El Ayo known as El Ayum, is a coastal town in the northern Sanaag region of Somalia. El Ayo is one of a series of ancient settlements in northern Somalia. About one mile from the town are the ruins of an old city, which are held to have belonged to an earlier civilization. Between El Ayo and Las Khorey lies Karinhegane, the site of numerous cave paintings of real and mythical animals; each painting has an inscription below it, which collectively have been estimated to be around 2,500 years old. Karinhegane's rock art is in the same distinctive Ethiopian-Arabian style as the Laas Geel cave paintings. Additionally, a number of small- to medium-sized cairns are concentrated on the plain that lies between the coast adjacent to El Ayo and an inland ridge around 2 km in length. Northern Somalia in general is home to numerous such archaeological sites, with similar edifices found at Haylan, Qa’ableh, Qombo'ul and Maydh. However, many of these old structures have yet to be properly explored, a process which would help shed further light on local history and facilitate their preservation for posterity.
El Ayo was an early local hub of Islam, with the religion spreading through maritime enterprise with and immigration from the Middle East. Haylan Qa’ableh Qombo'ul Maydh Ali, Ismail Mohamed. Somalia Today: General Information. Ministry of Information and National Guidance, Somali Democratic Republic
Somali aristocratic and court titles
This is a list of Somali aristocratic and court titles that were used by the Somali people's various sultanates and empires. Included are the honorifics reserved for Islamic notables as well as traditional leaders and officials within the Somali customary law, in addition to the nobiliary particles set aside for distinguished individuals. Below is a list of the royal court titles retained by the Somali monarchies and aristocracies. Suldaan: From the Arabic for Sultan or English "Chief". Common title for rulers in the pre-colonial and colonial periods. Famous Sultans include Fakr ad-Din, the first Sultan of the Sultanate of Mogadishu, who built the 13th-century Fakr ad-Din Mosque; the title was employed by the leaders of the influential Ajuran Sultanate, the House of Garen. Ughaz: Authentic Somali term for "Sultan". Used throughout the northern and western Somali territories; the Gadabuursi in particular is the only clan with a longstanding tradition of Sultan. The Gadabursi gave their sultan the title of "Ughaz".
Boqor: Literally denotes King. However, in practice, it is the primus inter pares or "King of Kings"; the title is etymologically derived from one of the Afro-Asiatic Somali language terms for "belt", in recognition of the official's unifying role within society. According to Kobishchanow, Boqor is related to the style Paqar, employed by rulers in the early Nile Valley state of Meroe. Various Somali honorifics and designations have Boqor as their root; the latter include Boqortooyo, signifying "monarchy", "kingdom" or "empire". The title was used by rulers in the northeastern Puntland region of Somalia; the most prominent Boqor in recent times was Osman Mahamuud, who governed the Majeerteen Sultanate during its 19th-century heyday. Used among the Gadabuursi as the law of the King and the 100 men'. Gerad/Garad: Often employed interchangeably with "Suldaan" to denote a Sultan. Etymologically signifies "wisdom", "mind" or "understanding". According to Basset, the title corresponds with the honorific Al-Jaraad, used during the Middle Ages by Muslim governors in the Islamic parts of Ethiopia.
Gerad was employed throughout northern Somalia. Notable Gerads include Gerad Dhidhin, the founder of the Warsangali Sultanate, Gerad Lado, who built the sturdy wall around the ancient northern port city of Zeila. Imam: Denotes the Head of State. Style was used by rulers in the Sultanate of Adal and the Ajuran Sultanate. Notable Imams include Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi known as Ahmed Gurey or Gran, who led a military campaign during the Middle Ages known as the Conquest of Abyssinia. Emir: Used by leaders in the Adal Sultanate. Employed by commanders in the Ajuran Sultanate's armed forces and navy. Prominent Emirs include the Emir of Harar who built the great wall around the city. Amir: Prince. Honorific set aside for the hereditary son of the Sultan. Notable Princes include Ali Yusuf Kenadid, the son and heir of Sultan Yusuf Ali Kenadid of the Sultanate of Hobyo. Ina Boqor: Alternate court style for the Prince. A term used by Ajuran Empire and a powerful Ajuran princess called Faduma Sarjelle Wazir: Minister and/or tax and revenue collector.
