Teatertosset is a 1944 Danish family film directed by Alice O'Fredericks. A separate Swedish version Dolly Takes a Chance was made. Marguerite Viby as Dorrit Madsen Hans Kurt as Knud Andersen Karl Gustav Ahlefeldt as Ole Vang Johannes Meyer as Hr. Fuglsang Else Jarlbak as Nanna Sten Sigrid Horne-Rasmussen as Gerda Preben Neergaard as Harald Erik Sjøgreen as Jens Helga Frier as Fru Vildemose Henry Nielsen as Regissør Lund Knud Heglund as Instruktør Iversen Else Colber as Vera Ib Schønberg as Teaterdirektør Brummer Teatertosset on IMDb
Denmark the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Nordic country and the southernmost of the Scandinavian nations. Denmark lies southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, is bordered to the south by Germany; the Kingdom of Denmark comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark proper consists of a peninsula, an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand and the North Jutlandic Island; the islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. Denmark has a total area of 42,924 km2, land area of 42,394 km2, the total area including Greenland and the Faroe Islands is 2,210,579 km2, a population of 5.8 million. The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 10th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea. Denmark and Norway were ruled together under one sovereign ruler in the Kalmar Union, established in 1397 and ending with Swedish secession in 1523.
The areas of Denmark and Norway remained under the same monarch until Denmark -- Norway. Beginning in the 17th century, there were several devastating wars with the Swedish Empire, ending with large cessions of territory to Sweden. After the Napoleonic Wars, Norway was ceded to Sweden, while Denmark kept the Faroe Islands and Iceland. In the 19th century there was a surge of nationalist movements, which were defeated in the 1864 Second Schleswig War. Denmark remained neutral during World War I. In April 1940, a German invasion saw brief military skirmishes while the Danish resistance movement was active from 1943 until the German surrender in May 1945. An industrialised exporter of agricultural produce in the second half of the 19th century, Denmark introduced social and labour-market reforms in the early 20th century that created the basis for the present welfare state model with a developed mixed economy; the Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy, which had begun in 1660.
It establishes a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy. The government and national parliament are seated in Copenhagen, the nation's capital, largest city, main commercial centre. Denmark exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realm, devolving powers to handle internal affairs. Home rule was established in the Faroe Islands in 1948. Denmark negotiated certain opt-outs, it is among the founding members of NATO, the Nordic Council, the OECD, OSCE, the United Nations. Denmark is considered to be one of the most economically and developed countries in the world. Danes enjoy a high standard of living and the country ranks in some metrics of national performance, including education, health care, protection of civil liberties, democratic governance and human development; the country ranks as having the world's highest social mobility, a high level of income equality, is among the countries with the lowest perceived levels of corruption in the world, the eleventh-most developed in the world, has one of the world's highest per capita incomes, one of the world's highest personal income tax rates.
The etymology of the word Denmark, the relationship between Danes and Denmark and the unifying of Denmark as one kingdom, is a subject which attracts debate. This is centered on the prefix "Dan" and whether it refers to the Dani or a historical person Dan and the exact meaning of the -"mark" ending. Most handbooks derive the first part of the word, the name of the people, from a word meaning "flat land", related to German Tenne "threshing floor", English den "cave"; the -mark is believed to mean woodland or borderland, with probable references to the border forests in south Schleswig. The first recorded use of the word Danmark within Denmark itself is found on the two Jelling stones, which are runestones believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old and Harald Bluetooth; the larger stone of the two is popularly cited as Denmark's "baptismal certificate", though both use the word "Denmark", in the form of accusative ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚢᚱᚴ tanmaurk on the large stone, genitive ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚱᚴᛅᚱ "tanmarkar" on the small stone.
The inhabitants of Denmark are there called "Danes", in the accusative. The earliest archaeological findings in Denmark date back to the Eem interglacial period from 130,000–110,000 BC. Denmark has been inhabited since around 12,500 BC and agriculture has been evident since 3900 BC; the Nordic Bronze Age in Denmark was marked by burial mounds, which left an abundance of findings including lurs and the Sun Chariot. During the Pre-Roman Iron Age, native groups began migrating south, the first tribal Danes came to the country between the Pre-Roman and the Germanic Iron Age, in the Roman Iron Age; the Roman provinces maintained trade routes and relations with native tribes in Denmark, Roman coins have been found in Denmark. Evidence of strong Celtic cultural influence dates from this period in Denmark and much of North-West Europe and is among other things reflected in the finding of the Gundestrup cauldron; the tribal Danes came from the east Danish islands and Scania and spoke an early form of North Germanic.
