Karl Benz

Karl Friedrich Benz or Carl Friedrich Benz was a German engine designer, automobile engineer. His Benz Patent Motorcar from 1885 is considered the first practical automobile, he received a patent for the motorcar in 1886. Karl Benz was born Karl Friedrich Michael Vaillant, on 25 November 1844 in Mühlburg, now a borough of Karlsruhe, Baden-Württemberg, part of modern, to Josephine Vaillant and a locomotive driver, Johann Georg Benz, whom she married a few months later. According to German law, the child acquired the name "Benz" by legal marriage of his parents Benz and Vaillant; when he was two years old, his father died of pneumonia, his name was changed to Karl Friedrich Benz in remembrance of his father. Despite living in near poverty, his mother strove to give him a good education. Benz was a prodigious student. In 1853, at the age of nine he started at the scientifically oriented Lyceum. Next he studied at the Poly-Technical University under the instruction of Ferdinand Redtenbacher. Benz had focused his studies on locksmithing, but he followed his father's steps toward locomotive engineering.

On 30 September 1860, at age 15, he passed the entrance exam for mechanical engineering at the University of Karlsruhe, which he subsequently attended. Benz graduated 9 July 1864 aged 19. Following his formal education, Benz had seven years of professional training in several companies, but did not fit well in any of them; the training started in Karlsruhe with two years of varied jobs in a mechanical engineering company. He moved to Mannheim to work as a draftsman and designer in a scales factory. In 1868 he went to Pforzheim to work for a bridge building company Gebrüder Benckiser Eisenwerke und Maschinenfabrik, he went to Vienna for a short period to work at an iron construction company. In 1871, at the age of twenty-seven, Karl Benz joined August Ritter in launching the Iron Foundry and Mechanical Workshop in Mannheim renamed Factory for Machines for Sheet-metal Working; the enterprise's first year went badly. Ritter turned out to be unreliable, the business's tools were impounded; the difficulty was overcome when Benz's fiancée, Bertha Ringer, bought out Ritter's share in the company using her dowry.

On 20 July 1872, Karl Bertha Ringer married. They had five children: Eugen, Clara and Ellen. Despite the business misfortunes, Karl Benz led in the development of new engines in the early factory he and his wife owned. To get more revenues, in 1878 he began to work on new patents. First, he concentrated all his efforts on creating a reliable petrol two-stroke engine. Benz finished his two-stroke engine on 31 December 1879, New Year's Eve, was granted a patent for it in 28 June 1880. Karl Benz showed his real genius, through his successive inventions registered while designing what would become the production standard for his two-stroke engine. Benz soon patented the speed regulation system, the ignition using sparks with battery, the spark plug, the carburetor, the clutch, the gear shift, the water radiator. Problems arose again when the banks at Mannheim demanded that Bertha and Karl Benz's enterprise be incorporated due to the high production costs it maintained; the Benzes were forced to improvise an association with photographer Emil Bühler and his brother, to get additional bank support.

The company became the joint-stock company Gasmotoren Fabrik Mannheim in 1882. After all the necessary incorporation agreements, Benz was unhappy because he was left with five percent of the shares and a modest position as director. Worst of all, his ideas weren't considered when designing new products, so he withdrew from that corporation just one year in 1883. Benz's lifelong hobby brought him to a bicycle repair shop in Mannheim owned by Max Rose and Friedrich Wilhelm Eßlinger. In 1883, the three founded a new company producing industrial machines: Benz & Companie Rheinische Gasmotoren-Fabrik referred to as Benz & Cie. Growing to twenty-five employees, it soon began to produce static gas engines as well; the success of the company gave Benz the opportunity to indulge in his old passion of designing a horseless carriage. Based on his experience with, fondness for, bicycles, he used similar technology when he created an automobile, it featured wire wheels with a four-stroke engine of his own design between the rear wheels, with a advanced coil ignition and evaporative cooling rather than a radiator.

Power was transmitted by means of two roller chains to the rear axle. Karl Benz finished his creation in 1885 and named it "Benz Patent Motorwagen", it was the first automobile designed as such to generate its own power, not a motorized stage coach or horse carriage, why Karl Benz was granted his patent and is regarded as its inventor. The Motorwagen was patented on 29 January 1886 as DRP-37435: "automobile fueled by gas"; the 1885 version was difficult to control, leading to a collision with a wall during a public demonstration. The first successful tests on public roads were carried out in the early summer of 1886; the next year Benz created the Motorwagen Model 2, which had several modifications, in 1889, the definitive Model 3 with wooden wheels was introduced, showing at the Paris Expo the same year. Benz began to sell the vehicle in the late summer of 1888, making it the first commercially available automobile in history; the second customer of the Motorwagen was a Parisian bicycle manufacturer Emile Roger, building Benz engines under license from Karl Benz for


