Heidelberg is a university town in Baden-Württemberg situated on the river Neckar in south-west Germany. In the 2016 census, its population was 159,914, with a quarter of its population being students. Located about 78 km south of Frankfurt, Heidelberg is the fifth-largest city in the German state of Baden-Württemberg. Heidelberg is part of the densely populated Rhine-Neckar Metropolitan Region. Founded in 1386, Heidelberg University is Germany's oldest and one of Europe's most reputable universities. A scientific hub in Germany, the city of Heidelberg is home to several internationally renowned research facilities adjacent to its university, including four Max Planck Institutes. A former residence of the Electorate of the Palatinate, Heidelberg is a popular tourist destination due to its romantic cityscape, including Heidelberg Castle, the Philosophers' Walk, the baroque style Old Town. Heidelberg is in the Rhine Rift Valley, on the left bank of the lower part of the Neckar in a steep valley in the Odenwald.
It is bordered by the Gaisberg mountains. The Neckar here flows in an east-west direction. On the right bank of the river, the Heiligenberg mountain rises to a height of 445 meters; the Neckar flows into the Rhine 22 kilometres north-west in Mannheim. Villages incorporated during the 20th century stretch from the Neckar Valley along the Bergstraße, a road running along the Odenwald hills. Heidelberg is on European walking route E1. Since Heidelberg is among the warmest regions of Germany, plants atypical of the central-European climate flourish there, including almond and fig trees. Alongside the Philosophenweg on the opposite side of the Old Town, winegrowing was restarted in 2000. There is a wild population of African rose-ringed parakeets, a wild population of Siberian swan geese, which can be seen on the islands in the Neckar near the district of Bergheim. Heidelberg is a unitary authority within the Regierungsbezirk Karlsruhe; the Rhein-Neckar-Kreis rural district surrounds it and has its seat in the town, although the town is not a part of the district.
Heidelberg is a part of the Rhine-Neckar Metropolitan Region referred to as the Rhein-Neckar Triangle. This region consists of the southern part of the State of Hessen, the southern part of the State of Rhineland-Palatinate, the administrative districts of Mannheim and Heidelberg, the southern municipalities of the Rhein-Neckar-Kreis; the Rhein-Neckar Triangle became a European metropolitan area in 2005. Heidelberg consists of 15 districts distributed in six sectors of the town. In the central area are Altstadt and Weststadt; the new district will have 5,000–6,000 residents and employment for 7,000. Further new residential space for 10,000-15,000 residents was made available in Patrick Henry Village following the departure of the US Armed Forces; the following towns and communes border the city of Heidelberg, beginning in the west and in a clockwise direction: Edingen-Neckarhausen, Schriesheim, Schönau, Neckargemünd, Gaiberg, Sandhausen, Plankstadt and Mannheim. Heidelberg has an oceanic climate, defined by the protected valley between the Pfälzerwald and the Odenwald.
Year-round, the mild temperatures are determined by maritime air masses coming from the west. In contrast to the nearby Upper Rhine Plain, Heidelberg's position in the valley leads to more frequent easterly winds than average; the hillsides of the Odenwald favour precipitation. The warmest month is July, the coldest is January. Temperatures rise beyond 30 °C in midsummer. According to the German Meteorological Service, Heidelberg was the warmest place in Germany in 2009. Between 600,000 and 200,000 years ago, "Heidelberg Man" died at nearby Mauer, his jaw bone was discovered in 1907. Scientific dating determined his remains as the earliest evidence of human life in Europe. In the 5th century BC, a Celtic fortress of refuge and place of worship were built on the Heiligenberg, or "Mountain of Saints". Both places can still be identified. In 40 AD, a fort occupied by the 24th Roman cohort and the 2nd Cyrenaican cohort; the early Byzantine/late Roman Emperor Valentinian I, in 369 AD, built new and maintained older castra and a signal tower on the bank of the Neckar.
They built a wooden bridge based on stone pillars across it. The camp protected the first civilian settlements; the Romans remained until 260 AD. The local administrative center in Roman times was the nearby city of Lopodunum. Modern Heidelberg can trace its beginnings to the fifth century; the village Bergheim is first mentioned for that period in documents dated to 769 AD. Bergheim now lies in the middle of modern Heidelberg; the people converted to Christianity. In 863 AD, the monastery of St. Michael was founded on the Heiligenberg inside the double rampart of the Celtic fortress. Around 1130, the Neuburg Monastery was founded in the Neckar valley. At the same time, the bishopric of Worms extended its influence into the valley, founding Schönau Abbey in 1142. Modern He
Karlsruhe is a Landkreis in the northwest of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Neighboring districts are Rhein-Neckar, Enz, Rastatt, Rhein-Pfalz-Kreis and the district-free city Speyer; the urban district Karlsruhe, which contains the City of Karlsruhe, is located in the middle of the district, cuts it into a northern and a southern part. The historic origin of the district is the Oberamt Karlsruhe. In 1809 it was split into one part responsible for the city Karlsruhe, one for the surrounding municipalities. In 1865 however both parts were merged again to the Bezirksamt Karlsruhe. 1938 it was split again, this time with the district of Karlsruhe for the surrounding part, the urban district of Karlsruhe for the urban area. In 1973 the district was enlarged by adding the complete district of Bruchsal and parts of the districts Sinsheim, Vaihingen and Rastatt. Since the founding of the Federal Republic, Karlsruhe has been the seat of the Federal Constitutional Court, Germany's highest; the western part of the district is located in the Rhine valley.
The area in the east belongs to the landscape of the Kraichgau, it is to the north of the foothills of the Black Forest. The Karlsruhe district partners with the following sister regions outside of Germany: Gwent, United Kingdom, since 1978. In 1996, due to an administrative reform, Gwent was abolished and divided into five districts, of which Karlsruhe continues the partnership with the new districts of Monmouthshire and Torfaen. Sha’ar Hanegev, since 1992 Brusque, since 2011Within Germany, the Karlsruhe district has a partnership with the Saxon district Mittelsachsen, formed in 2008 through a merger of the former districts Döbeln, Freiberg und Mittweida. Official city website Official municipalities website
Karlsruhe is the second-largest city of the German federal state of Baden-Württemberg after its capital of Stuttgart, its 309,999 inhabitants make it the 21st largest city of Germany. On the right bank of the Rhine, the city lies near the French-German border, between the Mannheim/Ludwigshafen conurbation to the north, the Strasbourg/Kehl conurbation to the south, it is the largest city of a region named after Hohenbaden Castle in the city of Baden-Baden. Karlsruhe is the largest city in the South Franconian dialect area, the only other larger city in that area being Heilbronn; the city is the seat of the Federal Constitutional Court, as well as of the Federal Court of Justice and the Public Prosecutor General of the Federal Court of Justice. Karlsruhe was the capital of the Margraviate of Baden-Durlach, the Margraviate of Baden, the Electorate of Baden, the Grand Duchy of Baden, the Republic of Baden, its most remarkable building is Karlsruhe Palace, built in 1715. There are nine institutions of higher education in the city, most notably the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.
Karlsruhe/Baden-Baden Airport is the second-busiest airport of Baden-Württemberg after Stuttgart Airport, the 17th-busiest airport of Germany. Karlsruhe lies to the east of the Rhine, completely on the Upper Rhine Plain, it contains the Turmberg in the east, lies on the borders of the Kraichgau leading to the Northern Black Forest. The Rhine, one of the world's most important shipping routes, forms the western limits of the city, beyond which lie the towns of Maximiliansau and Wörth am Rhein in the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate; the city centre is about 7.5 km from the river. Two tributaries of the Rhine, the Alb and the Pfinz, flow through the city from the Kraichgau to join the Rhine; the city lies at an altitude between 100 and 322 m. Its geographical coordinates are 49°00′N 8°24′E, its course is marked by a stone and painted line in the Stadtgarten. The total area of the city is 173.46 km2, hence it is the 30th largest city in Germany measured by land area. The longest north-south distance is 19.3 km in the east-west direction.
Karlsruhe is part of the urban area of Karlsruhe/Pforzheim, to which certain other towns in the district of Karlsruhe such as Bruchsal, Ettlingen and Rheinstetten, as well as the city of Pforzheim, belong. The city was planned with the palace tower at the center and 32 streets radiating out from it like the spokes of a wheel, or the ribs of a folding fan, so that one nickname for Karlsruhe in German is the "fan city". All of these streets survive to this day; because of this city layout, in metric geometry, Karlsruhe metric refers to a measure of distance that assumes travel is only possible along radial streets and along circular avenues around the centre. The city centre is the oldest part of town and lies south of the palace in the quadrant defined by nine of the radial streets; the central part of the palace runs east-west, with two wings, each at a 45° angle, directed southeast and southwest. The market square lies on the street running south from the palace to Ettlingen; the market square has the town hall to the west, the main Lutheran church to the east, the tomb of Margrave Charles III William in a pyramid in the buildings, resulting in Karlsruhe being one of only three large cities in Germany where buildings are laid out in the neoclassical style.
The area north of the palace is a forest. The area to the east of the palace consisted of gardens and forests, some of which remain, but the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Wildparkstadion football stadium, residential areas have been built there; the area west of the palace is now residential. Karlsruhe experiences an oceanic climate and its winter climate is milder, compared to most other German cities, except for the Rhine-Ruhr area. Summers are hotter than elsewhere in the country and it is one of the sunniest cities in Germany, like the Rhine-Palatinate area. Precipitation is evenly spread throughout the year. In 2008, the weather station in Karlsruhe, operating since 1876, was closed. According to legend, the name Karlsruhe, which translates as "Charles’ repose" or "Charles' peace", was given to the new city after a hunting trip when Margrave Charles III William of Baden-Durlach, woke from a dream in which he dreamt of founding his new city. A variation of this story claims. Charles William founded the city on June 17, 1715, after a dispute with the citizens of his previous capital, Durlach.
The founding of the city is linked to the construction of the palace. Karlsruhe became the capital of Baden-Durlach, in 1771, of the united Baden until 1945. Built in 18
Freiburg im Breisgau
Freiburg im Breisgau is a city in Baden-Württemberg, with a population of about 220,000. In the south-west of the country, it straddles the Dreisam river, at the foot of the Schlossberg; the city has acted as the hub of the Breisgau region on the western edge of the Black Forest in the Upper Rhine Plain. A famous old German university town, archiepiscopal seat, Freiburg was incorporated in the early twelfth century and developed into a major commercial and ecclesiastical center of the upper Rhine region; the city is known for its medieval minster and Renaissance university, as well as for its high standard of living and advanced environmental practices. The city is situated in the heart of the major Baden wine-growing region and serves as the primary tourist entry point to the scenic beauty of the Black Forest. According to meteorological statistics, the city is the sunniest and warmest in Germany, held the all-time German temperature record of 40.2 °C from 2003 to 2015. Freiburg was founded by Duke Berthold III of Zähringen in 1120 as a free market town.
Frei means "free", Burg, like the modern English word "borough", was used in those days for an incorporated city or town one with some degree of autonomy. The German word Burg means "a fortified town", as in Hamburg. Thus, it is that the name of this place means a "fortified town of free citizens"; this town was strategically located at a junction of trade routes between the Mediterranean Sea and the North Sea regions, the Rhine and Danube rivers. In 1200, Freiburg's population numbered 6,000 people. At about that time, under the rule of Bertold V, the last duke of Zähringen, the city began construction of its Freiburg Münster cathedral on the site of an older parish church. Begun in the Romanesque style, it was continued and completed 1513 for the most part as a Gothic edifice. In 1218, when Bertold V died Egino V von Urach, the count of Urach assumed the title of Freiburg's count as Egino I von Freiburg; the city council wrote down its established rights in a document. At the end of the thirteenth century there was a feud between the citizens of Freiburg and their lord, Count Egino II of Freiburg.
Egino II raised taxes and sought to limit the citizens' freedom, after which the Freiburgers used catapults to destroy the count's castle atop the Schloßberg, a hill that overlooks the city center. The furious count called on his brother-in-law the Bishop of Strasbourg, Konradius von Lichtenberg, for help; the bishop responded by marching with his army to Freiburg. According to an old Freiburg legend, a butcher named Hauri stabbed the Bishop of Strasbourg to death on 29 July 1299, it was a Pyrrhic victory, since henceforth the citizens of Freiburg had to pay an annual expiation of 300 marks in silver to the count of Freiburg until 1368. In 1366 the counts of Freiburg made another failed attempt to occupy the city during a night raid; the citizens were fed up with their lords, in 1368 Freiburg purchased its independence from them. The city turned itself over to the protection of the Habsburgs, who allowed the city to retain a large measure of freedom. Most of the nobles of the city died in the battle of Sempach.
The patrician family Schnewlin took control of the city. The guilds became more powerful than the patricians by 1389; the silver mines in Mount Schauinsland provided an important source of capital for Freiburg. This silver made Freiburg one of the richest cities in Europe, in 1327 Freiburg minted its own coin, the Rappenpfennig. In 1377 the cities of Freiburg, Basel and Breisach entered into a monetary alliance known as the Genossenschaft des Rappenpfennigs; this alliance facilitated commerce among the cities and lasted until the end of the sixteenth century. There were 8,000-9,000 people living in Freiburg between the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, 30 churches and monasteries. At the end of the fourteenth century the veins of silver were dwindling, by 1460 only 6,000 people still lived within Freiburg's city walls. A university city, Freiburg evolved from its focus on mining to become a cultural centre for the arts and sciences, it was a commercial center. The end of the Middle Ages and the dawn of the Renaissance was a time of both advances and tragedy for Freiburg.
In 1457, Albrecht VI, Regent of Further Austria, established Albert-Ludwigs-Universität, one of Germany's oldest universities. In 1498, Emperor Maximilian I held a Reichstag in Freiburg. In 1520, the city ratified a set of legal reforms considered the most progressive of the time; the aim was to find a balance between old Roman Law. The reforms were well received the sections dealing with civil process law and the city's constitution. In 1520, Freiburg decided not to take part in the Reformation and became an important centre for Catholicism on the Upper Rhine. Erasmus moved here. In 1536, a strong and persistent belief in witchcraft led to the city's first witch-hunt; the need to find a scapegoat for calamities such as the Black Plague, which claimed 2,000 area residents in 1564, led to an escalation in witch-hunting that reached its peak in 1599. A plaque on the old city wall marks the spot; the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries were turbulent times for Freiburg. At the beginning of the Thirty Years' War there were 10,000-14,000 citizens in Freiburg.
Stuttgart is the capital and largest city of the German state of Baden-Württemberg. Stuttgart is located on the Neckar river in a fertile valley known locally as the "Stuttgart Cauldron." It lies an hour from the Black Forest. Its urban area has a population of 609,219, making it the sixth largest city in Germany. 2.7 million people live in the city's administrative region and another 5.3 million people in its metropolitan area, making it the fourth largest metropolitan area in Germany. The city and metropolitan area are ranked among the top 20 European metropolitan areas by GDP. Since the 6th millennium BC, the Stuttgart area has been an important agricultural area and has been host to a number of cultures seeking to utilize the rich soil of the Neckar valley; the Roman Empire conquered the area in 83 AD and built a massive castrum near Bad Cannstatt, making it the most important regional centre for several centuries. Stuttgart's roots were laid in the 10th century with its founding by Liudolf, Duke of Swabia, as a stud farm for his warhorses.
Overshadowed by nearby Cannstatt, the town grew and was granted a charter in 1320. The fortunes of Stuttgart turned with those of the House of Württemberg, they made it the capital of their county and kingdom from the 15th century to 1918. Stuttgart prospered despite setbacks in the Thirty Years' War and devastating air raids by the Allies on the city and its automobile production during World War II. However, by 1952, the city had bounced back and it became the major economic, industrial and publishing centre it is today. Stuttgart is a transport junction, possesses the sixth-largest airport in Germany. Several major companies are headquartered in Stuttgart, including Porsche, Mercedes-Benz, Daimler AG, Dinkelacker. Stuttgart is unusual in the scheme of German cities, it is spread across a variety of hills and parks. This surprises visitors who associate the city with its reputation as the "cradle of the automobile"; the city's tourism slogan is "Stuttgart offers more". Under current plans to improve transport links to the international infrastructure, the city unveiled a new logo and slogan in March 2008 describing itself as "Das neue Herz Europas".
For business, it describes itself as "Where business meets the future". In July 2010, Stuttgart unveiled a new city logo, designed to entice more business people to stay in the city and enjoy breaks in the area. Stuttgart is a city with a high number of immigrants. According to Dorling Kindersley's Eyewitness Travel Guide to Germany, "In the city of Stuttgart, every third inhabitant is a foreigner." 40% of Stuttgart's residents, 64% of the population below the age of five, are of immigrant background. Stuttgart nicknamed the "Schwabenmetropole" in reference to its location in the centre of Swabia and the local dialect spoken by the native Swabians, has its etymological roots in the Old High German word Stuotgarten, or "stud farm", because the city was founded in 950 AD by Duke Liudolf of Swabia to breed warhorses; the most important location in the Neckar river valley was the hilly rim of the Stuttgart basin at what is today Bad Cannstatt. Thus, the first settlement of Stuttgart was a massive Roman Castra stativa built c. 90 AD to protect the Villas and vineyards blanketing the landscape and the road from Mogontiacum to Augusta Vindelicorum.
As with many military installations, a settlement sprang up nearby and remained there after the Limes moved further east. When they did, the town was left in the capable hands of a local brickworks that produced sophisticated architectural ceramics and pottery; when the Romans were driven back past the Rhine and Danube rivers in the 3rd century by the Alamanni, the settlement temporarily vanished from history until the 7th century. In 700, Duke Gotfrid mentions a "Chan Stada" in a document regarding property. Archaeological evidence shows that Merovingian era Frankish farmers continued to till the same land the Romans did. Cannstatt is mentioned in the Abbey of St. Gall's archives as "Canstat ad Neccarum" in 708; the etymology of the name "Cannstatt" is not clear, but as the site is mentioned as condistat in the Annals of Metz, it is derived from the Latin word condita, suggesting that the name of the Roman settlement might have had the prefix "Condi-." Alternatively, Sommer suggested that the Roman site corresponds to the Civitas Aurelia G attested to in an inscription found near Öhringen.
There have been attempts at a derivation from a Gaulish *kondâti- "confluence". In 950 AD, Duke Liudolf of Swabia, son of the current Holy Roman Emperor Otto I, decided to establish a stud farm for his cavalry during the Hungarian invasions of Europe on a widened area of the Nesenbach river valley 5 kilometres south of the old Roman castrum; the land and title of Duke of Swabia remained in Liudolf's hands until his rebellion was quashed by his father four years later. In 1089, Bruno of Calw built the precursor building to the Old Castle. Stuttgart's viticulture, first documented in the Holy Roman Empire in the year 1108 AD
Baden-Baden is a spa town in the state of Baden-Württemberg, south-western Germany, at the north-western border of the Black Forest mountain range on the small river Oos, ten kilometres east of the Rhine, the border with France, forty kilometres north-east of Strasbourg, France. The springs at Baden-Baden were known to the Romans as Aquae and Aurelia Aquensis after M. Aurelius Severus Alexander Augustus. In modern German, Baden is a noun meaning "bathing" but Baden, the original name of the town, derives from an earlier plural form of Bad; as with the English placename "Bath", various other Badens are at hot springs throughout Central Europe. The current doubled name arose to distinguish it from the others Baden near Vienna in Austria and Baden near Zürich in Switzerland, it is a reference to the Margraviate of the territory named after the town. Baden-Baden thus means the town of Baden in the territory of Baden. Baden-Baden got its formal name in 1931. Baden-Baden lies in a valley of the Northern Black Forest in southwestern Germany.
