Anthony Frederick Wilding was a New Zealand world No. 1 tennis player and soldier, killed in action during World War I. Considered the world's first tennis superstar, Wilding was the son of wealthy English immigrants to Christchurch, New Zealand and enjoyed the use of private tennis courts at their home, he obtained a legal education at Trinity College and joined his father's law firm. Wilding was a keen motorcycle enthusiast, his tennis career started with him winning the Canterbury Championships aged 17. He developed into a leading tennis player in the world during 1909–1914 and is considered to be a former world No. 1. He won 11 Grand Slam tournament titles, six in singles and five in doubles, is the first and to date only player from New Zealand to have won a Grand Slam singles title, he won three ILTF World Championships. Wilding won the Davis Cup four times playing for Australasia, won a bronze medal at the indoor singles tennis event of the 1912 Olympics which made him the first and to date only player from New Zealand to win an Olympic medal in tennis in the Summer Olympics.
He still holds several all time singles tennis records, namely 23 titles won in a single season and 114 career outdoor titles. In his ranking list of greatest tennis players compiled in 1950, Norman Brookes, winner of three Majors and president of the Lawn Tennis Association of Australia, put Wilding in fourth place. Shortly after the outbreak of World War I he enlisted and was killed on 9 May 1915 during the Battle of Aubers Ridge at Neuve-Chapelle, France. In 1978 Wilding was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame. Wilding was the second of five children of Frederick Wilding and Julia Anthony and was named after both parents. Cora Wilding was a younger sister. Wilding's parents emigrated from Herefordshire, England to Christchurch, New Zealand after their marriage in 1879, his father was a well-to-do lawyer in Christchurch who played tennis and won several doubles championships of New Zealand. His mother was the daughter of mayor of Hereford. At their farmlet, situated on the banks of the Heathcote River to the south of the town, they had two tennis courts.
Wilding started playing tennis in 1889, at age six, after receiving a racquet from manufacturer Ralph Slazenger. He was first educated at William Wilson's private school for boys in Cranmer Square, where he was captain of the school football team at age 12. Wilding passed his matriculation in 1901 after failing at his first attempt in 1900, he attended a term at the Canterbury University College for six months prior to departing on his seven-week sea voyage to England in July 1902 where he first stayed at a cramming school at Hunstanton before passing his entrance examination for Trinity College, Cambridge University to study law. There he developed his tennis game as a member of the Cambridge University Lawn Tennis Club. In March 1904, during his second year, he became honorary secretary of the club and managed to popularize the game, he visited the 1903 Wimbledon Championships to see former champion Harold Mahony play. Although Wilding did not excel academically he passed the law examination and graduated B.
A. in June 1905 after which he returned to New Zealand to join his father's law practice. Finishing his education, he was called to the English Bar at the Inner Temple in June 1906. In October 1901 at the age of 17 Wilding won his first singles title at the Canterbury Championships. In July 1903, during his first summer vacation at Trinity College, Wilding entered his first English public tournament at Sheffield and Hallamshire, he reached the semifinal of the singles event, defeating English top-10 player F. W. Payn in the second round, before losing to G. C. Allen. At the 1903 Brighton tournament he won the mixed doubles partnering Dorothea Douglass, the reigning Wimbledon ladies champion. Wilding worked diligently on improving his backhand during the winter of 1903–04, he made his first appearance at the Wimbledon Championships in June 1904, defeating Albert Prebble in the first round of the singles event before losing to Harold Mahony in four sets. He was pleased to take a set from the 1896 champion: "To my great delight I captured a set and made Mahony talk to himself a great deal".
