Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity. It encompasses the study of the Greco-Roman world of its languages and literature but of Greco-Roman philosophy and archaeology. Traditionally in the West, the study of the Greek and Roman classics was considered one of the cornerstones of the humanities and a fundamental element of a rounded education; the study of classics has therefore traditionally been a cornerstone of a typical elite education. Study encompasses a time-period of history from the mid-2nd millennium BC to the 6th century AD; the word classics is derived from the Latin adjective classicus, meaning "belonging to the highest class of citizens". The word was used to describe the members of the highest class in ancient Rome. By the 2nd century AD the word was used in literary criticism to describe writers of the highest quality. For example, Aulus Gellius, in his Attic Nights, contrasts "classicus" and "proletarius" writers. By the 6th century AD, the word had acquired a second meaning.
Thus the two modern meanings of the word, referring both to literature considered to be of the highest quality, to the standard texts used as part of a curriculum, both derive from Roman use. In the Middle Ages and education were intertwined. Medieval education taught students to imitate earlier classical models, Latin continued to be the language of scholarship and culture, despite the increasing difference between literary Latin and the vernacular languages of Europe during the period. While Latin was hugely influential, Greek was studied, Greek literature survived solely in Latin translation; the works of major Greek authors such as Hesiod, whose names continued to be known by educated Europeans, were unavailable in the Middle Ages. In the thirteenth century, the English philosopher Roger Bacon wrote that "there are not four men in Latin Christendom who are acquainted with the Greek and Arabic grammars."Along with the unavailability of Greek authors, there were other differences between the classical canon known today and the works valued in the Middle Ages.
Catullus, for instance, was entirely unknown in the medieval period. The popularity of different authors waxed and waned throughout the period: Lucretius, popular during the Carolingian period, was read in the twelfth century, while for Quintilian the reverse is true; the Renaissance led to the increasing study of both ancient literature and ancient history, as well as a revival of classical styles of Latin. From the 14th century, first in Italy and increasingly across Europe, Renaissance Humanism, an intellectual movement that "advocated the study and imitation of classical antiquity", developed. Humanism saw a reform in education in Europe, introducing a wider range of Latin authors as well as bringing back the study of Greek language and literature to Western Europe; this reintroduction was initiated by Petrarch and Boccaccio who commissioned a Calabrian scholar to translate the Homeric poems. This humanist educational reform spread from Italy, in Catholic countries as it was adopted by the Jesuits, in countries that became Protestant such as England and the Low Countries, in order to ensure that future clerics were able to study the New Testament in the original language.
The late 17th and 18th centuries are the period in Western European literary history, most associated with the classical tradition, as writers consciously adapted classical models. Classical models were so prized that the plays of William Shakespeare were rewritten along neoclassical lines, these "improved" versions were performed throughout the 18th century. From the beginning of the 18th century, the study of Greek became important relative to that of Latin. In this period Johann Winckelmann's claims for the superiority of the Greek visual arts influenced a shift in aesthetic judgements, while in the literary sphere, G. E. Lessing "returned Homer to the centre of artistic achievement". In the United Kingdom, the study of Greek in schools began in the late 18th century; the poet Walter Savage Landor claimed to have been one of the first English schoolboys to write in Greek during his time at Rugby School. The 19th century saw the influence of the classical world, the value of a classical education, decline in the US, where the subject was criticised for its elitism.
By the 19th century, little new literature was still being written in Latin – a practice which had continued as late as the 18th century – and a command of Latin declined in importance. Correspondingly, classical education from the 19th century onwards began to de-emphasise the importance of the ability to write and speak Latin. In the United Kingdom this process took longer than elsewhere. Composition continued to be the dominant classical skill in England until the 1870s, when new areas within the discipline began to increase in popularity. In the same decade came the first challenges to the requirement of Greek at the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, though it would not be abolished for another 50 years. Though the influence of classics as the dominant mode of education in Europe and North America was in decline in the 19th century, the discipline was evolving in the same period. Classical scholarship was becoming more systematic and scientific with the "new philology" created at the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century.