Title used in the northern Majeerteen Sultanate and Sultanate of Hobyo, as well as the southern Ajuran Sultanate. Wazirs were quite common at the royal court of the medieval Sultanate of Mogadishu; when the Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta visited Mogadishu in 1331, he indicated that the city was ruled by a Somali Sultan from the northern Barbara region, who had a retinue of wazirs, legal experts, royal eunuchs, other officials at his service. Other notable wazirs include the maternal grandfather of the Somali General Abdullahi Ahmed Irro, part of the Sultanate of Hobyo's aristocratic contingent in the southern town of Kismayo. Boqortiishe: Viceroy. Style reserved for court officials governing territory on behalf of their Kingdom was used by Ajuran Empire that established many colonies and a famous ruler was Abd al-Aziz of Mogadishu who ruled Maldive islands on behalf of Ajuran Empire Wakiil-Boqor: Alternate court title designating a Viceroy. Na'ib/Naïb: Deputy or representative of the Sultan.
Duties included the administration of tribute, collected by court soldiers. Style was used in the Ajuran Majeerteen Sultanate and Sultanate of Hobyo. Qadi: Denotes a Chief Judge. Common title in northern Somalia, but used in the southern Ajuran Sultanate. Prominent Qadis include Abd al Aziz al-Amawi, an influential 19th-century diplomat, poet and scholar, appointed Qadi of the Kilwa Sultanate at the age of 18 by Muscat and Oman's Sultan Said bin Sultan. Boqorad: Literally translates as "Queen". Title reserved for the queen consort of the King. Amirad: Princess. Honorific set aside for the h
Somalia the Federal Republic of Somalia (Somali: Jamhuuriyadda Federaalka Soomaaliya. Jumhūrīyah aṣ-Ṣūmāl al-Fīdirālīyah, is a country located in the Horn of Africa, it is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djabuti to the northwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Guardafui Channel and Somali Sea to the east, Kenya to the southwest. Somalia has the longest coastline on Africa's mainland, its terrain consists of plateaus and highlands. Climatically, hot conditions prevail year-round, with periodic monsoon winds and irregular rainfall. Somalia has an estimated population of around 14.3 million. And has been described as the most culturally homogeneous country in Africa. Around 85% of its residents are ethnic Somalis, who have inhabited the northern part of the country. Ethnic minorities are concentrated in the southern regions; the official languages of are Arabic. Most people in the country are Muslim, with the majority being Sunni. In antiquity, Somalia was an important commercial centre, it is among the most probable locations of the fabled ancient Land of Punt.
During the Middle Ages, several powerful Somali empires dominated the regional trade, including the Ajuran Empire, the Adal Sultanate, the Warsangali Sultanate, the Sultanate of the Geledi. The toponym Somalia was coined by the Italian explorer Luigi Robecchi Bricchetti. In the late 19th century, the British and Italian empires established the colonies of British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland. In the interior, Mohammed Abdullah Hassan's Darwiish repelled the British four times, forcing a retreat to the coast, before succumbing in the Somaliland campaign. Italy acquired full control of the northeastern and southern parts of the area after waging the Campaign of the Sultanates against the ruling Majeerteen Sultanate and Sultanate of Hobyo. In 1960, the two regions united to form the independent Somali Republic under a civilian government; the Supreme Revolutionary Council seized power in 1969 and established the Somali Democratic Republic, which collapsed in 1991 as the Somali Civil War broke out.
During this period most regions returned to religious law. The early 2000s saw the creation of interim federal administrations; the Transitional National Government was established in 2000, followed by the formation of the Transitional Federal Government in 2004, which reestablished the military. In 2006, the TFG assumed control of most of the nation's southern conflict zones from the newly formed Islamic Courts Union; the ICU subsequently splintered into more radical groups such as Al-Shabaab, which battled the TFG and its AMISOM allies for control of the region. By mid-2012, the insurgents had lost most of the territory that they had seized, a search for more permanent democratic institutions began. A new provisional constitution was passed in August 2012; the same month, the Federal Government of Somalia was formed and a period of reconstruction began in Mogadishu. Somalia has maintained an informal economy based on livestock, remittances from Somalis working abroad, telecommunications, it is a member of the United Nations, the Arab League, African Union, Non-Aligned Movement and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
Somalia has been inhabited since at least the Paleolithic. During the Stone Age, the Doian and Hargeisan cultures flourished here; the oldest evidence of burial customs in the Horn of Africa comes from cemeteries in Somalia dating back to the 4th millennium BCE. The stone implements from the Jalelo site in the north were characterized in 1909 as important artefacts demonstrating the archaeological universality during the Paleolithic between the East and the West. According to linguists, the first Afroasiatic-speaking populations arrived in the region during the ensuing Neolithic period from the family's proposed urheimat in the Nile Valley, or the Near East; the Laas Geel complex on the outskirts of Hargeisa in northwestern Somalia dates back 5,000 years, has rock art depicting both wild animals and decorated cows. Other cave paintings are found in the northern Dhambalin region, which feature one of the earliest known depictions of a hunter on horseback; the rock art is in the distinctive Ethiopian-Arabian style, dated to 1,000 to 3,000 BCE.