Shortly afterwards, at the Welsh Championships, he reached his first singles final which he lost in straight sets to S. H. Smith, he won his first title in England at the Championships of Shropshire followed by a win at the Thompson Challenge Cup in Redhill. In August 1904 Wilding won the Scottish national championships in Moffat, defeating C. J. Glenny in the final. At his second Wimbledon appearance he came back from two-sets down to defeat William Clothier in the fourth round but lost in the quarterfinal against the experienced Arthur Gore. In July 1905 he made his first Davis Cup appearance as part of the Australasia team in the semifinal against Austria, played at the Queen's Club, London. Australasia won 5–0 and Wilding won both his singles matches but in the final they were defeated 5–0 by the United States and Wilding admitted to have been outclassed in his straight-sets defeats by William Larned and Beals Wright. After two tournament victories at minor events in New Barnet and Redhill Wilding went on his first tour of the European circuit which brought him into contact with the European upper class and aristocracy who frequented these tournaments.
In August he won the Pöseldorf Cup in Hamburg followed by a title win at the Championship of Eur
Margaret Brown, posthumously known as "The Unsinkable Molly Brown", was an American socialite and philanthropist. She is best remembered for encouraging the crew in Lifeboat No. 6 to return to the debris field of the 1912 sinking of RMS Titanic to look for survivors. Accounts differ on whether the boat returned to look for survivors, if so, whether any survivors were found. During her lifetime, her friends called her "Maggie", but by her death, obituaries referred to her as the "Unsinkable Mrs. Brown"; the reference was further reinforced by a 1960 Broadway musical based on her life and its 1964 film adaptation which were both entitled The Unsinkable Molly Brown. Margaret Tobin was born in a small three-room cottage, near the Mississippi River in Hannibal, Missouri, on what is now known as Denkler's alley, her parents were Johanna Tobin. Her siblings were Daniel Tobin, Michael Tobin, William Tobin, Helen Tobin. Both of Margaret's parents had been widowed young. Brown had two half-sisters: Catherine Bridget Tobin, by her father's first marriage, Mary Ann Collins, by her mother's first marriage.
At age 18, Margaret relocated to Leadville, with her siblings Daniel Tobin, Mary Ann Collins Landrigan, Mary Ann's husband John Landrigan. Margaret and her brother Daniel shared a two-room log cabin, she found a job in a department store. In Leadville, she met and married James Joseph Brown, nicknamed "J. J.", an enterprising, self-educated man. He wasn't a rich man, but she married J. J. for love. She said, I wanted a rich man, but I loved Jim Brown. I thought about how I wanted comfort for my father and how I had determined to stay single until a man presented himself who could give to the tired old man the things I longed for him. Jim was as poor as we were, had no better chance in life. I struggled hard with myself in those days. I loved Jim. I decided that I'd be better off with a poor man whom I loved than with a wealthy one whose money had attracted me. So I married Jim Brown. Margaret and J. J. were married in Leadville's Annunciation Church on September 1, 1886. They had two children: Lawrence Palmer Brown, known as Larry and Catherine Ellen Brown, known as Helen.
The Brown family acquired great wealth when in 1893 J. J.'s mining engineering efforts proved instrumental in the production of a substantial ore seam at the Little Jonny Mine of his employers, Ibex Mining Company, he was awarded 12,500 shares of stock and a seat on the board. In Leadville, Margaret helped by working in soup kitchens to assist miners' families. In 1894, the Browns bought a $30,000 Victorian mansion in Denver, in 1897, they built a summer house, Avoca Lodge in Southwest Denver near Bear Creek, which gave the family more social opportunities. Margaret became a charter member of the Denver Woman's Club, whose mission was the improvement of women's lives by continuing education and philanthropy. Adjusting to the trappings of a society lady, Brown became well-immersed in the arts and fluent in French, German and Russian. Brown co-founded a branch in Denver of the Alliance Française to promote her love of French culture. Brown gave parties that were attended by Denver socialites, but she was unable to gain entry into the most elite group, Sacred 36, who attended exclusive bridge parties and dinners held by Louise Sneed Hill.
