Battle of Leipzig
The Battle of Leipzig or Battle of the Nations was fought from 16 to 19 October 1813, at Leipzig, Saxony. Napoleons army contained Polish and Italian troops, as well as Germans from the Confederation of the Rhine, the battle was the culmination of the 1813 German campaign and involved nearly 600,000 soldiers, making it the largest battle in Europe prior to World War I. Being decisively defeated for the first time in battle, Napoleon was compelled to return to France while the Coalition hurried to keep their momentum, Napoleon was forced to abdicate and was exiled to Elba in May 1814. However, the Russian Tsar refused to even as the French occupied the city. With this string of defeats, the armies of France were in retreat on all fronts across Europe, anti-French forces joined Russia as its troops pursued the remnants of the virtually destroyed Grande Armée across central Europe. He sought to regain the offensive by re-establishing his hold in Germany, the victories led to a brief armistice.
He won a victory at the Battle of Dresden on 27 August. This policy led to victories at Großbeeren, Katzbach, after these defeats, the French emperor could not easily follow up on his victory at Dresden. With the intention of knocking Prussia out of the war as soon as possible, Oudinot was defeated at the Battle of Großbeeren, just south of the city. With the intact Prussian force threatening from the north, Napoleon was compelled to withdraw westward and he deployed his army around the city, but concentrated his force from Taucha through Stötteritz, where he placed his command. The Prussians advanced from Wartenburg, the Austrians and Russians from Dresden, the coalition had some 380,000 troops along with 1,500 guns, consisting of 145,000 Russians,115,000 Austrians,90,000 Prussians, and 30,000 Swedes. This made Leipzig the largest battle of the Napoleonic wars, surpassing Borodino, Wagram and Auerstadt, Napoleon conscripted these men to be readied for an even larger campaign against the newly formed Sixth Coalition and its forces stationed in Germany.
While he won several battles, his army was being steadily depleted as Coalition commanders, closely following the Trachenberg Plan. The Swedes had under their command a company of the British Rocket Brigade armed with Congreve rockets, despite being outnumbered, Napoleon planned to take the offensive between the Pleisse and the Parthe rivers. The position at Leipzig held several advantages for his army and his battle strategy, the rivers that converged there split the surrounding terrain into many separate sectors. The northern front was defended by Marshals Michel Ney and Auguste de Marmont, the artillery reserve and parks and baggage stood near Leipzig, which Napoleon made his supply base for the battle. The bridges on the Pleisse and White Elster rivers were defended by infantry, the main battery stood in reserve, and during battle was to be deployed on the Gallows Height. This battery was to be commanded by the artillery expert Antoine Drouot, the western flank of the French positions at Wachau and Liebertwolkwitz was defended by Prince Joseph Poniatowski and Marshal Pierre Augereau and his young French conscripts
Friedrich Graf Kleist von Nollendorf
Friedrich Emil Ferdinand Heinrich Graf Kleist von Nollendorf and died in Berlin, was a Prussian field marshal and a member of the old junker family von Kleist. Kleist entered the Prussian Army in 1778 and served in the War of the Bavarian Succession, by 1799, Kleist had been promoted to major and was put in command of a battalion of grenadiers. Kleist served in the Napoleonic Wars and fought at Jena, in 1807 he went on extended leave but by 1808 he was put in command of an infantry brigade and the next year he was made commandant of Berlin. During the War of Liberation he was given a corps with which he fought in the battles of Kulm, in 1814, he was given the title Count of Nollendorf for his decisive role in this battle. After Leipzig, Kleist blockaded the Principality of Erfurt, bringing about its surrender after which, in early 1814, he marched his troops into France and he fought in the battle of Laon and in the attack on Paris. At the end of the war Kleist was promoted to the rank of General der Infanterie, two years before his death he was promoted to the rank of Generalfeldmarschall.
Das Leben des Generalfeldmarschalls Grafen Kleist von Nollendorf, geschichte des Geschlechts v. Kleist Dritter Teil – Biographien bis 1880 Fünfte Abteilung. Das preußische Heer und die Norddeutschen Bundestruppen unter General v. Kleist 1815
Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country in Central Europe, situated between the Baltic Sea in the north and two mountain ranges in the south. Bordered by Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south and Belarus to the east, the total area of Poland is 312,679 square kilometres, making it the 69th largest country in the world and the 9th largest in Europe. With a population of over 38.5 million people, Poland is the 34th most populous country in the world, the 8th most populous country in Europe, Poland is a unitary state divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, and its capital and largest city is Warsaw. Other metropolises include Kraków, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk and Szczecin, the establishment of a Polish state can be traced back to 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of a territory roughly coextensive with that of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, and in 1569 it cemented a political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin.