Additionally, between the towns of Las Khorey and El Ayo in northern Somalia lies Karinhegane, the site of numerous cave paintings of real and mythical animals. Each painting has an inscription below it, which collectively have been estimated to be around 2,500 years old. Ancient pyramidical structures, ruined cities and stone walls, such as the Wargaade Wall, are evidence of an old civilization that once thrived in the Somali peninsula; this civilization enjoyed a trading relationship with ancient Egypt and Mycenaean Greece since the second millennium BCE, supporting the hypothesis that Somalia or adjacent regions were the location of the ancient Land of Punt. The Puntites traded myrrh, gold, short-horned cattle and frankincense with the Egyptians, Babylonians, Indians and Romans through their commercial ports. An Egyptian expedition sent to Punt by the 18th dynasty Queen Hatshepsut is recorded on the temple reliefs at Deir el-Bahari, during the reign of the Puntite King Parahu and Queen Ati.
In 2015, isotopic analysis of ancient baboon mummies from Punt, brought to Egypt as gifts indicated that the specimens originated from an area encompassing eastern Somalia and the Eritrea-Ethiopia corridor. In the classical era, the Macrobians, who may have b
An archaeological site is a place in which evidence of past activity is preserved, which has been, or may be, investigated using the discipline of archaeology and represents a part of the archaeological record. Sites may range from those with few or no remains visible above ground, to buildings and other structures still in use. Beyond this, the definition and geographical extent of a "site" can vary depending on the period studied and the theoretical approach of the archaeologist, it is invariably difficult to delimit a site. It is sometimes taken to indicate a settlement of some sort although the archaeologist must define the limits of human activity around the settlement. Any episode of deposition such as a hoard or burial can form a site as well. Development-led archaeology undertaken as cultural resources management has the disadvantage of having its sites defined by the limits of the intended development. In this case however, in describing and interpreting the site, the archaeologist will have to look outside the boundaries of the building site.
According to Jess Beck in "How Do Archaeologists find sites?" the areas with a large number of artifacts are good targets for future excavation, while areas with small number of artifacts are thought to reflect a lack of past human activity.” Many areas have been discovered by accident. The most common person to have found artifacts are farmers who are plowing their fields or just cleaning them up find archaeological artifacts. Many people who are out hiking and pilots find artifacts they end up reporting them to archaeologist to do further investigation; when they find sites, they have to first record the area and if they have the money and time for the site they can start digging. There are many ways to find sites, one example can be through surveys. Surveys involve walking around analyzing the land looking for artifacts, it can involve digging, according to the Archaeological Institute of America, “archaeologists search areas that were to support human populations, or in places where old documents and records indicate people once lived.”
This helps archaeologists in the future. In case there was no time, or money during the finding of the site, archaeologists can come back and visit the site for further digging to find out the extent of the site. Archaeologist can sample randomly within a given area of land as another form of conducting surveys. Surveys are useful, according to Jess Beck, “it can tell you where people were living at different points in the past.” Geophysics is a branch of survey becoming more and more popular in archaeology, because it uses different types of instruments to investigate features below the ground surface. It is not as reliable, because although they can see what is under the surface of the ground it does not produce the best picture. Archaeologists have to still dig up the area in order to uncover the truth. There are two most common types of geophysical survey, which is, magnetometer and ground penetrating radar. Magnetometry is the technique of mapping patterns of magnetism in the soil, it uses an instrument called a magnetometer, required to measure and map traces of soil magnetism.
The ground penetrating radar is a method. It uses electro magnetic radiation in the microwave band of the radio spectrum, detects the reflected signals from subsurface structures. There are many other tools that can be used to find artifacts, but along with finding artifacts, archaeologist have to make maps, they do so by taking data from surveys, or archival research and plugging it into a Geographical Information Systems and that will contain both locational information and a combination of various information. This tool is helpful to archaeologists who want to explore in a different area and want to see if anyone else has done research, they can use this tool to see what has been discovered. With this information available, archaeologists can expand their research and add more to what has been found. Traditionally, sites are distinguished by the presence of both features. Common features include the remains of houses. Ecofacts, biological materials that are the result of human activity but are not deliberately modified, are common at many archaeological sites.