Brown called her "the snobbiest woman in Denver". After 23 years of marriage, Margaret and J. J. signed a separation agreement in 1909. Although they never reconciled, they continued to communicate and cared for each other throughout their lives; the agreement gave Margaret a cash settlement, she maintained possession of the house on Pennsylvania Street in Denver and the summer house, Avoca Lodge. She received a $700 monthly allowance to continue her travels and social work. Brown assisted in fundraising for Denver's Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, completed in 1911, she worked with Judge Ben Lindsey to help destitute children and establish one of the United States' first juvenile courts, which helped form the basis of the modern U. S. juvenile courts system. Brown had spent the first months of 1912 traveling in Egypt as part of the John Jacob Astor IV party, until she received word from Denver that her eldest grandchild Lawrence Palmer Brown Jr. was ill. She booked passage on the first available liner leaving for New York, the RMS Titanic.
Her daughter Helen was supposed to accompany her, but she decided to stay on in Paris, where she was studying at the Sorbonne. Brown was conveyed to the passenger liner RMS Titanic as a first class passenger on the evening of April 10, aboard the tender SS Nomadic at Cherbourg, France; the Titanic sank early on April 15, 1912, at around 2:20 a.m. after striking an iceberg at around 11:40 p.m. Brown helped others board the lifeboats but was persuaded to leave the ship in Lifeboat No. 6. Brown was called "The Unsinkable Molly Brown" by authors because she helped in the ship's evacuation, taking an oar herself in her lifeboat and urging that the lifeboat go back and save more people, her urgings were met with opposition from Quartermaster Robert Hichens, the crewman in charge of Lifeboat 6. Hichens was fearful that if they went back, the lifeboat would either be pulled down due to suction or the people in the water would swamp the boat in an effort to get in. After several attempts to urge Hichens to turn back, Brown threatened to throw the crewman overboard.
Sources vary as to whether the boat went back and if they found
RMS Carpathia was a Cunard Line transatlantic passenger steamship built by Swan Hunter & Wigham Richardson in their shipyard in Newcastle upon Tyne, England. Carpathia made her maiden voyage in 1903 from Liverpool to Boston, continued on this route before being transferred to Mediterranean service in 1904. In April 1912, she became famous for rescuing the survivors of rival White Star Line's RMS Titanic after the latter struck an iceberg and sank with a loss of 1,517 lives in the North Atlantic Ocean. Carpathia braved dangerous ice fields and diverted all steam power to her engines in her rescue mission, she arrived only two hours after Titanic had sunk and rescued 705 survivors from the ship's lifeboats. Carpathia herself was sunk on 17 July 1918 after being torpedoed by the German submarine SM U-55 off the southern Irish coast with a loss of five crew members; the name of the ship comes from the mountain range of the Carpathians. Around 1900, the Cunard Line faced tight competition from the British White Star Line and the German lines Norddeutscher Lloyd and Hamburg America Line.
Cunard's largest liners, as of 1898 RMS Campania and RMS Lucania, had a reputation for size and speed, both being of 12,950 gross register tons and having held the "Blue Riband" for the fastest crossing of the Atlantic Ocean. However, Norddeutscher Lloyd's new liner SS Kaiser Wilhelm der Große had taken the Blue Riband from them in 1897, while White Star was planning to place a new 17,000-GRT liner, RMS Oceanic into service. Cunard updated its fleet during this time, ordering three new liners, SS Ivernia, RMS Saxonia, Carpathia. Rather than attempting to regain prestige by spending the additional money necessary to order liners that were fast enough to win back the Blue Riband from the German Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse or large enough to rival Oceanic in size, Cunard tried to maximize their profitability in order to remain solvent enough to fend off any takeover attempts by competing shipping conglomerate International Mercantile Marine Co.. The three new ships were not fast, as they were designed for the immigrant trade, but provided significant cost savings in fuel economy.
