The conflict was caused by Prussian ambitions to extend German unification and French fears of the shift in the European balance of power that would result if the Prussians succeeded. On 16 July 1870, the French parliament voted to declare war on the German Kingdom of Prussia, the German coalition mobilised its troops much more quickly than the French and rapidly invaded northeastern France. The German forces were superior in numbers, had training and leadership and made more effective use of modern technology, particularly railroads. The German states proclaimed their union as the German Empire under the Prussian king Wilhelm I, the Treaty of Frankfurt of 10 May 1871 gave Germany most of Alsace and some parts of Lorraine, which became the Imperial territory of Alsace-Lorraine. French determination to regain Alsace-Lorraine and fear of another Franco-German war, along with British apprehension about the balance of power, the causes of the Franco-Prussian War are deeply rooted in the events surrounding the unification of Germany.
In the aftermath of the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, Prussia had annexed numerous territories and this new power destabilized the European balance of power established by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 after the Napoleonic Wars. France was strongly opposed to any further alliance of German states, in Prussia, some officials considered a war against France both inevitable and necessary to arouse German nationalism in those states that would allow the unification of a great German empire. Bismarck knew that France should be the aggressor in the conflict to bring the southern German states to side with Prussia, many Germans viewed the French as the traditional destabilizer of Europe, and sought to weaken France to prevent further breaches of the peace. The immediate cause of the war resided in the candidacy of Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, France feared encirclement by an alliance between Prussia and Spain. The Hohenzollern princes candidacy was withdrawn under French diplomatic pressure, releasing the Ems Dispatch to the public, Bismarck made it sound as if the king had treated the French envoy in a demeaning fashion, which inflamed public opinion in France.
They argue that he wanted a war to resolve growing domestic political problems, other historians, notably French historian Pierre Milza, dispute this. According to Milza, the Emperor had no need for a war to increase his popularity, the Ems telegram had exactly the effect on French public opinion that Bismarck had intended. This text produced the effect of a red flag on the Gallic bull, the French foreign minister, declared that he felt he had just received a slap. Napoleons new prime minister, Emile Ollivier, declared that France had done all that it could humanly and honorably do to prevent the war, a crowd of 15–20,000 people, carrying flags and patriotic banners, marched through the streets of Paris, demanding war. On 19 July 1870 a declaration of war was sent to the Prussian government, the southern German states immediately sided with Prussia. The French Army consisted in peacetime of approximately 400,000 soldiers, some of them were veterans of previous French campaigns in the Crimean War, the Franco-Austrian War in Italy, and in the Mexican campaign.
Under Marshal Adolphe Niel, urgent reforms were made, universal conscription and a shorter period of service gave increased numbers of reservists, who would swell the army to a planned strength of 800,000 on mobilisation. Those who for any reason were not conscripted were to be enrolled in the Garde Mobile, the Franco-Prussian War broke out before these reforms could be completely implemented
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
Louisiana Purchase Exposition
The Louisiana Purchase Exposition, informally known as the St. Louis Worlds Fair, was an international exposition held in St. Louis, United States, from April 30 to December 1,1904. Local and federal funds totaling $15 million were used to finance the event, more than 60 countries and 43 of the 45 American states maintained exhibition spaces at the fair, which was attended by nearly 19.7 million people. Historians generally emphasize the prominence of themes of race and empire, from the point of view of the memory of the average person who attended the fair, it primarily promoted entertainment, consumer goods and popular culture. In 1904, St. Louis hosted a Worlds Fair to celebrate the centennial of the 1803 Louisiana Purchase, an additional $5 million was generated through private donations by interested citizens and businesses from around Missouri, a fundraising target reached in January 1901. The fundraising mission was aided by the support of President of the United States William McKinley.
The exposition remained in operation from its opening until December 1,1904, the fairs 1, 200-acre site, designed by George Kessler, was located at the present-day grounds of Forest Park and on the campus of Washington University, and was the largest fair to date. There were over 1,500 buildings, connected by some 75 miles of roads and it was said to be impossible to give even a hurried glance at everything in less than a week. The Palace of Agriculture alone covered some 20 acres, exhibits were staged by approximately 50 foreign nations, the United States government, and 43 of the then-45 U. S. states. These featured industries, private organizations and corporations, theater troupes, over 19 million individuals were in attendance at the fair. In conjunction with the Exposition the U. S, post Office issued a series of five commemorative stamps celebrating the 100th anniversary of the Louisiana Purchase. Louisiana Purchase Commemoratives Kessler, who designed many parks in Texas. A popular myth says that Frederick Law Olmsted, who had died the year before the Fair, designed the park, there are several reasons for this confusion.
