Kerepesi Cemetery is the most famous cemetery in Budapest. It is one of the oldest cemeteries in Hungary, completely preserved as an entity. Founded in 1847, Kerepesi is located in outer Józsefváros, near Keleti pályaudvar, can be reached via Budapest Metro line 2, it is the innermost cemetery of Budapest, although it still lies about 2 km from the downtown centre. Kerepesi is one of the biggest National Pantheons in Europe and the biggest outdoor statue park with its area of about 56 hectares, it is sometimes referred to as the Père Lachaise of Budapest. The cemetery's first burial took place some two years after its opening, in 1849. Since numerous Hungarian notables have been interred there, several of them in ornate tombs or mausoleums; this was encouraged by the decision of the municipal authorities to declare Kerepesi a'ground of honour' in 1885. The first notable burial was that of Mihály Vörösmarty in 1855; until the 1940s, several tombs were removed to this cemetery from others in Budapest – for example, it is the fourth resting place of the poet Attila József.
The cemetery was declared closed for burials in 1952. This was because it had become damaged during World War II, for political reasons, as the Communist government sought to play down the graves of those who had'exploited the working class'. At one point it was intended to build a housing estate over the cemetery. Part of the grounds were in fact handed over to a nearby rubber factory and were destroyed in 1953. In 1958, a Mausoleum for the Labour movement was created by Olcsai-Kiss Zoltán. During the Communist period this was the only part of the cemetery highlighted or mentioned by the authorities. After the fall of communism, Kerepesi was still considered by some as a Communist cemetery; the cemetery, with its extended parks among the graves and monuments, is today open to the public, but interments have ceased. The Salgotarjani Street Jewish Cemetery is the eastern corner of the Kerepesi Cemetery, but it is separated from it by a stone wall. In 1874, a special parcel was established for those.
The cemetery is famous for its Arcades, built between 1908–1911, recalling the style of Northern Italian cemeteries. The artists' sector – in which each tomb contains a notable Hungarian representative of the arts – was created in 1929. Kerepesi contains three mausoleums of leading Hungarian statesmen: Lajos Batthyány Ferenc Deák Lajos Kossuth There is a notable mausoleum for Ábrahám Ganz, built to the plans of Miklós Ybl in 1868. Other notables include: Endre Ady Ignác Alpár József Antall János Arany Mihály Babits Béla Balázs Miklós Barabás Jenő Barcsay István Bethlen Lujza Blaha Ottó Bláthy Ferenc Chorin Ádám Clark Tivadar Csontváry Kosztka Gergely Czuczor Dezső Szabó Béni Egressy Loránd Eötvös Ferenc Erkel János Fadrusz György Faludy Ferenc Fejtő Károly Ferenczy János Garay Artúr Görgey Alajos Hauszmann Jenő Heltai George de Hevesy Gyula Horn Miklós Izsó Mari Jászai Mór Jókai Attila József János Kádár Pál Kadosa Kálmán Kandó Mihály Károlyi Karl-Maria Kertbeny Károly Kisfaludy Dezső Kosztolányi Gyula Krúdy Ödön Lechner Lipót Fejér Károly Lotz Georg Lukács Viktor Madarász Ferenc Mádl Ignác Martinovics Ferenc Medgyessy László Mednyánszky Kálmán Mikszáth Zsigmond Móricz Mihály Munkácsy Karl Polanyi Tivadar Puskás Miklós Radnóti Frigyes Riesz Ignaz Semmelweis Imre Steindl Alajos Stróbl Antal Szerb Leó Szilárd Mihály Táncsics Ármin Vámbéry Mihály Vörösmarty – his tomb is one of the oldest extant tombs: he was interred in 1855 Leó Weiner Sándor Wekerle Miklós Ybl György Zala Mihály Zichy Note: This list is far from complete.
The full list of notable persons would include about 700 names. Their complete listing is available in a free booklet available at the cemetery. Lukacs Csernus and Zsigmond Triff, The Cemeteries of Budapest, Budapest, 1999. ISBN 963-8376-98-8 Farkasréti Cemetery Múlt-kor article Budapest Funeral Institute, including A slideshow of the most notable monuments an overview of the cemetery List of celebrities
Extortion is a criminal offense of obtaining money, property, or services from an individual or institution, through coercion. It is sometimes euphemistically referred to as a "protection racket" since the racketeers phrase their demands as payment for "protection" from threats from unspecified other parties. Extortion is practiced by organized crime groups; the actual obtainment of money or property is not required to commit the offense, making a threat of violence which refers to a requirement of a payment of money or property to halt future violence is sufficient to commit the offense. Exaction refers not only to extortion or the demanding and obtaining of something through force, but additionally, in its formal definition, means the infliction of something such as pain and suffering or making somebody endure something unpleasant; the term extortion is used metaphorically to refer to usury or to price-gouging, though neither is considered extortion. It is often used loosely to refer to everyday situations where one person feels indebted against their will, to another, in order to receive an essential service or avoid legal consequences.
