant Baron Pontus De la Gardie, as a reward for his service toward her father. Sofia, her sister Lucretia and her brother Julius were ennobled in 1577 and given the name Gyllenhielm; the wedding was held in Vadstena on 14 January 1580. It was a grand ceremony with many guests, during the ceremony a gallery broke under the weight of the spectators at church, resulting in the death of one person; this was interpreted by present Catholics as a divine verdict of over the heretics. In 1581, she accompanied her spouse to his command in Swedish Estonia, she died in childbirth in Reval in 1583. Ericson Wolke, Johan III: en biografi, Historiska media, Lund, 2004 Larsson, Lars-Olof, Arvet efter Gustav Vasa: berättelsen om fyra kungar och ett rike, Stockholm, 2005
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Catherine Stenbock was Queen of Sweden between 1552 and 1560 as the third and last wife of King Gustav I. Catherine Stenbock was the daughter of Riksråd Gustaf Olofsson Stenbock and Brita Eriksdotter Leijonhufvud, the sister of King Gustav's previous consort Margaret Leijonhufvud, she was thus the matrenal niece of Queen Margaret and first cousin of the royal children of that marriage, including future kings John III of Sweden and Charles IX of Sweden. Her siblings included Ebba Stenbock. There is little information about her prior to her marriage, it is possible that she served as maid of honor to her aunt, the Queen, but either way, she was most known to the King personally: due to the marriage of her aunt, her family belonged to the relations to the King named as Kungafränderna, who played an important role at court, participated in the family events of the monarch, as well as he was present at the weddings and other events of her family. Her parents were both favored by the monarch, their marriage was hosted by the King in parallel to his own first marriage in 1531, her father founded his career as a riksråd upon his loyalty to the King, her mother was in the King's confidence: it was said that "In her sister Bridget... he always had much trust".
Upon the death of her aunt Queen Margaret in 1551, Catherine's mother Brita and aunt Martha Leijonhufvud, in succession to Christina Gyllenstierna, were entrusted the care of the royal children until the King married again, which he was expected to do. The King declared that a new marriage was necessary foremost because he needed a Queen for his court and a mother for his young children. In March 1552, he called her mother, her aunt Martha and her spouse, the King's nephew Per Brahe the Elder, married to Catherine's sister Beata, it thought that her proposed the marriage to her family at this meeting, her family was favorable to the match, as this would preserve the family connection they had made with the King through his previous marriage with Queen Margaret, an influence they would keep through Catherine. The reason the King stated to marry Catherine was the great costs and the time consuming negotiations necessary secure a marriage with a foreign Princess in the complicated political climate in Europe during the ongoing religious conflicts.
The marriage to Queen Margaret had secured the King a loyal support with the Swedish nobility for his rule, a useful alliance with he confirmed by marrying again in to the same family by marrying the niece of his late spouse. Catherine herself is described as a dark blonde beauty with blue eyes. According to tradition, like her aunt and predecessor Catherine was engaged when the King decided to marry her, to the noble Gustav Johansson Tre Rosor, after the marriage to the King, he once heard her say in her sleep: "King Gustav is dear to me, but I shall never forget The Rose"; when the King came to her parents manor Torpa to propose to her as the law demanded that she give her personal consent, it is said that she ran away and hid behind a bush in the garden. Whether truthful or not, the King had his way. There was, opposition among the church against a marriage between the King and the niece of his former spouse, the arch bishop protested quoting the Books of Moses prohibiting the marriage between a man and the widow of his uncle, interpreted as the ban against marriage to the relations of a dead spouse.
The King had a commission headed by Georg Norman prove that the Old Testament applied only to Jews and that, in any case, it allowed for a man to marry the sister of his dead wife and thereby a marriage to the niece of his wife must be permitted. The King had his royal council confirm to the church that the King married upon their request out of the need for a Queen rather than for an infatuation and that he had the right to marry whom he choose, after which the church agreed to the marriage; the marriage was conducted in the chapel of the Vadstena Abbey 22 August 1552, followed by the coronation of Catherine as Queen the following day. She was dressed in a golden dress during the wedding, a silver one during her coronation, escorted, as was Queen Margaret during official ceremonies, by her male relatives; the wedding was surrounded what was seen as bad omens: the plague swept through parts of the nation, the city of Turku burned down, people claimed to see bad omens and evil signs in the sky.
The celebrations lasted for three days. When the court departed, the city of Vadstena burned down in a great fire, seen as another bad omen. There is little information of Catherine Stenbock as Queen; as such, she was, with the assistance of her head lady-in-waiting Anna Hogenskild, made responsible to supervise the female courtiers and her cousins, the royal children. It seems as if her relationship to her royal stepchildren was a good one, with the exception of Duke Charles, her private relationship to the King is not much mentioned, it has been said that she: "Accepted her part as Queen of Sweden with silent dignity" and without attracting too much personal attention. It is said, that the King did find their age difference too great and contemplated writing a law which would prevent any future marriage between: "Two people, of which one was young and one was old"; as Queen, she was excepted by her family to replace her aunt Queen Margaret in the role of acting as a loyal as a channel between her family and the King, preserving the influenc