The three ships became both instruments and models through which Cunard was able to compete with its larger rivals – most notably IMM's lead company, White Star Line. Carpathia was a modified design of the Ivernia-class ships, being 40 feet shorter than her "half-sisters." Like her predecessors, her design was based on a long hull, a low, well-balanced superstructure, four masts fitted with cranes, allowing for effective handling of larger amounts of cargo than was customary on an ocean liner. Carpathia was designed with a single tall smokestack funnel to carry soot and smoke well clear of passenger areas. RMS Carpathia was constructed by C. S. Swan & Hunter at their Newcastle upon Tyne, England shipyard for the Cunard Steamship Company, to operate between Liverpool and Boston alongside Ivernia and Saxonia, she was laid down on 10 September 1901, launched on 6 August 1902, when she was christened by Miss Watson, daughter of the vice-chairman of the Cunard line. She underwent her sea trials on a voyage from the River Tyne to the River Mersey between 22 and 25 April 1903.
At the time of her launch, she was described as being 558 ft long, 64 ft 3 in breadth, with gross register tonnage of 12,900. As completed her gross register tonnage had increased to more than 13,500, she was designed with "four complete steel decks, a steel orlop deck in Nos. 1 and 2 holds, a bridge deck 290 ft. long for passenger and cabins" with a boat deck above this. At the time she was launched, it was said that she was to be fitted for carrying 200 first-class and 600 third-class passengers and large quantities of frozen meat; as completed, her capacity had increased to about 1,700 passengers. Despite being an intermediate liner designed for the second and third-class trade, Carpathia's interior accommodations were still quite comfortable and set a standard for the day; the dining saloon was described as decorated in "cream and gold, which combine with the rich upholstery and mahogany of the...furniture...and old gold curtains screening the ports," and was capped by a stained-glass dome underneath an electrical fan for ventilation.
The second-class accommodation included a walnut-panelled smoking room located in the aft deckhouse and a handsome library at the forward end of the bridge deck. After the 1905 renovation, these spaces would be converted to first-class accommodation. Third-class accommodation on Carpathia were extraordinarily generous for the time; the third-class dining saloon extended the full width of the ship and seated 300 passengers, with "walls panelled in polished oak and teak dado." Third-class included a smoking room and ladies' room located forward of the dining saloon on the upper deck, adjacent to the enclosed promenade similar to the design on Ivernia and Saxonia. Officers were berthed in the forward deckhouse on the bridge deck, above the second-class dining saloon, while the captain's quarters was located on the boat deck below the ship's bridge. Carpathia's lower decks were well-ventilated by means of deck ventilators, supplemented by electric fans; the ventilation systems were designed to force fresh air over coiled thermotanks, which could be fed with cool water during the summer or steam during the winter, thus heating and cooling the ship as conditions warranted.
Although the ship was electrified with over 2,000 lamps, the ship still had backup oil lamps in the cabins when she entered service. Carpathia had seven single-ended boilers, fitted with the Howden forced draught system, working at 210 psi (1,400
Sir Norman Everard Brookes was an Australian tennis player. During his career he won three Grand Slam singles titles, Wimbledon in 1907 and 1914 and the Australasian Championships in 1911. Brookes was part of the Australasian Davis Cup team; the Australian Open men's singles trophy, the Norman Brookes Challenge Cup, is named in his honour. After his active playing career Brookes became president of the Lawn Tennis Association of Australia. Brookes was born in Melbourne to William Brookes, his older brothers and Harold, were prominent businessmen. Their father, an English immigrant, had become rich from gold mining in the Bendigo area. Brookes received a private education at Melbourne Grammar School. On leaving school, he went to work as a clerk at Australian Paper Mills, where his father was managing director, was on the board himself within eight years. Brookes married 20-year-old Mabel Balcombe Emmerton, the daughter of Harry Emmerton, a solicitor, on 19 April 1911 at St Paul's Cathedral in Melbourne.