First, Kessler in his twenties had worked briefly for Olmsted as a Central Park gardener, Olmsted was involved with Forest Park in Queens, New York. Third, Olmsted had planned the renovations in 1897 to the Missouri Botanical Garden several blocks to the southeast of the park, Olmsteds sons advised Washington University on integrating the campus with the park across the street. Taylor quickly appointed Emmanuel Louis Masqueray to be his Chief of Design, Masqueray resigned shortly after the Fair opened in 1904, having been invited by Archbishop John Ireland of St. Paul, Minnesota to design a new cathedral for the city. Paul J. Pelz was architect for the Palace of Machinery, many African Americans contributed to architecture design, but were not credited. Florence Hayward, a freelance writer in St. Louis in the 1900s was determined to play a role in the Worlds Fair. She negotiated a position on the otherwise all-male Board of Commissioners, Hayward learned that one of the potential contractors for the fair was not reputable and warned the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company
Lucerne is a city in central Switzerland, in the German-speaking portion of the country. Lucerne is the capital of the canton of Lucerne and part of the district of the same name. With a population of about 81,057 people, Lucerne is the most populous town in Central Switzerland, and a nexus of economics, transportation and media of this region. The citys urban area consists of 17 municipalities and towns located in three different cantons with a population of about 250,000 people. Owing to its location on the shores of Lake Lucerne and its outflow, one of the citys famous landmarks is the Chapel Bridge, a wooden bridge first erected in the 14th century. The official language of Lucerne is German, but the spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect. After the fall of the Roman Empire beginning in the 6th century, in 1178 Lucerne acquired its independence from the jurisdiction of Murbach Abbey, and the founding of the city proper probably occurred that same year.
The city gained importance as a strategically located gateway for the commerce from the Gotthard trade route. By 1290 Lucerne had become a self-sufficient city of size with about 3000 inhabitants. About this time King Rudolph I von Habsburg gained authority over the Monastery of St. Leodegar and its lands, the populace was not content with the increasing Habsburg influence, and Lucerne allied with neighboring towns to seek independence from their rule. Along with Lucerne, the three other forest cantons of Uri and Unterwalden formed the eternal Swiss Confederacy, known as the Eidgenossenschaft, the cities of Zürich and Bern joined the alliance. With the help of these additions, the rule of Austria over the area came to an end, the issue was settled by Lucerne’s victory over the Habsburgs in the Battle of Sempach in 1386. For Lucerne this victory ignited an era of expansion, the city shortly granted many rights to itself, rights which had been withheld by the Habsburgs until then. By this time the borders of Lucerne were approximately those of today, in 1415 Lucerne gained Reichsfreiheit from Emperor Sigismund and became a strong member of the Swiss confederacy.
The city developed its infrastructure, raised taxes, and appointed its own local officials, the city’s population of 3000 dropped about 40% due to the Black Plague and several wars around 1350. In 1419 town records show the first witch trial against a male person, among the growing towns of the confederacy, Lucerne was especially popular in attracting new residents. As the confederacy broke up during Reformation after 1520, most cities became Protestant, after the victory of the Catholics over the Protestants in the Battle at Kappel in 1531, the Catholic towns dominated the confederacy. The future, belonged to the Protestant cities like Zürich and Basel, the former prominent position of Lucerne in the confederacy was lost forever
Muttenz is a municipality with a population of approximately 17,000 in the canton of Basel-Country in Switzerland. It is located in the district of Arlesheim and next to the city of Basle, under the Roman Empire a hamlet called Montetum existed, which the Alamanni invaders referred to as Mittenza since the 3rd century CE. At the beginning of the 9th century CE the settlement came into the possession of the bishopric of Strasbourg, in the following centuries various noble families were invested with the fief. Muttenz is first mentioned around 1225-26 as Muttence, in 1277 it was mentioned as Muttenza. Having fallen on hard times the Münch sold the village and the Wartenberg to the city of Basel in 1517, following the Protestant Reformation in Basel by Johannes Oecolampadius the church of Muttenz was reformed in 1529. In 1628 one-seventh of the population,112 persons, died of the plague. Many of the villagers, still subjects of the city of Basel, were poor and beginning in the middle of the 18th century, in 1790 only were the remaining peasants freed from serfdom by a decision of the Great Council of the city of Basel.