Historians believe that before their arrival, most of Jutland and the nearest islands were settled by tribal J
Copenhagen is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. As of July 2018, the city has a population of 777,218, it forms the core of the wider urban area of the Copenhagen metropolitan area. Copenhagen is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand; the Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by road. A Viking fishing village established in the 10th century in the vicinity of what is now Gammel Strand, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a regional centre of power with its institutions and armed forces. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century, the city underwent a period of redevelopment; this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. After further disasters in the early 19th century when Horatio Nelson attacked the Dano-Norwegian fleet and bombarded the city, rebuilding during the Danish Golden Age brought a Neoclassical look to Copenhagen's architecture.
Following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing and businesses along the five urban railway routes stretching out from the city centre. Since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure; the city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark. Copenhagen's economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö, forming the Øresund Region. With a number of bridges connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterised by parks and waterfronts. Copenhagen's landmarks such as Tivoli Gardens, The Little Mermaid statue, the Amalienborg and Christiansborg palaces, Rosenborg Castle Gardens, Frederik's Church, many museums and nightclubs are significant tourist attractions.
The largest lake of Denmark, Arresø, lies around 27 miles northwest of the City Hall Square. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen Business School and the IT University of Copenhagen; the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC Brøndby football clubs; the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world; the Copenhagen Metro launched in 2002 serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train, the Lokaltog and the Coast Line network serves and connects central Copenhagen to outlying boroughs. To relieve traffic congestion, the Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link road and rail construction is planned, because the narrow 9-9.5 mile isthmus between Roskilde Fjord and Køge Bugt forms a traffic bottleneck. The Copenhagen-Ringsted Line will relieve traffic congestion in the corridor between Roskilde and Copenhagen.
Serving two million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the busiest airport in the Nordic countries. Copenhagen's name reflects its origin as a place of commerce; the original designation in Old Norse, from which Danish descends, was Kaupmannahǫfn, meaning "merchants' harbour". By the time Old Danish was spoken, the capital was called Køpmannæhafn, with the current name deriving from centuries of subsequent regular sound change. An exact English equivalent would be "chapman's haven". However, the English term for the city was adapted from Kopenhagen. Although the earliest historical records of Copenhagen are from the end of the 12th century, recent archaeological finds in connection with work on the city's metropolitan rail system revealed the remains of a large merchant's mansion near today's Kongens Nytorv from c. 1020. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century; the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen.
These finds indicate. Substantial discoveries of flint tools in the area provide evidence of human settlements dating to the Stone Age. Many historians believe the town dates to the late Viking Age, was founded by Sweyn I Forkbeard; the natural harbour and good herring stocks seem to have attracted fishermen and merchants to the area on a seasonal basis from the 11th century and more permanently in the 13th century. The first habitations were centred on Gammel Strand in the 11thcentury or earlier; the earliest written mention of the town was in the 12th century when Saxo Grammaticus in Gesta Danorum referred to it as Portus
Carl Theodor Dreyer
Carl Theodor Dreyer known as Carl Th. Dreyer, was a Danish film director, he is regarded by many filmmakers as one of the greatest directors in cinema. His best known films include The Passion of Joan of Arc, Day of Wrath and Gertrud. Dreyer was born illegitimate in Denmark, his birth mother was an unmarried Scanian maid named Josefine Bernhardine Nilsson, he was put up for adoption by his birth father, Jens Christian Torp, a married Danish farmer living in Sweden, his mother's employer. He spent the first two years of his life in orphanages until his adoption by a typographer named Carl Theodor Dreyer, his wife, Inger Marie, he was named after his adoptive father, but in accordance with Danish practice, there is no "Senior" or "Junior" added to their names to distinguish them from each other. His adoptive parents were distant and his childhood was unhappy, he recalled that his parents "constantly let me know that I should be grateful for the food I was given and that I had no claim on anything, since my mother got out of paying by lying down to die."