Its scope was broadening: it was during the 19th century that ancient history and classical archaeology began to be s
Theatre of ancient Greece
The ancient Greek drama was a theatrical culture that flourished in ancient Greece from 700 BC. The city-state of Athens, which became a significant cultural and military power during this period, was its center, where it was institutionalised as part of a festival called the Dionysia, which honored the god Dionysus. Tragedy and the satyr play were the three dramatic genres to emerge there. Athens exported the festival to its numerous colonies; the word τραγῳδία, from which the word "tragedy" is derived, is a compound of two Greek words: τράγος or "goat" and ᾠδή meaning "song", from ἀείδειν, "to sing". This etymology indicates a link with the practices of the ancient Dionysian cults, it is impossible, however, to know with certainty how these fertility rituals became the basis for tragedy and comedy. The classical Greek valued the power of spoken word, it was their main method of communication and storytelling. Bahn and Bahn write, "To Greeks the spoken word was a living thing and infinitely preferable to the dead symbols of a written language."
Socrates himself believed that once something has been written down, it lost its ability for change and growth. For these reasons, among many others, oral storytelling flourished in Greece. Greek tragedy as we know it was created in Athens around the time of 532 BC, when Thespis was the earliest recorded actor. Being a winner of the first theatrical contest held in Athens, he was the exarchon, or leader, of the dithyrambs performed in and around Attica at the rural Dionysia. By Thespis' time, the dithyramb had evolved far away from its cult roots. Under the influence of heroic epic, Doric choral lyric and the innovations of the poet Arion, it had become a narrative, ballad-like genre; because of these, Thespis is called the "Father of Tragedy". Thus, Thespis's true contribution to drama is unclear at best, but his name has been given a longer life, in English, as a common term for performer — i.e. a "thespian." The dramatic performances were important to the Athenians – this is made clear by the creation of a tragedy competition and festival in the City Dionysia.
This was organized to foster loyalty among the tribes of Attica. The festival was created around 508 BC. While no drama texts exist from the sixth century BC, we do know the names of three competitors besides Thespis: Choerilus and Phrynichus; each is credited with different innovations in the field. Some is known about Phrynichus, he won his first competition between 511 BC and 508 BC. He produced tragedies on themes and subjects exploited in the golden age such as the Danaids, Phoenician Women and Alcestis, he was the first poet we know of to use a historical subject – his Fall of Miletus, produced in 493-2, chronicled the fate of the town of Miletus after it was conquered by the Persians. Herodotus reports that "the Athenians made clear their deep grief for the taking of Miletus in many ways, but in this: when Phrynichus wrote a play entitled "The Fall of Miletus" and produced it, the whole theatre fell to weeping, he is thought to be the first to use female characters. Until the Hellenistic period, all tragedies were unique pieces written in honour of Dionysus and played only once, so that today we have the pieces that were still remembered well enough to have been repeated when the repetition of old tragedies became fashionable.
After the Great Destruction of Athens by the Persian Empire in 480 BCE, the town and acropolis were rebuilt, theatre became formalized and an greater part of Athenian culture and civic pride. This century is regarded as the Golden Age of Greek drama; the centre-piece of the annual Dionysia, which took place once in winter and once in spring, was a competition between three tragic playwrights at the Theatre of Dionysus. Each submitted a satyr play. Beginning in a first competition in 486 BC each playwright submitted a comedy. Aristotle claimed that Aeschylus added the second actor, that Sophocles introduced the third; the Greek playwrights never used more than three actors based on what is known about Greek theatre. Tragedy and comedy were viewed as separate genres, no plays merged aspects of the two. Satyr plays dealt with the mythological subject matter of the tragedies, but in a purely comedic manner; the power of Athens declined following its defeat in the Peloponnesian War against the Spartans.
From that time on, the theatre started performing old tragedies again. Although its theatrical traditions seem to have lost their vitality, Greek theatre continued into the Hellenistic period. However, the primary Hellenistic theatrical form was not tragedy but'New Comedy', comic episodes about the lives of ordinary citizens; the only extant playwright from the period is Menander. One of New Comedy's most important contributions was its influence
Reichenbach im Vogtland
Reichenbach im Vogtland is a town in the Vogtlandkreis district of Saxony, Germany. With a population of 20,928, it is the second largest town in the Vogtlandkreis after Plauen, it lies by the A72 between Zwickau. Reichenbach im Vogtland originated as a settlement of the Franks and thanks its early growth to its convenient position in a valley near Mylau Castle. In 1212 it was named Richenbach because of the many wetland basins in the area which now hosts the Altstadt, it received town privileges around 1240 and was mentioned in 1271 in a decree as "civitatis richenbach", a recognized small city with autonomous rights to defend itself and hold municipal elections. Much of the Reichenbach history was lost in the city fires of 1720, 1773, 1833; the foundations of the Peter Paul parish church still date back to the 12th century. The rise of industrialisation allowed the city to grow further, again promoted by its accessibility. Sewing and weaving were Reichenbach's main trades, but in the 19th century the metal working industry settled in the city and in the early 20th century, there was a rise of the pulp and paper industry and printing works.