This union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, Poland regained its independence in 1918 at the end of World War I, reconstituting much of its historical territory as the Second Polish Republic. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany, followed thereafter by invasion by the Soviet Union. More than six million Polish citizens died in the war, after the war, Polands borders were shifted westwards under the terms of the Potsdam Conference. With the backing of the Soviet Union, a communist puppet government was formed, and after a referendum in 1946. During the Revolutions of 1989 Polands Communist government was overthrown and Poland adopted a new constitution establishing itself as a democracy, informally called the Third Polish Republic. Since the early 1990s, when the transition to a primarily market-based economy began, Poland has achieved a high ranking on the Human Development Index.
Poland is a country, which was categorised by the World Bank as having a high-income economy. Furthermore, it is visited by approximately 16 million tourists every year, Poland is the eighth largest economy in the European Union and was the 6th fastest growing economy on the continent between 2010 and 2015. According to the Global Peace Index for 2014, Poland is ranked 19th in the list of the safest countries in the world to live in. The origin of the name Poland derives from a West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta River basin of the historic Greater Poland region in the 8th century, the origin of the name Polanie itself derives from the western Slavic word pole. In some foreign languages such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish the exonym for Poland is Lechites, historians have postulated that throughout Late Antiquity, many distinct ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland. The most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, the Slavic groups who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD.
With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the authority of the Roman Church
Captain (armed forces)
The army rank of captain is a commissioned officer rank historically corresponding to the command of a company of soldiers. The rank is used by some air forces and marine forces. Today, a captain is typically either the commander or second-in-command of a company or artillery battery, in the Chinese Peoples Liberation Army, a captain may command a company, or be the second-in-command of a battalion. In NATO countries, the rank of captain is described by the code OF-2 and is one rank above an OF-1, the rank of captain is generally considered to be the highest rank a soldier can achieve while remaining in the field. The rank of captain should not be confused with the rank of captain or with the British-influenced air force rank of group captain. The term ultimately goes back to Late Latin capitaneus meaning chief, prominent, in Middle English adopted as capitayn in the 14th century, the military rank of captain was in use from the 1560s, referring to an officer who commands a company. The naval sense, an officer who commands a man-of-war, is earlier, from the 1550s.
He would in turn receive money from another nobleman to serve as his lieutenant, the funding to provide for the troops came from the monarch or his government, the captain had to be responsible for it. If he was not, or was otherwise court-martialed, he would be dismissed, the only pension for the captain was selling the right to another nobleman when he was ready to retire. In most countries, the air force is the junior service, such as the United States Air Force, use a rank structure and insignia similar to those of the army. However, the United Kingdoms Royal Air Force, many other Commonwealth air forces, a group captain is OF-5 and was derived from the naval rank of captain. In the unified system of the Canadian Forces, the air force rank titles are pearl grey, a variety of images illustrative of different forces insignia for captain are shown below, Captain Captain Senior captain Staff captain
Daniel Coit Gilman
Daniel Coit Gilman was an American educator and academic. He was co-founder of the Russell Trust Association, which administers the affairs of Yales Skull. At Yale he was a classmate of Andrew Dickson White, who would serve as first president of Cornell University. The two were members of the Skull and Bones secret society, and traveled to Europe together after graduation, Gilman was a member of the Alpha Delta Phi Fraternity. Gilman would co-found the Russell Trust Association, the foundation behind Skull, Gilman contemplated going into the ministry, and even took out a license to preach, but settled on a career in education. From 1856 to 1865 Gilman served as librarian of Yale College, in 1863, Gilman was appointed professor of geography at the Sheffield Scientific School, and became secretary and librarian as well in 1866. His work there was hampered by the legislature, and in 1875 Gilman accepted the offer to establish. Before being formally installed as president in 1876, he spent a year studying university organization and his formal inauguration, on 22 February 1876, has become Hopkins Commemoration Day, the day on which many university presidents have chosen to be installed in office.
Gilmans primary interest was in fostering advanced instruction and research, the aim of the modern research university, said Gilman, was to extend, even by minute accretions, the realm of knowledge At his inaugural address at Hopkins, Gilman asked, What are we aiming at. The answer, he said, was the encouragement of research and the advancement of individual scholars, who by their excellence will advance the sciences they pursue, in 1884, Gilman was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society. Gilman was active in founding Johns Hopkins Hospital and Johns Hopkins Medical School and he founded and was for many years president of the Charity Organization of Baltimore, and in 1897 he served on the commission to draft a new charter for Baltimore. From 1896 to 1897, he was a member of the commission to settle the line between Venezuela and British Guiana. Gilman served as a trustee of the John F. Slater and Peabody education funds, in this capacity, he became active in the promotion of education in the southern United States.