Neither extortion nor blackmail requires a threat of a criminal act, such as violence a threat used to elicit actions, money, or property from the object of the extortion. Such threats include the filing of reports of criminal behavior to the police, revelation of damaging facts, etc. In law, the word extortion can refer to political corruption, such as selling one's office or influence peddling, but in general vocabulary the word first brings to mind blackmail or protection rackets; the logical connection between the corruption sense of the word and the other senses is that to demand bribes in one's official capacity is blackmail or racketeering in essence. Extortion is distinguished from robbery. In robbery, whether armed or not, the offender takes property from the victim by the immediate use of force or fear that force will be used. Extortion, not limited to the taking of property, involves the verbal or written instillation of fear that something will happen to the victim if they do not comply with the extortionist's will.
Another key distinction is that extortion always involves a verbal or written threat, whereas robbery does not. In United States federal law, extortion can be committed with or without the use of force and with or without the use of a weapon. In blackmail, which always involves extortion, the extortionist threatens to reveal information about a victim or their family members, embarrassing damaging, or incriminating unless a demand for money, property, or services is met. In the United States, extortion may be committed as a federal crime across a computer system, phone, by mail, or in using any instrument of interstate commerce. Extortion requires that the individual sent the message willingly and knowingly as elements of the crime; the message only has to be sent to commit the crime of extortion. In England and Wales extorting property and money by coercion is the offence of Blackmail which covers any "unwarranted demand with menaces" including physical threats. See section 21 of the Theft Act 1968 plus sections 29 and 30 of the Larceny Act 1916.
A group of people may be committing conspiracy. Extortion is a common law offence in Scotland of using threat of harm to demand money, property or some advantage from another person, it does not matter whether the demand itself is legitimate as the offence can still be committed when illegitimate threats of harm are used. Cyberextortion is when an group uses the internet as an offensive force; the group or individual sends a company a threatening email stating that they have received confidential information about their company and will exploit a security leak or launch an attack that will harm the company's network. The message sent through the email demands money in exchange for the prevention of the attack. In March 2008, Anthony Digati was arrested on federal charges of extortion through interstate communication. Digati put $50,000 into a variable life insurance policy by New York Life Insurance Company and wanted a return of $198,303.88. When the firm didn't comply, he threatened to send out 6 million spam emails.
He registered a domain in February 2008 that contained New York Life's name in the URL to display false public statements about the company and increased his demand to $3 million. According to prosecutors, Digati's intent was not to inform or educate but he wanted to "damage the reputation of New York Life and cost the company millions of dollars in revenue,”. New York Life contacted the Federal Bureau of Digati was apprehended. On February 15, 2011, Spanish police apprehended a man who attempted to blackmail Nintendo over customer information he had stolen; the man stole personal information about 4,000 users and emailed Nintendo Ibérica, Nintendo's Spanish division, accused the company of data negligence. He threatened the company that he would make the information public and complain to the Spanish Data Agency if his demands were not met. After Nintendo ignored his demands, he published some of the informati
Hans Christian Andersen
Hans Christian Andersen was a Danish author. Although a prolific writer of plays, travelogues and poems, Andersen is best remembered for his fairy tales. Andersen's popularity is not limited to children: his stories express themes that transcend age and nationality. Andersen's fairy tales, of which no fewer than 3381 works have been translated into more than 125 languages, have become culturally embedded in the West's collective consciousness accessible to children, but presenting lessons of virtue and resilience in the face of adversity for mature readers as well, his most famous fairy tales include "The Emperor's New Clothes", "The Little Mermaid", "The Nightingale", "The Snow Queen", "The Ugly Duckling", "The Little Match Girl" and "Thumbelina". His stories have inspired ballets and animated and live-action films. One of Copenhagen's widest and busiest boulevards is named "H. C. Andersens Boulevard". Hans Christian Andersen was born in Odense, Denmark on 2 April 1805, he was an only child. Andersen's father Hans, considered himself related to nobility.