But he was a intelligent school student, who left home and formal education at the age of sixteen. He dissociated himself from his adoptive family, but their teachings were to influence the themes of many of his films. Dreyer was ideologically conservative. According to David Bordwell, "As a youth he belonged to the Social Liberal party, a conservative group radical only in their opposition to military expenditures...'Even when I was with Ekstrabladet,' Dreyer recalled,'I was conservative... I don't believe in revolutions, they have, as a rule. I believe more in evolution, in the small advances.'"Dreyer died of pneumonia in Copenhagen at age 79. The documentary Carl Th. Dreyer: My Metier contains reminiscences from those who knew him; as a young man, Dreyer worked as a journalist, but he joined the film industry as a writer of title cards for silent films and subsequently of screenplays. He was hired by Nordisk Film in 1913, his first attempts at film direction had limited success, he left Denmark to work in the French film industry.
While living in France he met Jean Cocteau, Jean Hugo and other members of the French artistic scene and in 1928 he made his first classic film, The Passion of Joan of Arc. Working from the transcripts of Joan's trial, he created a masterpiece of emotion that drew on realism and expressionism. Dreyer used private finance from Baron Nicolas de Gunzburg to make his next film as the Danish film industry was in financial ruin. Vampyr is a surreal meditation on fear. Logic gave way to atmosphere in this story of a man protecting two sisters from a vampire; the movie contains many indelible images, such as the hero, played by de Gunzburg, dreaming of his own burial and the animal blood lust on the face of one of the sisters as she suffers under the vampire's spell. The film was shot silent but with sparse, cryptic dialogue in three separate versions – English and German. Both films were box office failures, Dreyer did not make another movie until 1943. Denmark was by now under Nazi occupation, his Day of Wrath had as its theme the paranoia surrounding witch hunts in the seventeenth century in a theocratic culture.
With this work, Dreyer established the style that would mark his sound films: careful compositions, stark monochrome cinematography, long takes. In the more than a decade before his next full-length feature film, Dreyer made two documentaries. In 1955, he made Ordet based on the play of the same name by Kaj Munk; the film combines a love story with a conflict of faith. Dreyer's last film was 1964's Gertrud. Although seen by some as a lesser film than its predecessors, it is a fitting close to Dreyer's career, as it deals with a woman who, through the tribulations of her life, never expresses regret for her choices; the great, never finished project of Dreyer's career was a film about Jesus. Though a manuscript was written the unstable economic conditions and Dreyer's own demands of realism together with his switching engagement let it remain a dream. Good Mothers Water from the Land The Struggle Against Cancer The Danish Village Church They Caught the Ferry Thorvaldsen The Storstrom Bridge The Castle Within the Castle Official website Carl Theodor Dreyer on IMDb CarlDreyer.com In-depth article from 1951 on'The Tyrannical Dane' Bibliography Thoughts on My Métier by Carl Theodor Dreyer Carl Th. Dreyer by Armond White
Elly Petersen is a 1944 Danish drama film directed by Jon Iversen and Alice O'Fredericks. Bodil Kjer - Elly Petersen Poul Reichhardt - Hjalmer Lilian Ellis - Nina Karl Gustav Ahlefeldt - Leif Faber Grethe Holmer - Lise Faber Betty Helsengreen - Agnes Irwin Hasselmann - Lauritsen Ib Schønberg - Hjalmars far Valdemar Skjerning Elly Petersen on IMDb
Gertrud is a 1964 Danish drama film directed by Carl Theodor Dreyer, based on the 1906 play of the same name by Hjalmar Söderberg. The title role of Gertrud Kanning is played by Nina Pens Rode, with Bendt Rothe as her husband, Gustav Kanning, Baard Owe as her lover, Erland Jansson. Gertrud was Dreyer's final film, it is notable for its many long takes, one of, a nearly ten-minute take of Gertrud and her ex-lover, talking about their pasts. The film is now considered one of Dreyer's major works. Gertrud, a former opera singer in Stockholm in the early 20th century, is married to the lawyer and politician Gustav Kanning. Gertrud tells her husband that he has become more in love with his status than with her, she tells him that she has met another man who loves her more than anything else, that she therefore prefers him to her husband and wants a divorce. Gertrud meets the promising young pianist Erland Jansson, in a park; the two go to Jansson's house. Gertrud tells him. In the evening Gustav goes to pick Gertrud up at the opera where she had said she would be, but can't find her.