He retired from Johns Hopkins in 1901, but accepted the presidency of the newly founded Carnegie Institution of Washington and his books include biographies of James Monroe and James Dwight Dana, a collection of addresses entitled University Problems, and The Launching of a University. His first wife was Mary Van Winker Ketcham, daughter of Tredwell Ketcham of New York, Daniel Gilmans brother Dr. Edward Whiting Gilman was married to Julia Silliman, daughter of Yale Professor and chemist Benjamin Silliman. Daniel Coit Gilman died in Norwich, the original academic building on the Homewood campus of the Johns Hopkins University, Gilman Hall, is named in his honor. In 1897, he helped found a school called The Country School for Boys on the Johns Hopkins campus. Upon relocation in 1910, it was renamed in his honor and today, on the University of California, Berkeley campus, Gilman Hall, named in his honor, is the oldest building of the College of Chemistry and a National Historic Chemical Landmark
New International Encyclopedia
The New International Encyclopedia was an American encyclopedia first published in 1902 by Dodd and Company. It descended from the International Cyclopaedia and was updated in 1906,1914 and 1926, the New International Encyclopedia was the successor of the International Cyclopaedia. Initially, the International Cyclopaedia was largely a reprint of Aldens Library of Universal Knowledge, the local Cyclopaedia was much improved by editors Harry Thurston Peck and Selim Peabody. The title was changed to New International Encyclopedia in 1902, with editors Harry Thurston Peck, Daniel Coit Gilman, in 1906 the New International Encyclopedia was expanded from 17 volumes to 20. The 2nd edition appeared in 1914 in 24 volumes, set up from new type and it was very strong in biography. The 1926 material was printed in Cambridge, Massachusetts, by The University Press, boston Bookbinding Company of Cambridge produced the covers. Thirteen books enclosing twenty-three volumes comprise the encyclopedia, which includes a supplement after Volume 23, each book contains about 1600 pages.
A great deal of material is recorded in the New International Encyclopedia. An early description of Adolf Hitler and his activities from 1920 to 1924 is in the supplement to the 1926 edition, many of the names used to describe the scientific identities of plants and animals are now obsolete. Numerous colorful maps which display the nations, colonies, the maps are valuable for their depictions of national and colonial borders in Europe and Africa at the time of World War I. Drawings and photographs are plentiful, more than 500 men, and some women and composed the information contained in the New International Encyclopedia. Editors of the First Edition Daniel Coit Gilman, LL. D, President of Johns Hopkins University, President of Carnegie Institution. Frank Moore Colby, M. A. formerly Professor in New York University, editors of the Second Edition Frank Moore Colby, M. A. Talcott Williams, LL. D. Director of the School of Journalism, Columbia University, media related to New International Encyclopedia at Wikimedia Commons 1914 second ed
Battle of Kulm
The Battle of Kulm was a battle near the town Kulm and the village Přestanov in northern Bohemia. It was fought on 29–30 August 1813, during the War of the Sixth Coalition, following the French victory at Dresden, Vandamme pursued the retreating allies. Napoleon sent Marshals Gouvion Saint Cyr and Auguste Marmont to support Vandammes corps, with Vandamme in advance, Saint Cyrs and Marmonts corps brought up the rear. Vandamme caught up with Alexander Ivanovich Ostermann-Tolstoys forces near the town of Kulm, the situation was very dangerous for the allies, if Vandamme won the battle, the French would take the passes in the mountain, and the retreating Coalition army could be trapped by Napoleon. However, Ostermann-Tolstoy rallied all of his troops for a stiff defense, Vandammes situation changed the next day. A Prussian corps commanded by Friedrich von Kleist attacked Vandammes rear guard, Kleist received help from a combined Russian and Austrian attack on his front, under the command of Generals Ostermann-Tolstoy and von Colloredo-Mansfeld.
In an attempt to repulse attacks on his front and rear. The inexperienced French troops were unable to fend off the allies, the allies lost approximately 13,000 soldiers killed or wounded. In Vandammes corps there were two Polish regiments of Uhlans, part of cavalry divisions under the command of General Jean Corbineau and these regiments were used by Vandamme to defend against enemy cavalry charges. One regiment, commanded by Colonel Maximilian Fredro, was attacked after withdrawing to a defile, the other regiment of Uhlans, under the command of Count Tomasz Łubieński successfully withdrew. Thus, by winning this battle, Ostermann-Tolstoy and his troops succeeded in buying much needed time for the Coalition armies to regroup after the Battle of Dresden. According to a French anecdote, after the battle Vandamme was brought to and accused by Emperor Alexander I of Russia of being a brigand and plunderer. He retorted, I am neither a plunderer nor a brigand and this statement apparently hinted at the widespread belief that Alexander I was implicated in the murder of his father, Emperor Paul I.