They had three daughters. During World War I he served as commissioner of the Australian Red Cross in Egypt, he died in South Yarra, Victoria, in 1968. As a youth Brookes played on the court of the family mansion in Queens Road and nearby, at the Lorne St courts, he studied the strokes and tactics of leading players and was coached by Wilberforce Eaves. Brookes was the first non-British player and the first left-hander to win the men's singles title at Wimbledon, he won the title twice, first in 1907, defeating Arthur Gore in the final and again in 1914, this time winning the final against New Zealander Anthony Wilding. He won the Wimbledon doubles title in each of those years partnering Wilding, he was a major figure in establishing the Australian Open, which he won in 1911. Brookes played 39 Davis Cup matches for Australia/New Zealand and the Australian Davis Cup Team between 1905 and 1920 and was a member of the winning team in 1907, 1908, 1909, 1914, 1919. In May 1914 he won the singles title at the Surrey Lawn Championships in Surbiton, defeating Gordon Lowe in the final in five sets.
Brookes was instrumental in the development of Kooyong as a tennis centre. In 1926 he became the first president of the Lawn Tennis Association of Australia, a post he held for the next 29 years until his retirement in June 1955. Brookes was an Australian rules footballer in his youth for Melbourne Grammar School; until 2016 it was believed that he had played two VFL games for St Kilda in 1898. Norman Brookes was knighted "in recognition of service to public service" in 1939, his wife, Lady Brookes became Dame Mabel Brookes in 1955 for her work in charities and social causes. The trophy for men's singles at the Australian Open, the Norman Brookes Challenge Cup, is named in his honour, he was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 1977. In 1981 he was honoured on a postage stamp issued by Australia Post depicting a cartoon image by Tony Rafty. Naughton, Richard; the Wizard: The story of Norman Brookes, Australia's first Wimbledon champion. Docklands, Vic.: The Slattery Media Group.
ISBN 978-1921778414. Brookes, Mabel. Memoirs. Melbourne: Macmillan. ISBN 9780333139899. OCLC 1532297. Norman Brookes at the International Tennis Hall of Fame Norman Brookes at the International Tennis Federation Norman Brookes at the Association of Tennis Professionals Norman Brookes at the Davis Cup
J. Bruce Ismay
Joseph Bruce Ismay was an English businessman who served as chairman and managing director of the White Star Line. In 1912, he came to international attention as the highest-ranking White Star official to survive the sinking of the company's brand new flagship RMS Titanic, for which he was subject to severe criticism. Ismay was born in Lancashire, he was the son of daughter of ship-owner Luke Bruce. Thomas Ismay was the senior partner in Ismay and Company and the founder of the White Star Line; the younger Ismay was educated at Elstree School and Harrow tutored in France for a year. He was apprenticed at his father's office for four years, he went to New York City as the company representative rising to the rank of agent. Bruce was one of the founding team of Liverpool Ramblers football club in 1882. On 4 December 1888, Ismay married Julia Florence Schieffelin, daughter of George Richard Schieffelin and Julia Matilda Delaplaine of New York, with whom he had five children: Margaret Bruce Ismay, who married George Ronald Hamilton Cheape in 1912 Henry Bruce Ismay Thomas Bruce Ismay, who married Jane Margaret Seymour Evelyn Constance Ismay, who married Basil Sanderson in 1927 George Bruce Ismay, who married Florence Victoria Edrington in 1926.
In 1891, Ismay returned with his family to the United Kingdom and became a partner in his father's firm, Ismay and Company. In 1899, Thomas Ismay died, Bruce Ismay became head of the family business. Ismay had a head for business, the White Star Line flourished under his leadership. In addition to running his ship business, Ismay served as a director of several other companies. In 1901, he was approached by Americans who wished to build an international shipping conglomerate, which agreed to merge his firm into the International Mercantile Marine Company. After the death of his father on 23 November 1899, Bruce Ismay succeeded him as the chairman of White Star Line, he decided to build four ocean liners to surpass the RMS Oceanic built by his father: the ships were dubbed the Big Four: RMS Celtic, RMS Cedric, RMS Baltic, RMS Adriatic. These vessels were designed more for luxury than for speed. In 1902, Ismay negotiated the sale of the White Star Line to J. P. Morgan & Co., organising the formation of International Mercantile Marine Company, an Atlantic shipping combine which absorbed several major American and British lines.