A persistent speculation suggests that Andersen was an illegitimate son of King Christian VIII, but this notion has been challenged. Andersen's father, who had received an elementary school education, introduced Andersen to literature, reading to him the Arabian Nights. Andersen's mother, Anne Marie Andersdatter, was an illiterate washerwoman. Following her husband's death in 1816, she remarried in 1818. Andersen was sent to a local school for poor children where he received a basic education and had to support himself, working as an apprentice to a weaver and to a tailor. At fourteen, he moved to Copenhagen to seek employment as an actor. Having an excellent soprano voice, he was accepted into the Royal Danish Theatre, but his voice soon changed. A colleague at the theatre told him. Taking the suggestion Andersen began to focus on writing. Jonas Collin, director of the Royal Danish Theatre, held great affection for Andersen and sent him to a grammar school in Slagelse, persuading King Frederick VI to pay part of the youth's education.
Andersen had by published his first story, "The Ghost at Palnatoke's Grave". Though not a stellar pupil, he attended school at Elsinore until 1827, he said his years in school were the darkest and most bitter of his life. At one school, he lived at his schoolmaster's home, where he was abused, being told that it was "to improve his character", he said the faculty had discouraged him from writing, driving him into a depression. A early fairy tale by Andersen, "The Tallow Candle", was discovered in a Danish archive in October 2012; the story, written in the 1820s, was about a candle. It was written while Andersen was still in school and dedicated to a benefactor in whose family's possession it remained until it turned up among other family papers in a local archive. In 1829, Andersen enjoyed considerable success with the short story "A Journey on Foot from Holmen's Canal to the East Point of Amager", its protagonist meets characters ranging from Saint Peter to a talking cat. Andersen followed this success with a theatrical piece, Love on St. Nicholas Church Tower, a short volume of poems.
Although he made little progress writing and publishing thereafter, in 1833 he received a small travel grant from the king, thus enabling him to set out on the first of many journeys through Europe. At Jura, near Le Locle, Andersen wrote the story "Agnete and the Merman", he spent an evening in the Italian seaside village of Sestri Levante the same year, inspiring the title of "The Bay of Fables". In October 1834, he arrived in Rome. Andersen's travels in Italy were to be reflected in his first novel, a fictionalized autobiography titled The Improvisatore, published in 1835 to instant acclaim. Andersen's initial attempts at writing fairy tales were revisions of stories that he heard as a child, his original fairy tales were not met with recognition, due to the difficulty of translating them. In 1835, Andersen published the first two installments of his Fairy Tales. More stories, completing the first volume, were published in 1837; the collection comprises nine tales, including "The Tinderbox", "The Princess and the Pea", "Thumbelina", "The Little Mermaid" and "The Emperor's New Clothes".
The quality of these stories was not recognized, they sold poorly. At the same time, Andersen enjoyed more success with two novels, O. T. and Only a Fiddler. Much of his work was influenced by the Bible as when he was growing up Christianity was important in the Danish culture. After a visit to Sweden in 1837, Andersen became inspired by Scandinavism and committed himself to writing a poem that would convey the relatedness of Swedes and Norwegians. In July 1839, during a visit to the island of Funen, Andersen wrote the text of his poem Jeg er en Skandinav to capture "the beauty of the Nordic spirit, the way the three sister nations have grown together" as part of a Scandinavian national anthem. Composer Otto Lindblad set the poem to music, the composition was published in January 1840, its popularity peaked in 1845, after which it was sung. Andersen returned to the fairy tale genre in 1838 with another collection, Fairy Tales Told for Children. New Collection. First Booklet (Eventyr, fortalte for Børn.
János Arany was a Hungarian journalist, writer and translator. He is said to be the "Shakespeare of ballads" – he wrote more than 102 ballads been translated into over 50 languages, as well as the Toldi trilogy, to mention his most famous works, he was born in Bihar county, Kingdom of Hungary, Austrian Empire. He was the youngest of ten children, but because of tuberculosis running in the family, only two of them lived beyond childhood. At the time of his birth, his older sister Sára was married and his parents, György Arany and Sára Megyeri, were 60 and 44 years old, respectively. János Arany learned to read and write early on, was reported to read anything he could find in Hungarian and Latin. Since his parents needed support early in Arany's life, he began working at the age of 14 as an associate teacher. From 1833 he attended the Reformed College of Debrecen where he studied German and French, though he became tired of scholarly life, temporarily joined an acting troupe. On, he worked in Nagyszalonta and Budapest as teacher, newspaper editor, in various clerk positions.