The next evening the Kannings attend a dinner party at the house of the poet Gabriel Lidman, with whom Gertrud has had a relationship in the past. Gertrud greets her friend Axel Nygren. Gustav confronts Gertrud about the opera, demands one last night with her before the separation. Lidman tells Gertrud that he had met Jansson at a party where he had bragged about Gertrud as his latest conquest; when Gertrud meets with Jansson the next day she tells him that she wants to go away with him and leave everything else behind. He tells her. Lidman makes an attempt to persuade Gertrud to without success. Kanning makes a last attempt to persuade Gertrud to stay with him allowing her to keep her lover at the same time; the attempt Gertrud moves alone to Paris to study psychology. Thirty years Gertrud, together with Nygren, looks back at her life, she says. She is now alone because of her refusal to compromise on that position, but does not regret anything. Nina Pens Rode as Gertrud Bendt Rothe as Gustav Kanning Ebbe Rode as Gabriel Lidman Baard Owe as Erland Jansson Axel Strøbye as Axel Nygren Vera Gebuhr as Kanning's Housekeeper Lars Knutzon as Student This was Dreyer's last film and his first since Ordet in 1955.
In the nine-year period between films he had attempted to make films based on Euripides' Medea, William Faulkner's Light in August, wrote treatments based on Henrik Ibsen's Brand, August Strindberg's Damascus and Eugene O'Neill's Mourning Becomes Electra. He worked on his long planned but never realized film about the life of Christ. According to Carl Theodor Dreyer, he had considered adapting two Hjalmar Söderberg works in the 1940s, the 1905 novel Doctor Glas and the 1906 play Gertrud. None of the projects were realised at the time; the Gertrud project was revived when Dreyer read a 1962 monograph by Sten Rein called Hjalmar Söderbergs Gertrud, which pointed out the original play's use of dialogue: how the story is driven by trivial conversations and failures to communicate. This inspired Dreyer to make a film. Adapting the play into a screenplay, Dreyer added an epilogue; the epilogue was inspired by the life of Maria von Platen, Söderberg's original inspiration for the Gertrud character. The film was produced by Palladium, filmed at Nordisk Film's studios in Valby, since Palladium's own studios were used by Danmarks Radio for a television production.
Exterior scenes were filmed in the Vallø Castle park. Filming took three months, editing three days; the film was made up of long takes of shots of two or more actors talking to each other and continued Dreyer's devotion to the principles of kammerspiel. Over the years, Dreyer's filming style had become more and more subdued and compared to the fast cutting in The Passion of Joan of Arc or the tracking shots in Vampyr, this film contained slowed down camera shots with restricted angles and an increased length of single takes; the film premiered at Le Studio Médicis in Paris on 18 December 1964. The cinema equipment failed several times during the screening, the subtitles were of low quality and the reels were shown in the wrong order, prompting negative reactions from the audience, it was released in Denmark on 1 January 1965 through Film-Centralen-Palladium. It was screened at the Cannes Film festival, where it was booed, it was screened to a packed house at the 1965 Venice Film Festival, but more than half of the audience walked out during the film.
Those who remained gave the film a standing ovation. From the outset the film divided both audiences. Following the Paris premiere at a Dreyer retrospective where it was booed the film was referred to as a "disaster" in the press. A critic wrote in Variety in 1965: "Theme, with echoes of Ibsen, in its social haranguing for female independence, Strindberg, in its difficulty in male and female understanding, lends itself admirably to Dreyer's dry but penetrating style. Nina Pens Rode has the right luminous quality for the romantic, uncompromising Gertrud, while the men are acceptable if sometimes overindulgent in their roles." In Esquire Magazine, Dwight Macdonald wrote that "Gertrud is
Familien Gyldenkål is a 1975 Danish comedy film directed by Gabriel Axel. It was the first in a series of three films about the eccentric Gyldenkål family, was followed by Familien Gyldenkål sprænger banken directed by Axel, Familien Gyldenkål vinder valget directed by Bent Christensen. Axel Strøbye Kirsten Walther Birgitte Bruun Martin Miehe-Renard Karen Lykkehus Bertel Lauring Ove Sprogøe Lily Broberg Jens Okking Karl Stegger Brigitte Kolerus Helle Merete Sørensen Bjørn Puggaard-Müller Otto Brandenburg Lisbet Dahl Claus Ryskjær Hans Christian Ægidius Tommy Kenter Hardy Rafn Benny Hansen Ebba With Jens Brenaa Poul Thomsen Gyda Hansen Ernst Meyer Søren Rode Karl Gustav Ahlefeldt Familien Gyldenkål on IMDb