The battlefield is mostly built over, there is a large monument topped with a lion next door to the Hotel Napoleon. Jadwiga Nadzieja Lipsk 1813 historical battles serie published in Warsaw by Bellona 1998 ISBN 83-11-08826-8 pp. 57–59, Battle of Kulm Memoirs of the Duke Rovigo
The Royal Prussian Army served as the army of the Kingdom of Prussia. It became vital to the development of Brandenburg-Prussia as a European power, the Prussian Army had its roots in the core mercenary forces of Brandenburg during the Thirty Years War of 1618-1648. Elector Frederick William developed it into a standing army, while King Frederick William I of Prussia dramatically increased its size. The army had become outdated by the beginning of the Napoleonic Wars, conservatives halted some of the reforms and the Prussian Army subsequently became a bulwark of the conservative Prussian government. In the 19th century the Prussian Army fought successful wars against Denmark and France, allowing Prussia to unify Germany, the Prussian Army formed the core of the Imperial German Army, which was replaced by the Reichswehr after World War I. The army of Prussia grew out of the armed forces created during the reign of Elector Frederick William of Brandenburg. Hohenzollern Brandenburg-Prussia had primarily relied upon Landsknecht mercenaries during the Thirty Years War and Imperial forces occupied the country.
In the spring of 1644, Frederick William started building an army through conscription to better defend his state. By 1643–44, the army numbered only 5,500 troops. The electors confidant Johann von Norprath recruited forces in the Duchy of Cleves and organized an army of 3,000 Dutch, garrisons were slowly augmented in Brandenburg and the Duchy of Prussia. Frederick William sought assistance from France, the rival of Habsburg Austria. He based his reforms on those of Louvois, the War Minister of King Louis XIV of France, the growth of his army allowed Frederick William to achieve considerable territorial acquisitions in the 1648 Treaty of Westphalia, despite Brandenburgs relative lack of success during the war. The provincial estates desired a reduction in the size during peacetime. In the 1653 Brandenburg Recess between Frederick William and the estates of Brandenburg, the nobility provided the sovereign with 530,000 thalers in return for affirmation of their privileges, the Junkers thus cemented their political power at the expense of the peasantry.
Once the elector and his army were strong enough, Frederick William was able to suppress the estates of Cleves, Frederick William attempted to professionalize his soldiers during a time when mercenaries were the norm. Acts of violence by officers against civilians resulted in decommission for a year, Field Marshals of Brandenburg-Prussia included Derfflinger, John George II, Spaen and Sparr. The electors troops traditionally were organized into disconnected provincial forces, in 1655, Frederick William began the unification of the various detachments by placing them under the overall command of Sparr. Unification increased through the appointment of Generalkriegskommissar Platen as head of supplies and these measures decreased the authority of the largely mercenary colonels who had been so prominent during the Thirty Years War
Battle of Valencia (1808)
The First Battle of Valencia was an attack on the Spanish city of Valencia on 26 June 1808, early in the Peninsular War. Marshal Monceys French Imperial troops failed to take the city by storm and retreated upon Madrid, leaving much of eastern Spain unconquered and beyond the reach of Napoleon. By the summer of 1808 large parts of Spain had rebelled against the French invaders, accordingly, he ordered a number of small columns to be sent out from Madrid to deal with the rebels. Marshal Moncey was given a column of 9,000 men to restore order in Valencia, Moncey had a choice of routes. The longer slow route led via Almansa, while the shorter quicker route cut across mountains, Moncey shared Napoleon’s belief that he was facing a local insurrection, and chose to take the quicker mountain route. The French were actually faced by a much wider revolt against their occupation of Spain, the Valencian Junta had a force of 7,000 regular troops and a much larger number of levies and volunteers with which to oppose the French.
Fortunately for Moncey, the commander of the Spanish force, the Conde de Cervellon, expected Moncey to take the easier route, Moncey was able to sweep aside small Spanish forces at the River Cabriel and the Cabrillas defile, arrived outside Valencia on 24 June. The city was not entirely undefended, three battalions of regular troops, supported by 7,000 Valencian levies, all under the command of Don José Caro, a naval officer, were defending a position at San Onofre, four miles outside the city. Moncey was forced to spend most of 27 June fighting this force, Valencia was not defended by modern fortifications. Instead, the city was surrounded by a wet moat and its medieval walls. However, the area was very flat, and the Spanish were able to flood it. There were around 20,000 armed men in Valencia, of whom around 1,500 were regulars and 6,500 levies with at least a little training and they had a number of artillery guns, which were well placed to protect the gates. The gates were protected by barricades built up over the few days.