In 1840 he married Julianna Ercsey. They had two children, whose early death by pneumonia devastated the poet, László, who became a poet and a collector of Hungarian folktales. In 1845, he won the competition of the Kisfaludy Society with his writing, "Az elveszett alkotmány". After Toldi, one of his most famous works, was published, he and Sándor Petőfi became close friends. Petőfi's death in the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 had a great impact on him, he was employed as a teacher in Nagykőrös. Arany was elected a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in 1858, he was the secretary-general of the Academy from 1865. He was elected director of the Kisfaludy Society, the greatest literary association of Hungary; the early death of his daughter, Julianna in 1865 marked the beginning of Arany's hiatus as a poet. He did not write any original pieces until the summer of 1877, when he began working on his poetic cycle entitled Őszikék, different from his previous works, concerning themes like elderliness, or the imminence of death.
Arany died in Budapest on 22 October 1882. He translated three dramas of Shakespeare into Hungarian, A Midsummer Night's Dream and King John, they are considered to be some of the greatest translations into Hungarian in history; the epic poetry of János Arany presents the historical past of his nation. The Death of King Buda, the first part of a projected Hun trilogy is one of the best narrative poems in Hungarian literature; the other parts of the trilogy are unfinished. One of his most famous poems is A Walesi Bárdok'. Arany wrote this poem when Franz Joseph I of Austria visited Hungary for the first time after defeating the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. Arany was asked to write a poem to praise the Emperor but he wrote a piece concerning the campaigns of Edward I of England to subjugate the Welsh and trample over their culture. Arany was drawing a parallel here with Austria's treatment of Hungary and the Hungarians, his poem Dante is one of those few verses in Western literature that can seize concisely the whole meaning and transcendency of human life.
Some remarkable pieces of Arany's works have been translated to English by Watson Kirkconnell. Arany is today considered as one of the greatest Hungarian poets beside Sándor Petőfi, Endre Ady, Miklós Radnóti and Attila József; the first scientific monograph on Arany was written by Frigyes Riedl. The Arany-album, a Folk metal album by Hungarian band Dalriada is based on popular works by Arany, it won the 2009 HangSúly Hungarian Metal Awards out of 70 contestants. A postage stamp was issued on 1 July 1932 to honor Arany. On 15 September 1957 another postage stamp was issued. On 10 July 2017 a souvenir sheet of four stamps was issued. Dante The Legend of the Miraculous Hind or The Legend of the Wondrous Hunt Years, O Years That Are Still to Come I Lay Down the Lyre In Autumn Retrospect Memorials The Bards of Wales On the Slope Family Circle The Nightingale Reply to Petőfi The Mother of King Matthias The Two Pages of Szondi Duel at Midnight Bier-right or Ordeal by Blood Becky Scarlet Corn Husking Annie with Golden Hair The Seamstress Girls Consecration of the Bridge Mistress Aggie / Mistress Agnes Imprisoned Souls Works by János Arany at Project Gutenberg Works by or about János Arany at Internet Archive Works by János Arany at LibriVox The Bards of Wales – translated by Watson Kirkconnell The Bards of Wales – translated by Bernard Adams Epics of the Hungarian Plain The Legend of the Wondrous Hunt Interview: A contemporary translator, Ádám Nádasdy, compares his own translations of Shakespeare with the translations made by János Arany at the Wayback Machine János Arany at Find a Grave
Karl Heinrich Ulrichs
Karl Heinrich Ulrichs was a German writer, seen today as a pioneer of the modern gay rights movement. Ulrichs was born in Aurich in Lower Saxony part of the Kingdom of Hanover. Ulrichs recalled that as a young child he wore girls' clothes, preferred playing with girls, wanted to be a girl. In 1839, at the age of fourteen, his riding instructor sexually abused him, he graduated in law and theology from Göttingen University in 1846. From 1846 to 1848, he studied history at Berlin University, writing a dissertation in Latin on the Peace of Westphalia. From 1849 to 1857 Ulrichs worked as an official legal adviser for the district court of Hildesheim in the Kingdom of Hanover, he was dismissed. In 1862, Ulrichs took the momentous step of telling his family and friends that he was, in his own words, an Urning, began writing under the pseudonym of "Numa Numantius", his first five essays, collected as Forschungen über das Rätsel der mannmännlichen Liebe, explained such love as natural and biological, summed up with the Latin phrase anima muliebris virili corpore inclusa.