IMM was a holding company. Morgan hoped to dominate transatlantic shipping through interlocking directorates and contractual arrangements with the railroads, but that proved impossible because of the unscheduled nature of sea transport, American antitrust legislation, an agreement with the British government. White Star Lines became one of the IMM operating companies and, in February 1904, Ismay became president of the IMM, with the support of Morgan. In 1907, Ismay met Lord Pirrie of the Harland & Wolff shipyard to discuss White Star's answer to the RMS Lusitania and the RMS Mauretania, the unveiled marvels of their chief competitor, Cunard Line. Ismay's new type of ship would not be as fast as their competitors, but it would have huge steerage capacity and luxury unparalleled in the history of ocean-going steamships; the latter feature was meant to attract the wealthy and the prosperous middle class. Three ships of the Olympic Class were built, they were in RMS Titanic and RMS Britannic. In a controversial move, during construction of the first two Olympic class liners, Ismay authorized the projected number of lifeboats reduced from 48 to 16, the latter being the minimum allowed by the Board of Trade, based on the RMS Olympic's tonnage.
Ismay accompanied his ships on their maiden voyages, this was the case with the Titanic. During the voyage, Ismay talked with either chief engineer Joseph Bell or Captain Edward J. Smith about a possible test of speed if time permitted. After the ship collided with an iceberg 400 miles south of the Grand Banks of Newfoundland on the night of 14 April 1912, Ismay bore the full brunt of his errors in the ship's lifeboat capacity when it was made clear the ship would founder before any rescue ships would reach the area. Ismay stepped aboard Collapsible C, launched less than 20 minutes before the ship went down, he testified that as the ship was in her final moments, he turned away, unable to watch his creation sink beneath the waters of the North Atlantic. Collapsible C was picked up by the Carpathia about 3–4 hours later. After being picked up by the Carpathia, Ismay was led to the cabin belonging to the ship's doctor, Frank Mcgee, he gave Captain Rostron a message to send to White Star's New York office: "Deeply regret advise you Titanic sank this morning fifteenth after collision iceberg, resulting serious loss life further particulars later.
Bruce Ismay". Ismay did not leave Dr. Mcgee's cabin for the entire journey, ate nothing solid, was kept under the influence of opiates. Another survivor, 17-year-old Jack Thayer, visited Ismay to try to console him, despite having just lost his father in the sinking. Was staring straight ahead, shaking like a leaf; when I spoke to him, he paid no attention. I have never seen a man so wrecked; when he arrived in New York, Ismay was hosted by Philip Franklin, vice president of the com
Musicians of the RMS Titanic
The musicians of the RMS Titanic all perished when the ship sank in 1912. They played music, intending to calm the passengers, for as long as they could, all went down with the ship. All were recognized for their heroism; the ship's eight musicians - members of a three-piece ensemble and a five-piece ensemble - were booked through C. W. & F. N. Black, in Liverpool, they traveled as second-class passengers. They were not on the White Star Line's payroll but were contracted to White Star by the Liverpool firm of C. W. & F. N. Black, who placed musicians on all British liners; until the night of the sinking, the players performed as two separate groups: a quintet led by violinist and official bandleader Wallace Hartley, that played at teatime, after-dinner concerts, Sunday services, among other occasions. After the Titanic hit an iceberg and began to sink and his fellow band members started playing music to help keep the passengers calm as the crew loaded the lifeboats. Many of the survivors said that Hartley and the band continued to play until the end.