Some of Reichenbach's most remarkable structures date from this era, including its Rathaus, the railway station, world's largest brick bridge, the Göltzsch Viaduct. Reichenbach im Vogtland has had a rather insignificant role in World War II. On March 21, 1945, American bombings destroyed or damaged many buildings. Against the orders of the National Socialists, Mayor Dr. Otto Schreiber capitulated the city on April 17 without a fight; the town was occupied by American troops, who handed over control to the Red Army on July 1. About 120 innocent youth aged 15 and 16 were taken in custody and transferred to the Soviet Union's secret service, hoping all other citizens would be spared. After Germany was split up, Reichenbach im Vogtland became part of East Germany; the population has since declined from nearly 35,000 to little over 20,000 today. As was the case with many former East German industrial cities, the 1991 German reunification caused many workers to lose their jobs and they started to move away.
Many initiatives have since been deployed to rebuild the local economy. There are still many industrial buildings in Reichenbach with a high historic value, but with little appeal; the administrative district of Reichenbach has grown since the early 20th century to include the quarters and villages of Brunn, Friesen, Obermylau, Oberreichenbach and Schneidenbach, has had a collaborative relationship with Heinsdorfergrund since 2000. Schneidenbach kam am 1. Januar 1999 hinzu. Reichenbach station is part of the Leipzig–Hof line; this line includes the Göltzsch Viaduct, the largest brick bridge in the world, which lies 4 km west of the town. The Neuberinhaus is a local historical and theatrical museum, named after the town's most famous citizen, actress Friederike Caroline Neuber, nicknamed "the Neuberin". Permanent expositions include 18th century German theatre and the town's history; the Park der Generationen, the gardens of the 5th Saxon Landesgartenschau held between May 1 and October 18, 2009.
Reichenbach im Vogtland has a telecommunication tower of Deutsche Telekom erected out of concrete, which includes a VHF broadcasting station for among others Vogtlandradio. It is not to be confused with the tower in Reichenbach; the Westsächsische Hochschule Zwickau - University of Applied Sciences Zwickau teaches Architecture at bachelor and master level and Textile- and Leather Craftsmanship. The city has a gymnasium, a middle school, three primary schools, a special school for the physically and mentally challenged. Middle school students attend schools in the surrounding towns. Georg Lenck, musician Friederike Caroline Neuber and director Karl Böttiger and classicist Johann Friedrich Krause, theologian Fedor Flinzer, author and illustrator August Horch, automobile pioneer Richard Benz, historian Rudolf Krause, racing driver Karl Nitz, judo athlete Josef Bachmann, activist Jürgen Fuchs, author and DDR dissident Henry Stöhr, judo athlete Official website Local churches and denominations
New American Cyclopædia
The New American Cyclopædia was an encyclopedia created and published by D. Appleton & Company of New York in 16 volumes, which appeared between 1858 and 1863, its primary editors were Charles Anderson Dana. The New American Cyclopædia was revised and republished as the American Cyclopædia in 1873; the New American Cyclopædia was a general encyclopedia with a special focus on subjects related to the United States. As it was created over the years spanning the American Civil War, the focus and tone of articles could change drastically; as was traditional, the entire set was re-issued with the publication in 1863 of the 16th volume. The whole Cyclopædia was again re-issued in 1864. A notable contributor was Karl Marx a European correspondent for the New York Tribune, appeared as the writer, while most of those articles were written by Friedrich Engels the articles on military affairs, which belonged in Engels' domain in the division of labor between the two friends; because of his deep knowledge of all things military, Engels had earned the nickname "General".