Following the French Revolution tithes were abolished, after a short civil war between forces of the city and the countryside in 1833 the canton of Basel was divided into the two half-cantons of Basel-City and Basel-Country. Muttenz became part of Basel-Country and remained a peasant village until the beginning of the 20th century, Muttenz has an area, as of 2009, of 16.64 square kilometers. Of this area,2.67 km2 or 16. 0% is used for agricultural purposes, while 6.76 km2 or 40. 6% is forested. Of the rest of the land,6.85 km2 or 41. 2% is settled,0.34 km2 or 2. 0% is either rivers or lakes and 0.01 km2 or 0. 1% is unproductive land. Of the built up area, industrial buildings made up 8. 1% of the area while housing and buildings made up 14. 2%. Power and water infrastructure as well as other developed areas made up 1. 7% of the area while parks. Out of the land,38. 9% of the total land area is heavily forested and 1. 7% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land,5. 6% is used for growing crops and 8. 0% is pastures, all the water in the municipality is flowing water.
The municipality is located in the Arlesheim district, east of Basel, the old village center was between the Rütihard and Wartenberg hills. The modern housing and industrial section is along the Rhine, the blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Azure, issuant a Castle with three Towers Gules windowed Sable from which a Semi-lion rampant issuant double-queued of the second. Muttenz has a population of 17,709, as of 2008,17. 2% of the population are resident foreign nationals
Mulhouse is a city and commune in eastern France, close to the Swiss and German borders. Mulhouse is the commune of the 33 making up the communauté dagglomération Mulhouse Alsace Agglomération. Mulhouse is famous for its museums, especially the Cité de l’Automobile, an industrial town nicknamed the French Manchester, Mulhouse is the main seat of the Upper Alsace University, where the secretariat of the European Physical Society can be found. Mulhouse is the city of an arrondissement of the Haut-Rhin département. Legends mention the origin of the town in 58 BC, and it was part of the southern Alsatian county of Sundgau in the Holy Roman Empire. From 1354–1515 Mulhouse was part of the Décapole, an association of ten Free Imperial Cities in Alsace, the city joined the Swiss Confederation as an associate in 1515 and was therefore not annexed by France in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 like the rest of the Sundgau. Starting in the middle of the century, the Koechlin family pioneered cotton cloth manufacturing.
André Koechlin built machinery and started making railroad equipment in 1842, the firm in 1839 already employed 1,800 people. After the Prussian victory in the Franco-Prussian War Mulhouse was annexed to the German Empire as part of the territory of Alsace-Lorraine. The city was occupied by French troops on 8 August 1914 at the start of World War I. The citizens of Alsace who unwisely celebrated the appearance of the French army, were left to face German reprisals, after World War I ended in 1918, French troops entered Alsace. Germany ceded the region to France under the Treaty of Versailles, after the Battle of France in 1940, it was occupied by German forces until returned to French control at the end of the war in May 1945. The towns development was stimulated first by the expansion of the industry and tanning. Mulhouse was for a time called the French Manchester. In consequence, the town has enduring links with Louisiana, from which it imported cotton, the towns history explains why its centre is relatively small.
Two rivers run through Mulhouse, the Doller and the Ill, Mulhouse is approximately 100 kilometres away from Strasbourg and Zürich, it is 350 km away from Milan and about 340 km from Frankfurt. It is close enough to Basel and Freiburg, Germany to share the EuroAirPort international airport with two cities. Medieval Mulhouse consists essentially of a lower and an upper town, the lower town was formerly the inner city district of merchants and craftsmen
The celebrations and other commemorative activities are usually held on 12 December or the closest weekend. For years, the duke coveted the wealth of the city-state, when Charles Emmanuel came to the throne of the House of Savoy in 1580, he longed to make Geneva his capital north of the Alps and crush Protestantism. The troops marched along the Arve River at night and assembled at Plainpalais, just outside the walls of Geneva, the original plan was to send in a group of commandos to open the city gate and let the other troops in. The Geneva citizens defeated the invaders by preventing them from scaling the wall using cannon fire, the alarm was raised, the church bells were rung and the Genevese were alerted. The night guard Isaac Mercier succeeded in cutting the rope holding up the portcullis, the populace fought alongside their town militia and the dukes 2000-plus mercenaries were defeated. The Genevese lost 18 men in the fighting, the Savoyards suffered 54 fatalities and the troops had to retreat.