In the cases of the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic eras, a mere scatter of flint flakes will constitute a site worthy of study. Different archaeologists may see an ancient town, its nearby cemetery as being two different sites, or as being part of the same wider site; the precepts of landscape archaeology attempt to see each discrete unit of human activity in the context of the wider environment, further distorting the concept of the site as a demarcated area. Furthermore, geoarchaeologists or environmental archaeologists would consider a sequence of natural geological or organic deposition, in the absence of human activity, to constitute a site worthy of study. Archaeological sites form through human-related processes but can be subject to natural, post-depositional factors. Cultural remnants which have been buried by sediments are in many environments more to be preserved than exposed cultural remnants. Natural actions resulting in sediment being deposited include aeolian natural processes. In jungles and other areas of lush plant growth, decomposed vegetative sediment can result in layers of soil deposited over remains.
Colluviation, the burial of a site by sediments moved by gravity can happen at sites on slopes. Human a
Las Khorey is an ancient coastal city in the northern Sanaag region of Somaliland. Situated in the Las Khorey District, it is notable as the historic capital of the Warsangali Sultanate; the Las Khorey settlement is several centuries old. Between the town and El Ayo lies Karinhegane, the site of numerous cave paintings of real and mythical animals; each painting has an inscription below it, which collectively have been estimated to be around 2,500 years old. Around 25 miles from Las Khorey is found Gelweita, another key rock art site. Karinhegane's rock art is in the same distinctive Ethiopian-Arabian style as the Laas Gaal cave paintings. Beginning in the early Middle Ages, Las Khorey served as the capital of the Warsangali Sultanate's ruling dynasty, including the influential Sultan Mohamoud Ali Shire. Sultan Shire administered his Sultanate from a large two-storey palace in the city, he maintained a fortress, though now in ruins, still remains an important historical structure. Northern Somaliland in general is home to numerous such archaeological sites, with similar edifices found at Haylan, Qa’ableh, Qombo'ul and El Ayo.
However, many of these old structures have yet to be properly explored, a process which would help shed further light on local history and facilitate their preservation for posterity. In July 2007, Las Khorey became part of the briefly-extant Maakhir autonomous region of Somalia; the polity was officially incorporated into Puntland state in January 2009. Las Khorey is a city, booming and experiencing a period of rapid growth as new small factories are being created and opened, including a fish factory; as with other cities and districts in the Sanaag region, Las Khorey's commercial and labor sectors were neglected by several of Somalia's various federal administrations, with the town's population count plummeting. However, this trend appears to be reversing, as many people have begun working in the city's new factories. Another reason for the growth in population is that after the civil war broke out, Somalis from the Warsangali sub-clan of the Darod began migrating back to their traditional strongholds in northern Somalia, including Las Khorey.
The city is surrounded by a mountain range referred to locally as Cal Madow, which has valuable but as yet unexploited mineral deposits. This is in addition to the area's overall unique natural habitat. Las Khorey has the Port of Las Khorey. Horn Relief, an organization founded by Somali environmentalist Fatima Jibrell, began a project for the redevelopment of the 400-year-old seaport; the initiative was taken up by Faisal Hawar, CEO of the Maakhir Resource Company. In 2012, he brokered an agreement with a Greek investment firm for the development of the commercial Las Khorey Port. A team of engineers was subsequently enlisted by the Puntland authorities to assess the ongoing renovations taking place at the seaport. According to the Minister of Ports, Saeed Mohamed Ragge, the Puntland government intends to launch more such development projects in Las Khorey; the nearest airport to Las Khorey is the Bender Qassim International Airport in Bosaso. Las Khorey has a population of around 8,400 inhabitants.
The broader Las Khorey District has a total population of 34,724 residents. The city is inhabited by people from the Somali ethnic group, with the Warsangali well-represented. Las Khorey has a number of academic institutions. According to the Puntland Ministry of Education, there are 8 primary schools in the Las Khorey District. Among these are Xidid, Ragaad and Ulxeed. Las Khorey has green mountains to its east known as Cal Madow; the Cal Madow mountain range is considered a world-class exploration area, with a petroleum system identical to and contiguous with those within the Republic of Yemen. Las Khorey boasts white beaches and crystal clear sea water flanked by an abundant reef; when not at the beach, visitors can visit coffee shops where khat is available, or an internet café. In addition, there are many hotels and guest houses ready to accommodate tourists; the best period during which to visit the city is between May. This coincides with the rainy season. On the outskirts of the city one can find mountains and grasslands, complete with wildlife and unique trees.
All of this serves to create a panoramic view. Farah Mohamed Jama Awl, author Laasqoray, Somalia