Marx wrote a unsympathetic biographical article on Simon Bolivar. Other prominent contributors to the first edition included An associated yearbook, Appletons' Annual cyclopaedia and register of important events of the year, was published from 1861 to 1875 and on to 1901; the cyclopaedia was revived under the title American Cyclopædia in 1873-6. A final edition was issued in 1883-4. Two analytical indexes were published separately in 1878 and 1884. Carl Burnham. "The New American Cyclopedia, 1857 – 1866: A Time Capsule of the 19th century". Rare Book Monthly. Retrieved 2018-01-28. Lists of encyclopedias Links to digitized volumes of the American Cyclopædia George Ripley; the American Cyclopaedia. New York: D. Appleton and Company
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Johann Wolfgang Goethe was a German writer and statesman. His works include four novels. In addition, there are numerous literary and scientific fragments, more than 10,000 letters, nearly 3,000 drawings by him extant. A literary celebrity by the age of 25, Goethe was ennobled by the Duke of Saxe-Weimar, Karl August, in 1782 after taking up residence there in November 1775 following the success of his first novel, The Sorrows of Young Werther, he was an early participant in the Sturm und Drang literary movement. During his first ten years in Weimar, Goethe was a member of the Duke's privy council, sat on the war and highway commissions, oversaw the reopening of silver mines in nearby Ilmenau, implemented a series of administrative reforms at the University of Jena, he contributed to the planning of Weimar's botanical park and the rebuilding of its Ducal Palace. In 1998 both these sites together with nine others were designated a UNESCO World Heritage site under the name Classical Weimar. Goethe's first major scientific work, the Metamorphosis of Plants, was published after he returned from a 1788 tour of Italy.
In 1791, he was made managing director of the theatre at Weimar, in 1794 he began a friendship with the dramatist and philosopher Friedrich Schiller, whose plays he premiered until Schiller's death in 1805. During this period, Goethe published Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship, his conversations and various common undertakings throughout the 1790s with Schiller, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Johann Gottfried Herder, Alexander von Humboldt, Wilhelm von Humboldt, August and Friedrich Schlegel have come to be collectively termed Weimar Classicism. The German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer named Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship one of the four greatest novels written, while the American philosopher and essayist Ralph Waldo Emerson selected Goethe as one of six "representative men" in his work of the same name. Goethe's comments and observations form the basis of several biographical works, notably Johann Peter Eckermann's Conversations with Goethe. Goethe's father, Johann Caspar Goethe, lived with his family in a large house in Frankfurt an Imperial Free City of the Holy Roman Empire.
Though he had studied law in Leipzig and had been appointed Imperial Councillor, he was not involved in the city's official affairs. Johann Caspar married Goethe's mother, Catharina Elizabeth Textor at Frankfurt on 20 August 1748, when he was 38 and she was 17. All their children, with the exception of Johann Wolfgang and his sister, Cornelia Friederica Christiana, born in 1750, died at early ages, his father and private tutors gave Goethe lessons in all the common subjects of their time languages. Goethe received lessons in dancing and fencing. Johann Caspar, feeling frustrated in his own ambitions, was determined that his children should have all those advantages that he had not. Although Goethe's great passion was drawing, he became interested in literature, he had a lively devotion to theater as well and was fascinated by puppet shows that were annually arranged in his home. He took great pleasure in reading works on history and religion, he writes about this period: I had from childhood the singular habit of always learning by heart the beginnings of books, the divisions of a work, first of the five books of Moses, of the'Aeneid' and Ovid's'Metamorphoses'....
If an busy imagination, of which that tale may bear witness, led me hither and thither, if the medley of fable and history and religion, threatened to bewilder me, I fled to those oriental regions, plunged into the first books of Moses, there, amid the scattered shepherd tribes, found myself at once in the greatest solitude and the greatest society. Goethe became acquainted with Frankfurt actors. Among early literary attempts, he was infatuated with Gretchen, who would reappear in his Faust and the adventures with whom he would concisely describe in Dichtung und Wahrheit, he adored Caritas Meixner, a wealthy Worms trader's daughter and friend of his sister, who would marry the merchant G. F. Schuler. Goethe studied law at Leipzig University from 1765 to 1768, he detested learning age-old judicial rules by heart, preferring instead to attend the poetry lessons of Christian Fürchtegott Gellert. In Leipzig, Goethe fell in love with Anna Katharina Schönkopf and wrote cheerful verses about her in the Rococo genre.
