Io9 is a blog launched in 2008 by Gawker Media, which focuses on the subjects of science fiction, futurism, science and related areas. It was founded by Annalee Newitz, a former policy analyst for the Electronic Frontier Foundation and contributor to Popular Science and New Scientist. Other contributors included co-founding editors Charlie Jane Anders and Kevin Kelly, in addition to Geoff Manaugh, Graeme McMillan, Meredith Woerner, Alasdair Wilkins, Cyriaque Lamar, Tim Barribeau, Esther Inglis-Arkell, Lauren Davis, Robbie Gonzalez, Keith Veronese, George Dvorsky, Lynn Peril. Between October 2010 and January 2012 io9 hosted the Geek's Guide to the Galaxy podcast, produced by John Joseph Adams and David Barr Kirtley. In 2008, shortly after Newitz's project, "other magazine," ceased print publication, Gawker media asked her to start a science and sci-fi blog. In an interview, Newitz explained the significance of the name "io9": "Well, io9s are input-output devices that let you see into the future.
They're brain implants. We made that up to name the blog; the blog is about looking into the future and science fiction, so we wanted to come up with a fictional name, something, science fiction." Io9's "Explanations" page gives further details on the fictional backstory of these devices. The blog is indexed by Google News. In February 2010, it was named one of the top 30 science blogs by Michael Moran of The Times' Eureka Zone blog, who wrote, "Ostensibly a blog for science fiction enthusiasts, io9 finds space for pieces on cutting-edge technology, the wilder fringes of astronomy and the more worrying implications of grey goo."In 2012, io9 created a video series called "io9: We Come From The Future". It had 32 shows from April 13, 2012 through November 16, 2012, it was hosted by Esther Inglis-Arkell. It was shown on YouTube; the show discussed the latest news in science fiction. Io9 was referenced in the American television series Dollhouse. After seven years as head editor, in January 2014 Newitz became the new editor at Gizmodo, while co-founder Anders remained as editor at io9, as part of a plan by Gawker to integrate io9 with Gizmodo.
Io9's 11 person staff joined Gizmodo's 22 person staff, under Newitz's overall supervision. One of the reasons for the merger was to better coordinate content: io9 is a science and science fiction blog, while Gizmodo is a technology blog, which resulted in what Gawker assessed as a 12% rate of overlapping content. Newitz remained as a contributor at io9 in 2014, however she stated that she grew to dislike managing both sites at once, because it took so much time away from her main passion of writing articles. Therefore, after a nearly eight-year run, Newitz retired from both io9 and Gizmodo on November 30, 2015, to take a position as tech culture editor at Ars Technica. Anders remained as head editor of io9; the resulting combined news site technically uses the domain name "io9.gizmodo.com", though in practice io9 and Gizmodo are still separate subsections, using their old logos on their own specific content. The old "io9.com" URL automatically links to the main io9 subpage of "io9.gizmodo.com".
Besides Newitz, several other longtime core staff members left their positions at io9 during this transitional time period in 2015. Meredith Woerner departed io9 in May 2015. Lauren Davis and Robbie Gonzalez left in August 2015: Davis went back to school to complete her MFA, Gonzalez left for a position at Wired. By May 2016 none of the original 2008 contributors were left on the site and neither were any of the staff in the 2010–2012 era. Before Newitz's departure, many new contributors were added to io9, including Rob Bricken, Cheryl Eddy, George Dvorsky, Andrew Liptak, Germain Lussier, Ria Misra, James Whitbrook, Katharine Trendacosta. On 26 April 2016 Charlie Jane Anders confirmed that she was leaving the site to focus her attention on her untitled second novel and that Rob Bricken would take over as editor. On July 31, 2018, Rob Bricken announced that he was stepping down as editor of io9, saying that managing the site was taking up too much time that he would rather spend writing articles for it.
He announced that his place as editor would be filled by Jill Pantozzi, former editor of The Mary Sue, who had joined io9 as a staff writer back in November 2017. Official website Io9's channel on YouTube
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
In North American folklore, Bigfoot or Sasquatch are said to be hairy, upright-walking, ape-like creatures that dwell in the wilderness and leave footprints. Depictions portray them as a missing link between humans and human ancestors or other great apes, they are associated with the Pacific Northwest, individuals claim to see the creatures across North America. Over the years, these creatures have inspired numerous commercial hoaxes; the plural nouns'Bigfoots' and'Bigfeet' are both acceptable. Folklorists trace the figure of Bigfoot to a combination of factors and sources, including folklore surrounding the European wild man figure, folk belief among Native Americans and loggers, a cultural increase in environmental concerns. A majority of mainstream scientists have discounted the existence of Bigfoot, considering it to be a combination of folklore, misidentification, hoax, rather than living animals. A minority, such as anthropologists Grover Krantz and Jeffrey Meldrum, have expressed belief in the creatures' existence.