In these essays, Ulrichs coined various terms to describe different sexual orientations, including Urning for a man who desires men, Dioning for one who desires women. These terms are in reference to a section of Plato's Symposium in which two kinds of love are discussed, symbolised by an Aphrodite, born from a male, an Aphrodite, born from a female. Ulrichs coined words for the female counterparts, for bisexuals and intersexual persons, he soon began publishing under his real name and wrote a statement of legal and moral support for a man arrested for homosexual offences. On 29 August 1867 Ulrichs became the first homosexual to speak out publicly in defence of homosexuality when he pleaded at the Congress of German Jurists in Munich for a resolution urging the repeal of anti-homosexual laws, he was shouted down. Two years in 1869, the Austrian writer Karl-Maria Kertbeny coined the word "homosexual", from the 1870s the subject of sexual orientation began to be discussed. In the 1860s, Ulrichs moved around Germany, always writing and publishing, always in trouble with the law — though always for his words rather than for sexual offences.
In 1864, his books were banned by police in Saxony. The same thing happened in Berlin, his works were banned throughout Prussia; some of these papers were found in the Prussian state archives and were published in 2004. Several of Ulrichs's more important works are back in print, both in German and in translation. Ulrichs was a patriotic Hannoverian, when Prussia annexed Hannover in 1866 he was imprisoned for opposing Prussian rule; the next year he left Hannover for good and moved to Munich, where he addressed the Association of German Jurists on the need to reform German laws against homosexuality. He lived in Würzburg and Stuttgart. In 1879, Ulrichs published the twelfth and final book of his Research on the Riddle of Man-Manly Love. In poor health, feeling he had done all he could in Germany, he went into self-imposed exile in Naples. For several years he travelled around the country before settling in L'Aquila, where his health improved, he continued to publish his works at his own expense.
In 1895, he received an honorary diploma from the University of Naples. Shortly afterwards he died in L'Aquila, his gravestone is marked, "Exile and Pauper." "Pauper" may have been a bit of a romantic licence. Ulrichs lived in L'Aquila as the guest of a local landowner, Marquis Niccolò Persichetti, who gave the eulogy at his funeral. At the end of his eulogy, he said: But with your loss, oh Karl Heinrich Ulrichs, the fame of your works and your virtue will not disappear... but rather, as long as intelligence, learning, insight and science are cultivated on this earth and survive the weakness of our bodies, as long as the noble prominence of genius and knowledge are rewarded, we and those who come after us will shed tears and scatter flowers on your venerated grave. Late in life Ulrichs wrote: Until my dying day I will look back with pride that I found the courage to come face to face in battle against the spectre which for time immemorial has been injecting poison into me and into men of my nature.
Many have been driven to suicide. Indeed, I am proud that I found the courage to deal the initial blow to the hydra of public contempt. Forgotten for many years, Ulrichs became something of a cult figure in Europe in the late 1980s. There are streets named for him in Munich, Bremen and Berlin, his birthday is marked each year by a lively street party and poetry reading at Karl-Heinrich-Ulrichs-Platz in Munich. The city of L'Aquila hosts the annual pilgrimage to the cemetery. Gay rights advocates were aware of their debt to Ulrichs. Magnus Hirschfeld referenced Ulrichs in his The Homosexuality of Men and Women. Volkmar Sigusch called Ulrichs the "first gay man in world history."In Ulrichs' memory, the International Lesbian and Gay Law Association presents a Karl Heinrich Ulrichs Award for distinguished contributions to the advancement of sexual equality. During his stay in Italy, he devoted himself, between 1889 and 1895, to the international use of Latin with the publishing of the literary review Alaudae, disseminated and made known many European Latin poets of his time.