According to Genevese legend, Catherine Cheynel, originally from Lyon and the wife of Pierre Royaume, the Royaume family lived just above the La Monnaie town gate. The heavy cauldron of boiling soup landed on the head of a Savoyard attacker, the commotion that this caused helped to rouse the townsfolk to defend the city. After the defeat, the Duke of Savoy accepted a lasting peace, the story of LEscalade is told in a song called Cé què lainô, written in a Franco-Provençal dialect around 1603 by an unknown author. The song has become the anthem of Geneva, while the complete version comprises 68 stanzas. It was celebrated in verse by Samuel Chappuzeau in his Genève Délivrée, celebrations include a large marmite made of chocolate and filled with marzipan vegetables and candies wrapped in the Geneva colours of red and gold. It is customary for the eldest and youngest in the room to smash the marmite, while reciting, referring to how Catherine Cheynel, better known as Mère Royaume, poured boiling hot vegetable soup on soldiers climbing up the walls of the city.
Other traditions include mulled wine, a serving of soup. It is common for children in school to prepare vegetable soup, teenagers tend to throw eggs, shaving cream, and flour at each other as part of the celebration. There is a parade on Friday evening, the names of the eighteen who died—Jacques Billon finally died of his wounds a year later—are called out, one after another. The historical procession on Sunday features more or less 800 people with historical costumes, the fragments of the ladders used by the Savoyards. This parade - organised since 1926 by the Compagnie de 1602 - attracts every year tens of thousand spectators. Since 1978 there has been another element to the celebration of the Escalade, the run traditionally starts in the parc des Bastions and goes through the Old City of Geneva, before finishing near the start again
WorldCat is a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 72,000 libraries in 170 countries and territories that participate in the Online Computer Library Center global cooperative. It is operated by OCLC Online Computer Library Center, the subscribing member libraries collectively maintain WorldCats database. OCLC was founded in 1967 under the leadership of Fred Kilgour and that same year, OCLC began to develop the union catalog technology that would evolve into WorldCat, the first catalog records were added in 1971. It contains more than 330 million records, representing over 2 billion physical and digital assets in 485 languages and it is the worlds largest bibliographic database. OCLC makes WorldCat itself available free to libraries, but the catalog is the foundation for other subscribtion OCLC services, in 2006, it became possible to search WorldCat directly at its website. In 2007, WorldCat Identities began providing pages for 20 million identities, predominantly authors, WorldCat operates on a batch processing model rather than a real-time model.