Metropolin are an Israeli alternative pop/synthpop band. The band was assembled in 2005 by an Israeli musician and music producer, he gathered several renowned Israeli musicians – namely Efrat Gosh and Dana Berger – as guest vocalists. Efrat Gosh, although not a member of Metropolin, is the main singer on several of its more popular tracks, continues to appear with the band in gigs; the band has become immensely successful in Israel, riding on the popularity of tracks from the self-titled album: "Angels", "Without Saying A Word", "Doesn't Say Anything" and "Sleeping Without Dreams". These tracks received high amounts of airtime in Israel Defense Forces Radio and Galgalatz. Metropolin won the 2006 Israel Album of the Year contest; the Metropolin sound features heavy use of synthesis, with more traditional rock instruments on top. Of the band's successful songs, most – such as "Without A Word", "Angels" and "Dreamless Sleeping" – open with a synthesizer solo. Lyrics are urban. Singing is warm and feminine, but rather dynamic.

The line up consists, as of 2008, of: Ofer Meiri – vocals, keyboards Barak Gabizon – vocals Dana Adini – vocals Roni Alter – vocals Amitay Asher – guitar Michael Frostbass Tomer Tsidkiyahu – drums Metropolin The helix The third PigsChazirim / חזירים Doesn't Say AnythingLo Omeret Klum / לא אומרת כלום Sleeping Without DreamsLishon B'li Lachlom / לישון בלי לחלום Without Saying A WordBli Lomar Mila / בלי לומר מילה Angels Malachim / מלאכים ‏‏ I Have No PlaceAin Li Makom / אין לי מקום

2012 Grand Prix Cycliste de Montréal

The 2012 Grand Prix Cycliste de Montréal was the third edition of the Grand Prix Cycliste de Montréal, a single-day professional bicycle road race. It was held on 9 September 2012, over a distance of 205.7 km, starting and finishing in Montréal, Canada. It was the 26th event of the 2012 UCI World Tour season; the race was one of the only two events which are part of the World Tour calendar in North America, the other one being the Grand Prix Cycliste de Québec contested two days prior. The race was won by Norwegian Lars Petter Nordhaug, who broke away from the lead group and attacked twice inside the final 5 kilometres, he out sprinted Alexandr Kolobnev. Simon Gerrans of Orica–GreenEDGE, who won the 2012 Grand Prix Cycliste de Québec, took the fourth place; the race consisted of 17 laps of a circuit 12.1 km in length, followed the same path as the 2011 edition. The circuit, around the main campus of the Université de Montréal, was well-suited for climbers and punchers with three climbs per lap.

The finish was on an uphill climb with a small gradient of 4%, located on Avenue du Parc. There was a sharp, 180 degrees bend to the right situated 500 meters away from the line; the total vertical climb of the race was 3,893 meters. The major difficulties were: Kilometer 2: Côte Camilien-Houde: 1,8 kilometers, average gradient of 8% Kilometer 6: Côte de la Polytechnque: 780 meters, average gradient of 6% with a pass of 200 meters at 11% Kilometer 11: Avenue du Parc: 560 meters, average gradient of 4% As the race was held under the auspices of the UCI World Tour, all eighteen UCI ProTeams were invited automatically. There were 3 wildcard invitations, which were UCI Professional Continental teams: two French squads and a Canadian one; the 18 ProTeams that competed were: The 3 UCI Professional Continental teams that competed were: The first significant breakaway occurred at kilometer 31, when Manuele Boaro got away, soon to be joined by Cyril Gautier and Egoi Martinez. It was the second time that Boaro tried his luck, the first attempt was annulled a little earlier.

The trio cruised to a five-minute advantage, while Simone Ponzi of Astana and Kristijan Koren of Liquigas–Cannondale made an attempt to join them, their acceleration caused a few riders to drop from the peloton. Before Koren and Ponzi could scheme something, they were brought back with 45 kilometres to race, as the leading group became a duet since Boaro was dropped. Martinez and Gauthier were caught on the Côte de la Polytechnique during the penultimate lap. Other attacks occurred, but the bunch was back together as they crossed the line to race the last lap. On the Côte Camilien-Houde, Team Europcar's David Veilleux attacked, while Janez Brajkovic and Gerald Ciolek collided and crashed during the climb. Canadian Ryder Hesjedal worked to bring the lead group together, composed of about 25 riders with 7 kilometres to go, when Greg Van Avermaet produced an acceleration, brought back by the group. Lars Petter Nordhaug placed an attack of his own, being screamed on by his team via his earpiece to go for the victory since his teammate Edvald Boasson Hagen was out of energy.

Nordhaug was caught by Moreno Moser and Alexandr Kolobnev on the Avenue du Parc, near the flamme rouge. The pair had escaped from the group, Kolobnev produced an acceleration with 500 metres to race, his chances looked good but Nordhaug passed him to take the victory with an advantage of two seconds, with Moser taking second place and Kolobnev holding on for third. Simon Gerrans, who won the Grand Prix Cycliste de Québec 2 days before, sprinted to fourth place. Official website Photographs of the event