Alfred de Musset
Alfred Louis Charles de Musset-Pathay was a French dramatist and novelist. Along with his poetry, he is known for writing the autobiographical novel La Confession d'un enfant du siècle. Musset was born in Paris, his family was upper-class but poor and his father worked in various key government positions, but never gave his son any money. His mother came from similar circumstances, her role as a society hostess – for example her drawing-room parties and dinners held in the Musset residence – left a lasting impression on young Alfred. Early indications of Musset's boyhood talents were seen by his fondness for acting impromptu mini-plays based upon episodes from old romance stories he had read. Years elder brother Paul de Musset would preserve these, many other details, for posterity, in a biography on his famous younger brother. Alfred de Musset entered the lycée Henri-IV at the age of nine, where in 1827 he won the Latin essay prize in the Concours général. With the help of Paul Foucher, Victor Hugo's brother-in-law, he began to attend, at the age of 17, the Cénacle, the literary salon of Charles Nodier at the Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal.
After attempts at careers in medicine, drawing and piano, he became one of the first Romantic writers, with his first collection of poems, Contes d'Espagne et d'Italie. By the time he reached the age of 20, his rising literary fame was accompanied by a sulphurous reputation fed by his dandy side, he was the librarian of the French Ministry of the Interior under the July Monarchy. His politics were of a Liberal stamp and he was on good terms with the family of Louis Philippe I. During this time he involved himself in polemics during the Rhine crisis of 1840, caused by the French prime minister Adolphe Thiers, who as Minister of the Interior had been Musset's superior. Thiers had demanded that France should own the left bank of the Rhine, as it had under Napoleon, despite the territory's German population; these demands were rejected by German songs and poems, including Nikolaus Becker's Rheinlied, which contained the verse: "Sie sollen ihn nicht haben, den freien, deutschen Rhein...". Musset answered to this with a poem of his own: "Nous l'avons eu, votre Rhin allemand".
The tale of his celebrated love affair with George Sand in 1833–1835 is told from his point of view in his autobiographical novel La Confession d'un Enfant du Siècle, made into a 1999 film, Children of the Century, a 2012 film, Confession of a Child of the Century, is told from her point of view in her Elle et lui. Musset's Nuits traces the emotional upheaval of his love for Sand from early despair to final resignation, he is believed to be the anonymous author of Gamiani, or Two Nights of Excess, a lesbian erotic novel believed to be modeled on Sand. Musset was dismissed from his post as librarian by the new minister Ledru-Rollin after the revolution of 1848, he was, appointed librarian of the Ministry of Public Instruction in 1853. On 24 April 1845 Musset received the Légion d'honneur at the same time as Balzac, was elected to the Académie française in 1852 after two failed attempts in 1848 and 1850. Alfred de Musset died in his sleep in Paris in 1857; the cause was the combination of alcoholism and a longstanding aortic insufficiency.
One symptom, noticed by his brother was a bobbing of the head as a result of the amplification of the pulse. He was buried in Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris; the French poet Arthur Rimbaud was critical of Musset's work. Rimbaud wrote in his Letters of a Seer that Musset did not accomplish anything because he "closed his eyes" before the visions. Director Jean Renoir's La règle du jeu was inspired by Musset's play Les Caprices de Marianne. Henri Gervex's 1878 painting Rolla was based on a poem by De Musset, it was rejected by the jury of the Salon de Paris for immorality, since it features suggestive metaphors in a scene from the poem, with a naked prostitute after having sex with her client, but the controversy helped Gervex's career. Numerous composers wrote works using Musset's poetry during the early 20th century. Georges Bizet's opera Djamileh is based on Musset's story Namouna. Bizet set Musset's poem "A Une Fleur" for voice and piano. Ruggero Leoncavallo's symphonic poem; the play La Coupe et les lèvres was the basis of Giacomo Puccini's opera Edgar.
Dame Ethel Smyth composed an opera based on Fantasio that premiered in Weimar in 1898. The Welsh composer Morfydd Llwyn Owen wrote song settings for Musset's La Tristesse and Chanson de Fortunio. Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco's Cielo di settembre, op. 1 for solo piano takes its name from a line of Musset's poem "A quoi rêvent les jeunes filles". The score, in the original publication, is preceded by that line, "Mais vois donc quel beau ciel de septembre…" Lili Boulanger's Pour les funérailles d'un soldat for baritone, mixed chorus and orchestra is a setting of several lines from Act IV of Musset's play La Coupe et les lèvres. Rebecca Clarke's Viola Sonata is prefaced by two lines from Musset's La Nuit de Mai; the opera Andrea del Sarto by French composer Jean-Yves Daniel-Lesur was based on Musset's play
Richard von Krafft-Ebing
Richard Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing was an Austro–German psychiatrist and author of the foundational work Psychopathia Sexualis. Krafft-Ebing was born in 1840 in Mannheim, studied medicine at the University of Heidelberg, where he specialized in psychiatry, he practiced in psychiatric asylums. After leaving his work in asylums, he pursued a career in psychiatry and hypnosis, he died in Graz in 1902. He was recognized as an authority on its medicolegal aspects. Krafft-Ebing's principal work is Psychopathia Sexualis: eine Klinisch-Forensische Studie, first published in 1886 and expanded in subsequent editions; the last edition from the hand of the author contained a total of 238 case histories of human sexual behaviour. Translations of various editions of this book introduced to English such terms as "sadist", "masochist", "homosexuality", "necrophilia", "anilingus". Psychopathia Sexualis is a forensic reference book for psychiatrists and judges. Written in an academic style, its introduction noted that, to discourage lay readers, the author had deliberately chosen a scientific term for the title of the book and that he had written parts of it in Latin for the same purpose.