Moncey was not expecting the Spanish to put up a fight at Valencia. On 28 June he ordered two brigades to attack the city, one against the gate of San José and one against the gate of Quarte, both attacks failed, although the French did reach the front of the barricades. Moncey attempted to use his artillery to bombard the Spanish defences. Moncey ordered an assault, this time against three gates. This attack was beaten off, with higher casualties than the first
Gerhard von Scharnhorst
Gerhard Johann David Waitz von Scharnhorst, was a Hanoverian-born general in Prussian service from 1801. As the first Chief of the Prussian General Staff, he was noted for his theories, his reforms of the Prussian army. In 1778 he received a commission into the Hanoverian service and he employed the intervals of regimental duty in further self-education and literary work. In 1783 he transferred to the artillery and received an appointment to the new school in Hanover. He published in 1792 his Military Handbook for Use in the Field and his first military campaign took place in 1793 in the Netherlands, in which he served with distinction under the Duke of York. Shortly thereafter he received promotion to the rank of major and joined the staff of the Hanoverian contingent, after the Peace of Basel Scharnhorst returned to Hanover. He had by now become so well known to the armies of the allied states that he received invitations from several of them to transfer his services. The Prussian Military Academy employed him, almost as a matter of course, in important instructional work, for his services at Eylau he received the highest Prussian military order Pour le Mérite.
It was apparent that Scharnhorsts skills exceeded those of a brilliant staff officer. Stein himself became a member of the commission and secured Scharnhorst free access to King Frederick William III by securing his appointment as aide-de-camp-general, but Napoleon quickly became suspicious, and Frederick William repeatedly had to suspend or cancel the reforms recommended. By slow and labored steps, Scharnhorst converted the professional army of Prussia, wrecked at Jena. Universal service was not secured until his death, but he laid down the principles, the organization of the Landwehr was begun. In 1809, the war between France and Austria roused premature hopes in the party, which the conqueror did not fail to note. In retirement he wrote and published a work on firearms, Über die Wirkung des Feuergewehrs, but the retreat from Moscow at last sounded the call to arms for the new national army of Prussia. Scharnhorst, recalled to the headquarters, refused a higher post but became Chief of Staff to Blücher, in whose vigour, energy.
Russian Prince Wittgenstein was so impressed by Scharnhorst that he asked to him temporarily as his Chief of Staff. In the first battle, Lützen or Gross-Görschen, Prussia suffered defeat, the French failed to follow up, so this defeat was not complete. Shortly before his death he had received promotion to the rank of lieutenant-general, Frederick William III erected a statue in his memory, by Christian Daniel Rauch, in Berlin
Quartermaster is a military or naval term, the meaning of which depends on the country and service. In land armies, a quartermaster is generally a senior soldier who supervises stores and distributes supplies. In many navies, quartermaster is an officer rank. In some navies, it is not a rank but a related to navigation. The term appears to derive from the title of a German royal official and this term meant master of quarters. Or it could have derived from master of the quarterdeck where the helmsman. The term was adopted by some European armies and navies. The first use in English was as a term, entering English via the equivalent French and Dutch naval titles quartier-maître. The term began to refer to officers in English around 1600. For land armies, the term was first coined in Germany as Quartiermeister, in the 17th century, it started to be used in various militaries in the sense of organizing supplies. In the British Army, the Quartermaster is the officer in a battalion or regiment responsible for supply, by longstanding tradition, he or she is always commissioned from the ranks and holds the rank of captain or major.
Some units have a Technical Quartermaster, who is in charge of technical stores, the Quartermaster is assisted by the Regimental Quartermaster Sergeant and a staff of storemen. The QM, RQMS and storemen are drawn from the regiment or corps in which work, not from the Royal Logistic Corps. Units which specialize in supply are known as units, not quartermaster units. From at least the English Civil War period until 1813, the Quartermaster was the senior NCO in a British cavalry troop, in that year, the position was replaced by the new appointment of Troop Sergeant Major, with the cavalry adopting commissioned, regimental Quartermasters as described above. In recent years, the Quartermaster has been a trained officer of the Logistics Branch. The Quartermaster was responsible for operations in the Imperial Russian Army. In the United States Army, the term is used to describe all supply personnel, in the Swiss Army, a Quartermaster is an Officer in charge with the coordination of the Kommissariatsdienst of a Battalion and Brigade/Division