That is, WorldCat records are synchronized at intermittent intervals with the library catalogs instead of real-time or every day. Consequently, WorldCat shows that an item is owned by a particular library. WorldCat does not indicate whether or not an item is borrowed, undergoing restoration or repair. Furthermore, WorldCat does not show whether or not a library owns multiple copies of a particular title, copac Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Library and Archives Canada Research Libraries UK Online Computer Library Center Grossman, Wendy M. Why you cant find a book in your search engine. Official website OCLC - Web scale discovery and delivery of library resources OCLC Bibliographic Formats and Standards WorldCat Identities
Salomon Stricker –2 April 1898) was an Austrian pathologist and histologist born in Waag-Neustadtl, a town that is now located in Slovakia. He studied at the University of Vienna, and subsequently became an assistant at the Institute of Physiology under Ernst Wilhelm von Brücke. Later he became head of the Institute of General and Experimental Pathology in Vienna and he made contributions in his research of cell division in vivo, on the histology of the cornea, and on the relationship of cells to the extracellular matrix. During its time, it was considered one of the greatest textbooks concerning histology, Stricker was the author of a number of philosophical works. In his book, Stricker uses as an example, If I am afraid of robbers in my dreams, the robbers, to be sure, are imaginary, but the fear of them is real. It was at Strickers institute that ophthalmologist Karl Koller, who at the suggestion of Freud, from 1871 to 1880, Stricker was editor of the Medicinischen Jahrbücher. History of the Department of Pathophysiology, University of Vienna Stricker, Salomon Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon The Interpretation of Dreams by Sigmund Freud, the Affects in Dreams p.226
Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
The encyclopedia is published by a foundation under the patronage of the Swiss Academy of Humanities and Social Sciences and the Swiss Historical Society and is financed by national research grants. Besides a staff of 35 at the offices, the contributors include 100 academic advisors,2500 historians and 100 translators. The encyclopedia is being edited simultaneously in three languages of Switzerland, German and Italian. The first of 13 volumes was published in 2002, the last volume was published in 2014. The 36,000 headings are grouped in, Biographies Articles on families and it makes accessible, for free, all articles ready for publication in print, but no illustrations. It lists all 36,000 topics that are to be covered, lexicon Istoric Retic is a two volume version with a selection of articles published in Romansh. It includes articles not available in the other languages, the first volume was published in 2010, the second in 2012. An on-line version is available
The Tellskapelle is located on the Tellsplatte or Tellenplatte on the shore of Lake Lucerne at the foot of the Axenberg cliffs, in the Sisikon municipality, canton of Uri, Switzerland. It is across the Bay of Uri from the Rütli, some 4.3 km away, the Tellenplatte is first mentioned in 1470 in the White Book of Sarnen, as Tellen blatten. There are traditions of a built on the site as early as 1388. In 1561, a society was established which held a memorial service at the chapel. The chapel was enlarged or rebuilt in 1589 to 1590, in 1599, its altars were dedicated to Saint Sebastian, Saint William, the Holy Trinity, the Blessed Virgin Mary and All Saints. From the 17th century, the service and the associated procession were officially sanctioned by the canton of Uri. The current chapel was built in 1879 and it is decorated with four frescos by Ernst Stückelberg, realized in 1880-1882
Karlsruhe is the second-largest city in the state of Baden-Württemberg, in southwest Germany, near the French-German border. It has a population of 307,755, the city is the seat of the two highest courts in Germany, the Federal Constitutional Court and the Federal Court of Justice. Its most remarkable building is Karlsruhe Palace, which was built in 1715, the city lies at an altitude between 100 m and 322 m. Its geographical coordinates are 49°00′N 8°24′E, the 49th parallel runs through the city centre and its course is marked by a stone and painted line in the Stadtgarten. Almost all of these survived until today. The city centre is the oldest part of town and lies south of the palace in the quadrant defined by nine of the radial streets, the central part of the palace runs east-west, with two wings, each at a 45° angle, directed southeast and southwest. The market square lies on the street running south from the palace to Ettlingen, the area north of the palace is a park and forest. The area west of the palace is now mostly residential, Karlsruhe experiences an oceanic climate and its winter climate is milder, compared to most other German cities.
Summers are hotter than elsewhere in the country and it is one of the sunniest cities in Germany, precipitation is almost evenly spread throughout the year. In 2008, the station in Karlsruhe, which had been operating since 1876, was closed, it was replaced by a weather station in Rheinstetten. A variation of this claims that he built the new palace in order to find peace from his wife. Charles William founded the city on June 17,1715, after a dispute with the citizens of his previous capital, the founding of the city is closely linked to the construction of the palace. Karlsruhe became the capital of Baden-Durlach and in 1771 of the united Baden until 1945, built in 1822, the Ständehaus was the first parliament building in a German State. In the aftermath of the revolution of 1848, a republican government was elected here. Karlsruhe was visited by Thomas Jefferson during his time as the American envoy to France, Jefferson passed to him maps of 12 European towns to consult, one of which was a sketch he had made of Karlsruhe during his visit.
In 1860, the international professional convention of chemists, the Karlsruhe Congress, was held in the city. Much of the area, including the palace, was reduced to rubble by Allied bombing during World War II but was rebuilt after the war. Located in the American zone of the post-war Allied occupation, Karlsruhe was home to an American military base, in 1995, the bases closed, and their facilities were turned over to the city of Karlsruhe