People who claim to have seen it describe Bigfoot as large, bipedal ape-like creatures 6–9 feet tall, covered in hair described as black, dark brown, or dark reddish. The enormous footprints for which the creatures are named are claimed to be as large as 24 inches long and 8 inches wide; some footprint casts have contained claw marks, making it that they came from known animals such as bears, which have five toes and claws. According to David Daegling, the legends predate the name "bigfoot", they differ in their details both regionally and between families in the same community. Ecologist Robert Pyle says that most cultures have accounts of human-like giants in their folk history, expressing a need for "some larger-than-life creature." Each language had its own name for the creatures featured in the local version of such legends. Many names meant something along the lines of "wild man" or "hairy man", although other names described common actions that it was said to perform, such as eating clams or shaking trees.
Chief Mischelle of the Nlaka'pamux at Lytton, British Columbia told such a story to Charles Hill-Tout in 1898. Members of the Lummi tell tales about the local version of Bigfoot; the stories are similar to each other in the general descriptions of Ts'emekwes, but details differed among various family accounts concerning the creatures' diet and activities. Some regional versions tell of more threatening creatures; the stiyaha or kwi-kwiyai were a nocturnal race. Children were warned against saying the names, lest the monsters hear and come to carry off a person, sometimes to be killed. In 1847 Paul Kane reported stories by the Indians about skoocooms, a race of cannibalistic wildmen living on the peak of Mount St. Helens in southern Washington state. Less-menacing versions have been recorded, such as one in 1840 by Elkanah Walker, a Protestant missionary who recorded stories of giants among the Indians living near Spokane, Washington; the Indians said that these giants lived on and around the peaks of nearby mountains and stole salmon from the fishermen's nets.
In the 1920s, Indian Agent J. W. Burns compiled local stories and published them in a series of Canadian newspaper articles, they were accounts told to him by the Sts'Ailes people of Chehalis and others. The Sts ` Ailes and other regional tribes maintained, they were offended by people telling them. According to Sts'Ailes accounts, the Sasquatch preferred to avoid white men and spoke the Lillooet language of the people at Port Douglas, British Columbia at the head of Harrison Lake; these accounts were published again in 1940. Burns borrowed the term Sasquatch from the Halkomelem sásq'ets and used it in his articles to describe a hypothetical single type of creature portrayed in the local stories. About one-third of all claims of Bigfoot sightings are located in the Pacific Northwest, with the remaining reports spread throughout the rest of North America. Bigfoot has become better known and a phenomenon in popular culture, sightings have spread throughout North America. Rural areas of the Great Lakes region and the Southeastern United States have been sources of numerous reports of Bigfoot sightings, in addition to the Pacific Northwest.
The debate over the legitimacy of Bigfoot sightings reached a peak in the 1970s, Bigfoot has been regarded as the first popularized example of pseudoscience in American culture. Various explanations have been suggested for the sightings and to offer conjecture on what type of creature Bigfoot might be; some scientists attribute sightings either to hoaxes or to misidentification of known animals and their tracks black bears. In 2007 the Bigfoot Field Researchers Organization put forward some photos which they claimed showed a juvenile Bigfoot; the Pennsylvania Game Commission, said that the photos were of a bear with mange. However, anthropologist Jeffrey Meldrum, Ohio scientist Jason Jarvis said that the limb proportions of the creature were not bear-like, they were "more like a chimpanzee." Both Bigfoot believers and non-believers agree that many of the reported sightings are hoaxes or misidentified animals. Author Jerome Clark argues that the Jacko Affair was a hoax, involving an 1884 newspaper report of an apelike creature captured in British Columbia.
He cites research by John Green, who found that several contemporaneous British Columbia newspapers regarded the alleged capture as dubious, notes that the Mainland Guardian of New Westminster, British Columbia wrote, "Absurdity is
Canadians are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, several of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their being Canadian. Canada is a multilingual and multicultural society home to people of many different ethnic and national origins, with the majority of the population made up of Old World immigrants and their descendants. Following the initial period of French and the much larger British colonization, different waves of immigration and settlement of non-indigenous peoples took place over the course of nearly two centuries and continue today. Elements of Indigenous, French and more recent immigrant customs and religions have combined to form the culture of Canada, thus a Canadian identity. Canada has been influenced by its linguistic and economic neighbour—the United States. Canadian independence from the United Kingdom grew over the course of many years since the formation of the Canadian Confederation in 1867.
World War I and World War II in particular, gave rise to a desire among Canadians to have their country recognized as a fully-fledged sovereign state with a distinct citizenship. Legislative independence was established with the passage of the Statute of Westminster 1931, the Canadian Citizenship Act of 1946 took effect on January 1, 1947, full sovereignty was achieved with the patriation of the constitution in 1982. Canada's nationality law mirrored that of the United Kingdom. Legislation since the mid-20th century represents Canadians' commitment to multilateralism and socioeconomic development; as of 2010, Canadians make up only 0.5% of the world's total population, having relied upon immigration for population growth and social development. 41% of current Canadians are first- or second-generation immigrants, 20% of Canadian residents in the 2000s were not born in the country. Statistics Canada projects that, by 2031, nearly one-half of Canadians above the age of 15 will be foreign-born or have one foreign-born parent.
Indigenous peoples, according to the 2011 Canadian Census, numbered at 1,400,685 or 4.3% of the country's 33,476,688 population. While the first contact with Europeans and indigenous peoples in Canada had occurred a century or more before, the first group of permanent settlers were the French, who founded the New France settlements, in present-day Quebec and Ontario. 100 Irish-born families would settle the Saint Lawrence Valley by 1700, assimilating into the Canadien population and culture. During the 18th and 19th century; this arrival of newcomers led to the creation of the Métis, an ethnic group of mixed European and First Nations parentage. The British conquest of New France was preceded by a small number of Germans and Swedes who settled alongside the Scottish in Port Royal, Nova Scotia, while some Irish immigrated to the Colony of Newfoundland. In the wake of the British Conquest of 1760 and the Expulsion of the Acadians, many families from the British colonies in New England moved over into Nova Scotia and other colonies in Canada, where the British made farmland available to British settlers on easy terms.
More settlers arrived during and after the American Revolutionary War, when 60,000 United Empire Loyalists fled to British North America, a large portion of whom settled in New Brunswick. After the War of 1812, British and Irish immigration was encouraged throughout Rupert's Land, Upper Canada and Lower Canada. Between 1815 and 1850, some 800,000 immigrants came to the colonies of British North America from the British Isles as part of the Great Migration of Canada; these new arrivals included some Gaelic-speaking Highland Scots displaced by the Highland Clearances to Nova Scotia. The Irish Potato Famine of the 1840s increased the pace of Irish immigration to Prince Edward Island and the Province of Canada, with over 35,000 distressed individuals landing in Toronto in 1847 and 1848. Descendants of Francophone and Anglophone northern Europeans who arrived in the 17th, 18th, 19th centuries are referred to as Old Stock Canadians. Beginning in the late 1850s, the immigration of Chinese into the Colony of Vancouver Island and Colony of British Columbia peaked with the onset of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush.
The Chinese Immigration Act placed a head tax on all Chinese immigrants, in hopes of discouraging Chinese immigration after completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The population of Canada has risen, doubling every 40 years, since the establishment of the Canadian Confederation in 1867. In the mid-to-late 19th century, Canada had a policy of assisting immigrants from Europe, including an estimated 100,000 unwanted "Home Children" from Britain. Block settlement communities were established throughout western Canada between the late 19th and early 20th centuries; some were planned and others were spontaneously created by the settlers themselves. Canada was now receiving a large number of European immigrants, predominantly Italians, Scandinavians, Dutch and Ukrainians. Legislative restrictions on immigration that had favoured British and other European immigrants were a
Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website
New York Comic Con
The New York Comic Con is an annual New York City fan convention dedicated to Western comics, graphic novels, manga, video games, toys and television. It was first held in 2006; the New York Comic Con is a for-profit event produced and managed by ReedPOP, a division of Reed Exhibitions and Reed Elsevier, is not affiliated with the long running non-profit San Diego Comic-Con, nor the Big Apple Convention known as the Big Apple Comic-Con, owned by Wizard Entertainment. ReedPOP is involved with other events, including Chicago Comic & Entertainment Expo and PAX Dev/PAX East/PAX Prime. ReedPop and New York Comic Con were founded by Greg Topalian, former senior vice president of Reed Exhibitions; the first con was held in 2006 at the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center. Due to Reed Exhibitions' lack of experience with comic conventions, attendance was far more than anticipated, the main exhibition hall could only hold 10,000. Despite crowding on Friday afternoon, tickets continued to be sold due to low pre-reg numbers, the non-counting of professionals and exhibitors.
The main exhibition hall hit capacity Saturday morning and was locked by the fire marshals until people left, with the lockdown ending in the afternoon. Major guests, including Kevin Smith and Frank Miller, could not enter the main hall; the line to enter the convention wrapped around the building with waits of two hours to enter, many were turned away. Ticket sales for Sunday were suspended. Reed announced; the second con was held in 2007, with the convention organizer booking double the floor space than the previous year's space, moving to the upper level of the Javits Center. The show on Friday was again only open to industry and press until 4 p.m. when it opened to the public. Due to better planning, advance ticket sales were controlled, the convention sold out for Saturday. Lines started forming at midnight Saturday to enter the convention, by Saturday morning, there was a 2-hour wait in 20 degree temperatures to enter. Crowding was a problem in the Artists Alley, off the main convention floor, causing it to be moved to the main floor for 2008.
The American Anime Awards, hosted by New York Comic Con, was held on February 24 at the New Yorker Hotel, during the Comic Con. The third con held in 2008 moved to April, continued to grow, occupied most of the main level in the Javits Center. Stan Lee was awarded the inaugural New York Comics Legend Award at the Times Square Virgin Megastore before the Comic Con. Kids' Day programming was added to the convention on Sunday with the help of Kids's Comic Con; the fourth con held in 2009 returned to February and featured a charity art auction to support The Hero Initiative. Due to scheduling conflicts with the Javits Center for spring dates and the creation of the Chicago Comic & Entertainment Expo by Reed, New York Comic Con was moved to October for Halloween starting in 2010; the New York Anime Festival a separate event created by Reed, was merged into Comic Con. Registration for the combined events was 190 percent ahead of 2009's numbers, convention space was increased by an additional 40 percent, the anime festival was moved to the lower level of the Javits.
The main floor of the convention center was split by a large construction area due to repairs to the Javits Center. Intel Extreme Masters Global Challenge – New York took place in Comic Con 2011, it featured eSport tournaments for games such as StarCraft II, League of Legends, Counter-Strike. In 2011, the convention was expanded to four days; the first day of the convention was limited to press and fans that purchased a four-day pass. This changed in 2013. With this addition, attendance at New York Comic Con grew to over 130,000, which placed the attendance of the convention on par with San Diego Comic-Con for the first time ever. In 2014, NYCC's attendance reached 151,000, surpassing SDCC to become the largest comic book convention in North America. In 2016, it was announced that everyone attending NYCC 2016 would be required to complete a "Fan Verification" profile; the event organizers explained that this step was implemented in an attempt to reduce the amount of scalpers and resellers who purchase tickets.
Fan Verification would only be open from May 20 - June 14, tickets purchased could only be assigned to someone with a profile. It was announced that NYCC would no longer be selling VIP tickets, that show tickets would not be sold at any retailers or events leading up to NYCC 2016. In 2017, the sale of 3-day and 4-day passes to the event were discontinued. Only single day Thursday, Saturday and Sunday kids tickets would be sold for the event. In 2018, the event organizers announced a partnership with Anime Expo for show called Anime Fest @ NYCC X Anime Expo; the four-day event would be held at Pier 94 in New York City, concurrent with the NYCC convention dates. The New York Anime Festival was an anime and manga convention held annually from 2007 to 2011 at the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center on the West Side of Manhattan in New York City. Produced by Reed Exhibitions, the people behind New York Comic Con, the inaugural event was held from December 7 through December 9, 2007. Starting in 2010 the New York Anime Festival has been held with the New York Comic Con, bringing the two cultures together.
In 2012, the New York Anime festival was absorbed into Comic Con. The Eastern Championships of Cosplay have been held at New York Comic Con since 2014. They