One second-class passenger said: Many brave things were done that night, but none were more brave than those done by men playing minute after minute as the ship settled lower and lower in the sea. The music they played served alike as their own immortal requiem and their right to be recalled on the scrolls of undying fame. Theodore Ronald Brailey was an English pianist on the RMS Titanic on its maiden voyage who died in the disaster. Theodore Ronald Brailey, born on 25 October 1887 in Walthamstow in Greater London, was the son of William "Ronald" Brailey, a well-known figure of Spiritualism at the time, he studied piano at school, one of his first jobs was playing piano in a local hotel. In 1902, he joined the Royal Lancashire Fusiliers regiment signing for 12 years service as a musician, he was stationed in Barbados but resigned his commission prematurely in 1907. He lived at 71 Lancaster Road, Ladbroke Grove, London. In 1911, he enlisted aboard ship, playing first on the RMS Saxonia, prior to joining the Cunard steamer RMS Carpathia in 1912, where he met the French cellist Roger Marie Bricoux.
Both men joined the White Star Line and were recruited by Liverpool music agency C. W. and F. N. Black to serve on the RMS Titanic Brailey boarded the Titanic on Wednesday 10 April 1912 in Southampton, UK, his ticket number was the ticket for all the members of Wallace Hartley's orchestra. His cabin was in the second class quarters. Brailey was 24 years old, his body was never recovered. Roger Marie Bricoux was a French cellist on the RMS Titanic on its maiden voyage, he died in the disaster. Roger Bricoux was born on 1 June 1891 in Cosne-sur-Loire, France, he was the son of a musician, the family moved to Monaco when he was a young boy. He was educated in various Catholic institutions in Italy, it was during his studies that he joined his first orchestra and won first prize at the Conservatory of Bologna for musical ability. After studying at the Paris Conservatory, he moved to England in 1910 to join the orchestra in the Grand Central Hotel in Leeds. At the end of 1911, he moved to Lille, lived at 5 Place du Lion d'Or, played in various locations throughout the city.
Before joining the Titanic and pianist Theodore Ronald Brailey had served together on the Cunard steamer RMS Carpathia before joining the White Star Line He boarded the Titanic on Wednesday 10 April 1912 in Southampton, UK. His ticket number was the ticket for all the members of Wallace Hartley's orchestra, his cabin was second class, he was the only French musician aboard the Titanic. Bricoux was 20 years old, his body was never recovered. In 1913, after his apparent disappearance, he was declared a "deserter" by the French army, it was not until 2000 that he was officially registered as dead in France due to the efforts of the Association Française du Titanic. On 2 November 2000, the same association unveiled a memorial plaque to Bricoux in Cosne-Cours-sur-Loire. Wallace Henry Hartley, an English violinist, was the bandleader on the Titanic, he died in the disaster. His body was recovered by the CS Mackay-Bennett, a cable repair ship owned by the Commercial Cable Company, registered in London.
John Law Hume was a Scottish violinist on the RMS Titanic on its maiden voyage. He died in the disaster. John Law Hume was born on 9 August 1890 in Dumfries and lived with his parents at 42 George Street, Dumfries, he had played on at least five ships before the Titanic. He was recruited to play on the maiden voyage due to his good reputation as a musician, he boarded the Titanic on Wednesday 10 April 1912 in Southampton, UK. His ticket number was the ticket for all the members of Wallace Hartley's orchestra, his cabin was in the second class quarters. Hume was 21 years old when he died, unaware that his fiancée, Mary Costin, was pregnant with his child, his body was recovered by the CS Mackay-Bennett, a cable repair ship owned by the Commercial Cable Company, registered in London. He was buried in grave 193 at Fairview Cemetery, Nova Scotia, Canada on Wednesday 8 May 1912. A memorial was erected for John Law Thomas Mullin in Dock Park, Dumfries, it reads: In memory of John Law Hume, a member of the band and Thomas Mullin, natives of these towns who lost their lives in the wreck of the W
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s