Psychopathia Sexualis was one of the first books about sexual practices that studied homosexuality/bisexuality. It proposed consideration of the mental state of sex criminals in legal judgements of their crimes. During its time, it became the leading medico–legal textual authority on sexual pathology; the twelfth and final edition of Psychopathia Sexualis presented four categories of what Krafft-Ebing called "cerebral neuroses": paradoxia, sexual excitement occurring independently of the period of the physiological processes in the generative organs anaesthesia, absence of sexual instinct hyperaesthesia, increased desire, satyriasis paraesthesia, perversion of the sexual instinct, i.e. excitability of the sexual functions to inadequate stimuliThe term "hetero-sexual" is used, but not in chapter or section headings. The term "bi-sexuality" appears twice in the 7th edition, more in the 12th. There is no mention of sexual activity with children in Chapter III, General Pathology, where the "cerebral neuroses" are covered.
Various sexual acts with children are mentioned in Chapter IV, Special Pathology, but always in the context of specific mental disorders, such as dementia and paranoia, never as resulting from its own disorder. However, Chapter V on sexual crimes has a section on sexual crimes with children; this section is brief in the 7th edition, but is expanded in the 12th to cover Non-Psychopathological Cases and Psychopathological Cases, in which latter subsection the term paedophilia erotica is used. Krafft-Ebing considered procreation the purpose of sexual desire and that any form of recreational sex was a perversion of the sex drive. "With opportunity for the natural satisfaction of the sexual instinct, every expression of it that does not correspond with the purpose of nature—i.e. Propagation,—must be regarded as perverse." Hence, he concluded that homosexuals suffered a degree of sexual perversion because homosexual practices could not result in procreation. In some cases, homosexual libido was classified as a moral vice induced by the early practice of masturbation.
Krafft-Ebing proposed a theory of homosexuality as biologically anomalous and originating in the embryonic and fetal stages of gestation, which evolved into a "sexual inversion" of the brain. In 1901, in an article in the Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen, he changed the biological term from anomaly to differentiation. Although the primary focus is on sexual behavior in men, there are sections on Sadism in Woman, Masochism in Woman, Lesbian Love. Several of the cases of sexual activity with children were committed by women. Krafft-Ebing’s conclusions about homosexuality are now forgotten because Sigmund Freud’s theories were more interesting to physicians and because he incurred the enmity of the Austrian Catholic Church when he psychologically associated martyrdom with hysteria and masochism. Die Melancholie: Eine klinische Studie OCLC 180728044 Grundzüge der Kriminalpsychologie für Juristen OCLC 27460358 Psychopathia Sexualis: eine Klinisch-Forensische Studie Die progressive allgemeine Paralyse OCLC 65980497 Nervosität und neurasthenische Zustände OCLC 9633149 Domino Falls translated and edited Psychopathia Sexualis:The Case Histories ISBN 978-0-9820464-7-0 Charles Gilbert Chaddock translated four of Krafft-Ebing's books into English: An Experimental Study in the Domain of Hypnotism Psychosis Menstrualis Psychopathia Sexualis Text Book of Insanity Paraphilia Sexual fetishism Sexology Johnson, J, "Psychopathia Sexualis.", The Manchester medical gazette, 53, pp. 32–4, PMID 4596802 Kupferschmidt, H, "Richard von Krafft-Ebing's "Psychopathia sexualis".
Pornography or professional literature?", Schweiz. Rundsch. Med. Prax. 76, pp. 563–9, PMID 3306869 Unknown author, "Richard Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing.