Battle of Austerlitz
The Battle of Austerlitz, known as the Battle of the Three Emperors, was one of the most important and decisive engagements of the Napoleonic Wars. The battle occurred near the town of Austerlitz in the Austrian Empire, Austerlitz brought the War of the Third Coalition to a rapid end, with the Treaty of Pressburg signed by the Austrians in the month. The battle is cited as a tactical masterpiece, in the same league as other historic engagements like Cannae or Arbela. After eliminating an Austrian army during the Ulm Campaign, French forces managed to capture Vienna in November 1805, the Austrians avoided further conflict until the arrival of the Russians bolstered Allied numbers. Napoleon sent his army north in pursuit of the Allies, and he deployed the French army below the Pratzen Heights and deliberately weakened his right flank, enticing the Allies to launch a major assault there in the hopes of rolling up the whole French line. A forced march from Vienna by Marshal Davout and his III Corps plugged the gap left by Napoleon just in time.
Meanwhile, the heavy Allied deployment against the French right weakened the allied center on the Pratzen Heights, with the Allied center demolished, the French swept through both enemy flanks and sent the Allies fleeing chaotically, capturing thousands of prisoners in the process. The Allied disaster significantly shook the faith of Emperor Francis in the British-led war effort and Austria agreed to an armistice immediately and the Treaty of Pressburg followed shortly after, on 26 December. Pressburg took Austria out of both the war and the Coalition while reinforcing the earlier treaties of Campo Formio and of Lunéville between the two powers, the treaty confirmed the Austrian loss of lands in Italy and Bavaria to France, and in Germany to Napoleons German allies. It imposed an indemnity of 40 million francs on the defeated Habsburgs and allowed the fleeing Russian troops free passage through hostile territories and back to their home soil. Critically, victory at Austerlitz permitted the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine and these achievements, did not establish a lasting peace on the continent.
Prussian worries about growing French influence in Central Europe sparked the War of the Fourth Coalition in 1806, Europe had been in turmoil since the start of the French Revolutionary Wars in 1792. In 1797, after five years of war, the French Republic subdued the First Coalition, an alliance of Austria, Great Britain, Spain, in March 1802, France and Britain agreed to end hostilities under the Treaty of Amiens. For the first time in ten years, all of Europe was at peace, but many problems persisted between the two sides, making implementation of the treaty increasingly difficult. The British government resented having to return the Cape Colony and most of the Dutch West Indian islands to the Batavian Republic, Napoleon was angry that British troops had not evacuated the island of Malta. The tense situation only worsened when Napoleon sent a force to crush the Haitian Revolution. In May 1803, Britain declared war on France, in December 1804, an Anglo-Swedish agreement led to the creation of the Third Coalition.
Having been defeated twice in recent memory by France, and being keen on revenge, before the formation of the Third Coalition, Napoleon had assembled an invasion force, called the Armée dAngleterre around six camps at Boulogne in Northern France
The Ulm Campaign consisted of a series of French and Bavarian military maneuvers and battles to outflank and capture an Austrian army in 1805 during the War of the Third Coalition. It took place in the vicinity of and inside the Swabian city of Ulm, the campaign is generally regarded as a strategic masterpiece and was influential in the development of the Schlieffen Plan in the late 19th century. The victory at Ulm did not end the war, since a large Russian army under Kutuzov was still near Vienna, the Russians withdrew to the northeast to await reinforcements and to link up with surviving Austrian units. The French followed and captured Vienna on 12 November, on 2 December the decisive French victory at Austerlitz removed Austria from the war. Europe had been by embroiled in the French Revolutionary Wars since 1792, after five years of war, the French Republic subdued the First Coalition in 1797. A Second Coalition was formed in 1798 but this too was defeated by 1801, Britain remained the only opponent for the new French Consulate.
In March 1802, France and Britain agreed to end hostilities under the Treaty of Amiens, for the first time in ten years, all of Europe was at peace. There were many problems between the two sides and implementing the agreements they had reached at Amiens seemed to be a growing challenge, Britain resented having to turn over all colonial conquests since 1793 and France was angry that British troops had not evacuated the island of Malta. The tense situation only worsened when Napoleon sent a force to crush the Haitian Revolution. In May 1803, Britain declared war on France, in December 1804, an Anglo-Swedish agreement led to the creation of the Third Coalition. British Prime Minister William Pitt spent 1804 and 1805 in a flurry of activity to form a new coalition against France. Mutual suspicion between the British and the Russians eased in the face of several French political mistakes and by April 1805 the two had signed a treaty of alliance. Having been defeated twice in recent memory by France and keen on revenge, prior to the formation of the Third Coalition, Napoleon had assembled the Army of England, an invasion force meant to strike at the British Isles, around six camps at Boulogne in Northern France.
Although they never set foot on British soil, Napoleons troops received careful, although boredom quickly set in among the troops, Napoleon paid many visits to conduct lavish parades to maintain their morale. The men at Boulogne formed the core for what Napoleon would call La Grande Armée, by 1805, La Grande Armée had grown to a force of 350,000, was equipped and trained. It possessed a competent officer class where almost all from sergeants to marshals had experience in the recent Revolutionary Wars. Charles was Austrias best field commander, but he was unpopular with the court and lost much influence when, against his advice. The sudden change came with no corresponding officer training, new units were led by commanders who had not been given sufficient tactical training in using their units
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806. On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe, more than three centuries after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The title was revived in 962 when Otto I was crowned emperor, fashioning himself as the successor of Charlemagne, some historians refer to the coronation of Charlemagne as the origin of the empire, while others prefer the coronation of Otto I as its beginning. Scholars generally concur, however, in relating an evolution of the institutions and principles constituting the empire, the office of Holy Roman Emperor was traditionally elective, although frequently controlled by dynasties. Emperor Francis II dissolved the empire on 6 August 1806, after the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine by Napoleon, before 1157, the realm was merely referred to as the Roman Empire.
In a decree following the 1512 Diet of Cologne, the name was changed to Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, by the end of the 18th century, the term Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation had fallen out of official use. As Roman power in Gaul declined during the 5th century, local Germanic tribes assumed control, by the middle of the 8th century, the Merovingians had been reduced to figureheads, and the Carolingians, led by Charles Martel, had become the de facto rulers. In 751, Martel’s son Pepin became King of the Franks, the Carolingians would maintain a close alliance with the Papacy. In 768 Pepin’s son Charlemagne became King of the Franks and began an expansion of the realm. He eventually incorporated the territories of present-day France, northern Italy, on Christmas Day of 800, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne emperor, restoring the title in the west for the first time in over three centuries. After the death of Charles the Fat in 888, the Carolingian Empire broke apart, according to Regino of Prüm, the parts of the realm spewed forth kinglets, and each part elected a kinglet from its own bowels.
After the death of Charles the Fat, those crowned emperor by the pope controlled only territories in Italy, the last such emperor was Berengar I of Italy, who died in 924. Around 900, autonomous stem duchies reemerged in East Francia, on his deathbed, Conrad yielded the crown to his main rival, Henry the Fowler of Saxony, who was elected king at the Diet of Fritzlar in 919. Henry reached a truce with the raiding Magyars, and in 933 he won a first victory against them in the Battle of Riade, Henry died in 936, but his descendants, the Liudolfing dynasty, would continue to rule the Eastern kingdom for roughly a century. Upon Henry the Fowlers death, his son and designated successor, was elected King in Aachen in 936 and he overcame a series of revolts from an elder brother and from several dukes. After that, the managed to control the appointment of dukes. In 951, Otto came to the aid of Adelaide, the queen of Italy, defeating her enemies, marrying her. In 955, Otto won a victory over the Magyars in the Battle of Lechfeld
The Netherlands, informally known as Holland is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a densely populated country located in Western Europe with three territories in the Caribbean. The European part of the Netherlands borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing borders with Belgium, the United Kingdom. The three largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam and The Hague, Amsterdam is the countrys capital, while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of parliament and government. The port of Rotterdam is the worlds largest port outside East-Asia, the name Holland is used informally to refer to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. Netherlands literally means lower countries, influenced by its low land and flat geography, most of the areas below sea level are artificial. Since the late 16th century, large areas have been reclaimed from the sea and lakes, with a population density of 412 people per km2 –507 if water is excluded – the Netherlands is classified as a very densely populated country.
Only Bangladesh, South Korea, and Taiwan have both a population and higher population density. Nevertheless, the Netherlands is the worlds second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products and this is partly due to the fertility of the soil and the mild climate. In 2001, it became the worlds first country to legalise same-sex marriage, the Netherlands is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G-10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as being a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union. The first four are situated in The Hague, as is the EUs criminal intelligence agency Europol and this has led to the city being dubbed the worlds legal capital. The country ranks second highest in the worlds 2016 Press Freedom Index, the Netherlands has a market-based mixed economy, ranking 17th of 177 countries according to the Index of Economic Freedom. It had the thirteenth-highest per capita income in the world in 2013 according to the International Monetary Fund, in 2013, the United Nations World Happiness Report ranked the Netherlands as the seventh-happiest country in the world, reflecting its high quality of life.
The Netherlands ranks joint second highest in the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, the region called Low Countries and the country of the Netherlands have the same toponymy. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in all over Europe. They are sometimes used in a relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben. In the case of the Low Countries / the Netherlands the geographical location of the region has been more or less downstream. The geographical location of the region, changed over time tremendously
Cuirassiers were cavalry equipped with armour and firearms, first appearing in late 15th-century Europe. This French term means one with a cuirass, the armour which they wore. The first cuirassiers were produced as a result of armoured cavalry, such as the man-at-arms and demi-lancer, discarding their lances, in the 17th century, the cuirassier lost his limb armour and subsequently employed only the cuirass, and sometimes a helmet. By this time, the sword was the weapon of the cuirassier. Cuirassiers achieved increased prominence during the Napoleonic Wars and were last fielded in the stages of World War I. Cuirassiers continue to be employed as ceremonial troops by a number of countries, the first cuirassiers were similar in appearance to the fully armoured Late Medieval man-at-arms. They wore three-quarter armour that covered the upper body as well as the front half of the legs down to the knee. The head was protected by a helm, burgonet or lobster-tailed pot helmet. The torso was protected by a breast and back plate, sometimes reinforced by a placate, the arms and shoulders were fully armoured with pauldrons, elbow couters and vambraces.
Armoured gauntlets were often abandoned, particularly for the right hand, long tassets, instead of a combination of short tassets with cuisses, protected the front of the thighs and knees, Riding boots were substituted for lower leg armour. Weapons included a pair of pistols in saddle holsters, sometimes a pick. The armour of a cuirassier was very expensive, in England, in 1629, during the latter half of the 16th century, the heavy knightly lance gradually fell out of use perhaps because of the widespread adoption of the infantry pike. Also, the lance required an amount of practice to perfect its use. The lancer or demi-lancer, when he had abandoned his lance, following some initial successes, this tactic proved to be extremely ineffective as infantry, with superior firearms and numbers could easily outgun the cuirassiers. The change from cavalry being reliant on firearms, to close combat cavalry reliant mainly on the sword was often attributed to Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden in the 1620s and 1630s.
Only two cuirassier regiments were raised during the English Civil War, the Lifeguard of the Earl of Essex, with the refinement of infantry firearms, especially the introduction of the powerful musket, the usefulness of the protection afforded by full armour became greatly lessened. By the mid 17th century, the fully armoured cuirassier was becoming increasingly anachronistic, the cuirassier lost his limb armour and entered the 18th century with just the breast and backplate. Cuirassiers played a prominent role in the armies of Austria, by the time of the French Revolutionary War, few heavy cavalry regiments, excepting those of Austria, wore the cuirass on campaign
Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor
Joseph II was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. He was the eldest son of Empress Maria Theresa and her husband, Francis I and he was thus the first ruler in the Austrian dominions of the House of Lorraine, styled Habsburg-Lorraine. He has been ranked, with Catherine the Great of Russia and Frederick the Great of Prussia and his policies are now known as Josephinism. He died with no sons and was succeeded by his younger brother, Joseph was born in the midst of the early upheavals of the War of the Austrian Succession. His real education was given to him through the writings of Voltaire and the Encyclopédistes and he married Princess Isabella of Parma in October 1760, a union fashioned to bolster the 1756 defensive pact between France and Austria. Joseph loved his bride, finding her both stimulating and charming, and she sought, with care to cultivate his favor. The marriage of Joseph and Isabella resulted in the birth of a daughter, Isabella was fearful of pregnancy and early death.
Her own pregnancy proved difficult as she suffered symptoms of pain, illness. She remained bedridden for six weeks after their daughters birth, almost immediately on the back of their newfound parenthood, the couple endured two consecutive miscarriages—an ordeal particularly hard on Isabella—followed quickly by another pregnancy. Pregnancy was again provoking melancholy and dread in Isabella, progressively ill with smallpox and strained by sudden childbirth and tragedy, Isabella died the following week. This marriage proved unhappy, albeit brief, as it lasted only two years. Though Maria Josepha loved her husband, she felt timid and inferior in his company, lacking common interests or pleasures, the relationship offered little for Joseph, who confessed he felt no love for her in return. He adapted by distancing himself from his wife to the point of near total avoidance, seeing her only at meals, Maria Josepha, in turn, suffered considerable misery in finding herself locked in a cold, loveless union.
Four months after the anniversary of their wedding, Maria Josepha grew ill. Joseph neither visited her during her illness nor attended her funeral, though he expressed regret for not having shown her better kindness. One thing the union did provide him was the possibility of laying claim to a portion of Bavaria. In 1770, at the age of seven, Josephs only surviving child, Maria Theresa, became ill with pleurisy, the loss of his daughter was deeply traumatic for him and left him profoundly grief-stricken and scarred. He was made a member of the council of state
Lieutenant field marshal
This article incorporates information from the equivalent article on the German Wikipedia. Lieutenant field marshal, frequently historically field marshal lieutenant, was an army rank in certain European armies of the 17th to 20th centuries. It emerged as the rank of field marshal came to be used for the highest army commander in the 17th century, in German-speaking countries the commander-in-chief usually appointed an under marshal or lieutenant field marshal to support and represent the field marshal. Amongst his functions as the deputy to the field marshal, were the supervision of supply depots and routes. The rank was used by the Imperial Army of the Holy Roman Empire from the 17th century until 1806, on the re-introduction of the rank of field marshal, it fell back to third place in terms of seniority. u. k. Army was equivalent to the Generalleutnant of the Prussian Army, the normal assignment of a lieutenant field marshal was command of a division-sized formation. He was addressed by the title of excellency.
In Austria the rank continued to be used after 1918 by the commander-in-chief of the so-called Volkswehr until 1919, the Bundesheer of the First Republic adopted the designation and sequence of the German ranks in 1920. In 1933, following tradition, Austrian ranks and uniforms were reintroduced. These ranks remained in use until the Anschluss in 1938, the equivalent of lieutenant field marshal in the Hungarian Army was the rank of altábornagy. Today it is still in use as NATO OF-8, three-star rank corresponding to lieutenant general in English-speaking armed forces, georg von Alten, Handbuch für Heer und Flotte. Vol. III, Berlin,1911 Constantin von Wurzbach, Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Österreich,60 vols, Vienna, 1856-1891 Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie,56 vols. Munich-Leipzig, 1875-1912 Österreichisches Biographisches Lexikon 1815-1950, hitherto 12 volumes, neue Österreichische Biographie, hitherto 21 volumes, Vienna, 1935-1982 Felix Czeike, Historisches Lexikon Wien,5 vols. Vienna, 1992-1997 Antonio Schmidt-Brentano, Kaiserliche und k.
k, generale 1618-1815, Austrian State Archives Antonio Schmidt-Brentano, Die k. k. bzw. k. u. k. Generalität 1816-1918, Austrian State Archives Adjustierungsvorschrift für die k. u. k, die verbundenen Einrichtungen und das Corps der Militär-Beamten. Complete works Vienna/Bozen,1912 Ranks in the Austro-Hungarian Navy Rank insignias of the Austro-Hungarian armed forces
Friedrich Ludwig Georg von Raumer
Friedrich Ludwig Georg von Raumer was a German historian. He was the first scientific historian to popularise history in German and he travelled extensively and served in German legislative bodies. He was born at Wörlitz in Anhalt-Dessau and his father, was Kammerdirektor in Anhalt and did great service to agriculture. After studying at the Joachimsthal Gymnasium, and at the universities of Halle and Göttingen and he entered the Prussian civil service in 1801 as a civil magistrate, and rose in the service to become councillor to Chancellor Hardenberg in 1809. He was made a professor at the University of Breslau in 1811, in 1819, he became professor of political science and history at the University of Berlin holding the chair until 1847, and giving occasional lectures until 1853. He was for some time secretary of the Prussian Academy of Sciences and that position he resigned in 1847. At different times between 1816 and 1855, he travelled extensively through Europe and the United States, in 1815, he carried on historical investigations in Venice, and in the two following years he travelled in Germany and Italy.
He went to England in 1835, to Italy in 1839 and he revisited the United States 1853-55. These visits led to the publication of various works, returning from his 1841 journey through the United States Raumer was deeply impressed by the broad knowledge of average US citizens, whom he had encountered travelling on a Mississippi steam boat. His travel acquaintances ascribed their interest and knowledge to their access to books from public libraries, Raumer started an initiative to open public libraries in Berlin too. By the end of 1841 Raumer and other enthusiasts first founded the Verein für wissenschaftliche Vorträge, the Verein, using the Singing Academy concert hall as its venue for lectures, succeeded to collect Thaler 4,000 forming the starting capital for Berlins to-be-founded public libraries in 1846. Until the end of the 1870s the Verein raised and provided funds amounting to the sixfolds of this initial sum, the Verein, wanted the city of Berlin to give a helping hand and take the libraries under its auspices.
Raumer presented his ideas on public libraries, termed as Volksbibliotheken, in a memorandum in 1846, with effect of 1 August 1850 the first four public libraries opened, numbered I to IV. I was named after Raumer in 1955, in 1848 he was elected a member of the Frankfurt Parliament, where he associated himself with the right centre, supporting the proposal for a German empire under the supremacy of Prussia. He was sent to Paris as ambassador by imperial regent Archduke John of Austria, after the breakdown of the German parliament, Raumer returned to Berlin, where he was made a member of the House of Lords of Prussia. He died at Berlin in 1873 and his grave is preserved at a cemetery in the Kreuzberg section of Berlin, the Friedhof II der Dreifaltigkeits-Kirchengemeinde on Bergmannstraße, Berlin. His most famous works are Geschichte der Hohenstaufen und ihrer Zeit and his first work, published anonymously in 1806, was entitled Sechs Dialoge über Krieg und Handel. A. Brockhaus, which was continued by Wilhelm Heinrich Riehl after 1871.
”According to Appletons Cyclopædia of American Biography, “He is justly considered as one of the historians of the 19th century. ”His brother, Karl Georg von Raumer, was a geologist
Ulm is a city in the federal German state of Baden-Württemberg, situated on the River Danube. The city, whose population is estimated at almost 120,000, founded around 850, Ulm is rich in history and traditions as a former Free Imperial City. Today, it is an economic centre due to its varied industries, Ulm is primarily known for having the church with the tallest steeple in the world, the Gothic minster, and as the birthplace of Albert Einstein. Ulm lies at the point where the rivers Blau and Iller join the Danube, at an altitude of 479 m above sea level. Most parts of the city, including the old town, are situated on the bank of the Danube, only the districts of Wiblingen, Gögglingen, Donaustetten. Across from the old town, on the side of the river, lies the twin city of Neu-Ulm in the state of Bavaria, smaller than Ulm and, until 1810. Except for the Danube in the south, the city is surrounded by forests and hills rise to altitudes of over 620 metres. South of the Danube and hills finally end in the edge of the Alps.
The city of Ulm is situated in the part of the North Alpine Foreland basin. The Turritellenplatte of Ermingen is a famous site of Burdigalian age. On the right side of Danube and Iller there is the district town Neu-Ulm. On the left side Ulm is almost completely surrounded by the Alb-Danube district, nine districts that were integrated during the latest municipality reform in the 1970s. They have own local councils which acquire an important consulting position to the city council concerning issues that are related to the prevailing districts. But at the end, final decisions can only be made by the city council of the city of Ulm. The oldest traceable settlement of the Ulm area began in the early Neolithic period, settlements of this time have been identified at the villages of Eggingen and Lehr, today districts of the city. In the city area of Ulm proper, the oldest find dates from the late Neolithic period, the earliest written mention of Ulm is dated 22 July 854 AD, when King Louis the German signed a document in the Kings palace of Hulma in the Duchy of Swabia.
The city was declared an Imperial City by Friedrich Barbarossa in 1181, at first, Ulms significance was due to the privilege of a Königspfalz, a place of accommodation for the medieval German kings and emperors on their frequent travels. Later, Ulm became a city of traders and craftsmen, one of the most important legal documents of the city, an agreement between the Ulm patricians and the trade guilds, dates from 1397
Franz Joseph, Count Kinsky
Franz Joseph, Count Kinsky of Wchinitz and Tettau was a Habsburg Austrian general in the War of the Bavarian Succession and the French Revolutionary Wars. A nobleman from the House of Kinsky, he began his service in 1759. Ahead of his time, he began a school in his regiment to train officer cadets, as a general officer he led troops in a successful action against Prussia in 1778. A year he was appointed Inhaber of a regiment and Director of the Theresian Military Academy in Wiener Neustadt. In the Flanders Campaign in 1794, he commanded a division against the French. He led a column at Tourcoing where he failed to support Prince Frederick, Duke of York. He was promoted to Feldzeugmeister in September 1794 and he held no more active commands and died at Vienna in 1805. Franz Joseph Kinsky was born into the House of Kinsky in Prague on 6 December 1739 and his father Count Franz Ferdinand Kinsky of Wchinitz and Tettau held the title Highest Councillor of the Kingdom of Bohemia. His mother was his fathers wife, Countess Maria Augustina Pálffy ab Erdöd.
He joined the Habsburg Austrian army in 1759 and was an Imperial Chamberlain the next year and he was promoted to major on 13 October 1764. He was elevated in rank to Oberst 24 February 1768 and appointed to command an infantry regiment and he started an officer cadet school in his regiment with his own funds, the first cadet school in the Austrian army. He was promoted to General-major on 1 May 1773, during the War of the Bavarian Succession in 1778 he commanded a column in the successful raid on Habelschwerdt. The year 1779 was an important one for Kinsky, on 13 June 1779 he was appointed Inhaber of Infantry Regiment Nr. 47, a dignity he held until his death and this was followed by his posting as Local Director of the Theresian Military Academy in Wiener Neustadt on 12 July. He married Countess Maria Renata von und zu Trauttmansdorff a week on 19 July 1779 and he received promotion to Feldmarschall-Leutnant on 19 March 1785 and two days was named Supreme Director of the Theresian Military Academy.
In 1794 Kinsky was sent to the Austrian Netherlands to fight the Republican French during the War of the First Coalition. He served in the Coalition army commanded by Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld in the Flanders Campaign, leading a division consisting of brigades under von Heister and Anton Ernst Mittrowsky. In mid-May, Karl Mack von Leiberich planned an operation whereby 73,350 Coalition troops would advance to catch the French divisions of Joseph Souham, the operation called for six columns to converge on the French units holding a salient at Menen and Courtrai
War of the Second Coalition
The War of the Second Coalition was the second war on revolutionary France by the European monarchies, led by Britain and Russia, and including the Ottoman Empire and Naples. Their goal was to contain the spread of chaos from France and they failed to overthrow the revolutionary regime and French territorial gains since 1793 were confirmed. The Allies formed a new alliance and attempted to roll back Frances previous military conquests, the Coalition did very well in 1799, but Russia pulled out. Napoleon took charge in France in late 1799, and he, in the Treaty of Lunéville in 1801, France held all of its previous gains and obtained new lands in Tuscany, while Austria was granted Venetia and the Dalmatian coast. Britain and France signed the Treaty of Amiens in March 1802, by May 1803 Britain and France were again at war and in 1805 Britain assembled the Third Coalition to resume the war against France. On 20 April 1792, the French Legislative Assembly declared war on Austria, in this War of the First Coalition, France ranged itself against most of the European states sharing land or water borders with her, plus Portugal and the Ottoman Empire.
In the summer of 1798, Napoleon Bonaparte led an expedition to Egypt, where his army was trapped, during his absence from Europe, the outbreak of violence in Switzerland drew French support against the old Swiss Confederation. When revolutionaries overthrew the government in Bern, the French Army of the Alps invaded. In northern Italy, Russian general Aleksandr Suvorov won a string of victories, driving the French under Moreau out of the Po Valley, forcing them back on the French Alps and the coast around Genoa. However, the Russian armies in the Helvetic Republic were defeated by French commander André Masséna, ultimately the Russians left the Coalition when Great Britain insisted on the right to search all vessels it stopped at sea. In Germany, Archduke Charles of Austria drove the French under Jean-Baptiste Jourdan back across the Rhine, Jourdan was replaced by Massena, who combined the Armies of the Danube and Helvetia. From October 1797 until March 1799, the signatories of the Treaty of Campo Formio avoided armed conflict, despite their agreement at Campo Formio, two primary combatants and Austria, remained suspicious of each other and several diplomatic incidents undermined the agreement.
The French demanded additional territory not mentioned in the Treaty, the Habsburgs were reluctant to hand over designated territories, much less additional ones. The Congress at Rastatt proved inept at orchestrating the transfer of territories to compensate the German princes for their losses, Ferdinand of Naples refused to pay tribute to France, followed by the Neapolitan rebellion and the subsequent establishment of the Parthenopaean Republic. Republicans in the Swiss cantons, supported by the French army, overthrew the government in Bern. Other factors contributed to the rising tensions, on his way to Egypt, Napoleon had stopped at the heavily fortified port city of Valletta. Grand Master Ferdinand von Hompesch zu Bolheim, who ruled the island, the French Knights of the order deserted, and the remaining Knights failed to mount a successful resistance. Bonaparte forcibly removed the other Knights from their possessions, angering Paul, Tsar of Russia, the French Directory, was convinced that the Austrians were conniving to start another war