In 1770, he anonymously released his first collection of poems. His uncritical admiration for many contemporary poets vanished as he became interested in Gotthold Ephraim Lessing and Christoph Martin Wieland. At this time, Goethe wrote a good deal, but he threw away nearly all of these works, except for the comedy Die Mitschuldigen; the restaurant Auerbachs Keller and its legend of Faust's 1525 barrel ride impressed him so much that Auerbachs Keller became the only real place in his closet drama Faust Part One. As his studies did not progress, Goethe was forced to return to Frankfurt at the close of August 1768. Goethe became ill in Frankfurt. Durin
Pottery of ancient Greece
Ancient Greek pottery, due to its relative durability, comprises a large part of the archaeological record of ancient Greece, since there is so much of it, it has exerted a disproportionately large influence on our understanding of Greek society. The shards of pots discarded or buried in the 1st millennium BC are still the best guide available to understand the customary life and mind of the ancient Greeks. There were several vessels produced locally for everyday and kitchen use, yet finer pottery from regions such as Attica was imported by other civilizations throughout the Mediterranean, such as the Etruscans in Italy. There were various specific regional varieties, such as the South Italian ancient Greek pottery. Throughout these places, various types and shapes of vases were used. Not all were purely utilitarian; some were decorative and meant for elite consumption and domestic beautification as much as serving a storage or other function, such as the krater with its usual use in diluting wine.
Earlier Greek styles of pottery, called "Aegean" rather than "Ancient Greek", include Minoan pottery sophisticated by its final stages, Cycladic pottery, Minyan ware and Mycenaean pottery in the Bronze Age, followed by the cultural disruption of the Greek Dark Age. As the culture recovered Sub-Mycenaean pottery blended into the Protogeometric style, which begins Ancient Greek pottery proper; the rise of vase painting saw increasing decoration. Geometric art in Greek pottery was contiguous with the late Dark Age and early Archaic Greece, which saw the rise of the Orientalizing period; the pottery produced in Archaic and Classical Greece included at first black-figure pottery, yet other styles emerged such as red-figure pottery and the white ground technique. Styles such as West Slope Ware were characteristic of the subsequent Hellenistic period, which saw vase painting's decline. Interest in Greek art lagged behind the revival of classical scholarship during the Renaissance and revived in the academic circle round Nicholas Poussin in Rome in the 1630s.
Though modest collections of vases recovered from ancient tombs in Italy were made in the 15th and 16th centuries these were regarded as Etruscan. It is possible. Winckelmann's Geschichte der Kunst des Alterthums of 1764 first refuted the Etruscan origin of what we now know to be Greek pottery yet Sir William Hamilton's two collections, one lost at sea the other now in the British Museum, were still published as "Etruscan vases". Much of the early study of Greek vases took the form of production of albums of the images they depict, however neither D'Hancarville's nor Tischbein's folios record the shapes or attempt to supply a date and are therefore unreliable as an archaeological record. Serious attempts at scholary study made steady progress over the 19th century starting with the founding of the Instituto di Corrispondenza in Rome in 1828, followed by Eduard Gerhard's pioneering study Auserlesene Griechische Vasenbilder, the establishment of the journal Archaeologische Zeitung in 1843 and the Ecole d'Athens 1846.
It was Gerhard who first outlined the chronology we now use, namely: Orientalizing, Black Figure, Red Figure, Polychromatic. It was Otto Jahn's 1854 catalogue Vasensammlung of the Pinakothek, that set the standard for the scientific description of Greek pottery, recording the shapes and inscriptions with a unseen fastidousness. Jahn's study was the standard textbook on the history and chronology of Greek pottery for many years, yet in common with Gerhard he dated the introduction of the red figure technique to a century than was in fact the case; this error was corrected when the Aρχαιολογικη'Εταιρεια undertook the excavation of the Acropolis in 1885 and discovered the so-called "Persian debris" of red figure pots destroyed by Persian invaders in 480 BC. With a more soundly established chronology it was possible for Adolf Furtwängler and his students in the 1880s and 90s to date the strata of his archaeological digs by the nature of the pottery found within them, a method of seriation Flinders Petrie was to apply to unpainted Egyptian pottery.
Where the 19th century was a period of discovery and the laying out of first principles, the 20th century has been one of consolidation and intellectual industry. Efforts to record and publish the totality of public collections of vases began with the creation of the Corpus vasorum antiquorum under Edmond Pottier and the Beazley archive of John Beazley. Beazley and others following him have studied fragments of Greek pottery in institutional collections, have attributed many painted pieces to individual artists. Scholars have called these fragments disjecta membra and in a number of instances have been able to identify fragments now in different collections that belong to the same vase; the names we use for Greek vase shapes are a matter of convention rather than historical fact, a few do illustrate their own use or are labeled with their original names, others are the result of early archaeologists attempt to reconcile the physical object with a known name from Greek literature – not always successfully.
To understand the relation