The western districts lie within the Upper Rhine Plain. The highest mountain of Baden-Baden is the Badener Höhe, part of the Black Forest National Park; the old town lies on the side of a hill on the right bank of the Oos. Since the 19th century, the principal resorts have been located on the other side of the river. There are 29 natural springs in the area, varying in temperature from 46 to 67 °C; the water is rich in salt and flows from artesian wells 1,800 m under Florentine Hill at a rate of 341 litre per minute and is conveyed through pipes to the town's baths. Roman settlement at Baden-Baden has been dated as far back as the emperor Hadrian, but on dubious authority; the known ruins of the Roman bath were rediscovered just below the New Castle in 1847 and date to the reign of Caracalla, who visited the area to relieve his arthritic aches. The facilities were used by the Roman garrison in Strasbourg; the town fell into ruin but its church was first constructed in the 7th century. By 1112, it was the seat of the Margraviate of Baden.
The Lichtenthal Convent was founded in 1254. The margraves used Hohenbaden Castle, whose ruins still occupy the summit above the town, but they completed and moved to the New Castle in 1479. Baden suffered during the Thirty Years' War at the hands of the French, who plundered it in 1643, they returned to occupy the city in 1688 at the onset of the Nine Years' War, burning it to the ground the next year. The margravine Sibylla rebuilt the New Castle in 1697, but the margrave Louis William removed his seat to Rastatt in 1706; the Stiftskirche houses the tombs of several of the margraves. The town began its recovery in the late 18th century, serving as a refuge for émigrés from the French Revolution; the town was frequented during the Second Congress of Rastatt in 1797–99 and became popular after the visit of the Prussian queen in the early 19th century. She came for medicinal reasons, as the waters were recommended for gout, paralysis, skin disorders, stones; the Ducal government subsequently subsidized the resort's development.
The town became a meeting place for celebrities, who visited the hot springs and the town's other amenities: luxury hotels, the Spielbank Casino, horse races, the gardens of the Lichtentaler Allee. Guests included Queen Victoria, Wilhelm I, Berlioz; the pumproom was completed in 1842. The Grand Duchy's railway's mainline reached Baden in 1845. Reaching its zenith under Napoleon III in the 1850s and'60s, Baden became "Europe's summer capital". With a population of around 10 000, the town's size could quadruple during the tourist season, with the French, British and Americans all well represented; the theater was completed in 1861 and a Greek church with a gilt dome was erected on the Michaelsberg in 1863 to serve as the tomb of the teenage son of the prince of Moldavia Mihail Sturdza after he died during a family vacation. A Russian Orthodox church was subsequently erected; the casino was closed for a time in the 1870s. Just before the First World War, the town was receiving 70 000 visitors each year.
The town escaped destruction through both world wars. After World War II, Baden-Baden became the headquarters of the French occupation forces in Germany as well as of the Südwestfunk, one of Germany's large public broadcasting stations, now part of Südwestrundfunk. From 23–28 September 1981, the XIth Olympic Congress took place in Baden-Baden's Kurhaus; the Festspielhaus Baden-Baden, Germany's largest opera and concert house, opened in 1998. CFB Baden-Soellingen, a military airfield built in the 1950s in the Upper Rhine Plain, 10 km west of downtown Baden-Baden, was converted into a civil airport in the 1990s. Karlsruhe/Baden-Baden Airport, or Baden Airpark is now the second-largest airport in Baden-Württemberg by number of passengers. /* History */ Rudolf Höss was born here November 25, 1901. He was the Commandant of Auschwitz extermination camp in Poland relieved of command for impregnating a Jewish prisoner, Eleanor Hodys. Hodys was murdered by the Gestapo. Höss was executed in Poland for war crimes April 16, 1947.
In 1981 Baden-Baden hosted the Olympic Congress, which has made the town awarded the designation Olympic town. 1907–1929: Reinhard Fieser 1929–1934: Hermann Elfner 1934–1945: Hans Schwedhelm (when he was not in office because of military service, ma
Pforzheim is a city of over 120,000 inhabitants in the federal state of Baden-Württemberg, in the southwest of Germany. It is known for its jewelry and watch-making industry, as such has gained the nickname "Goldstadt". With an area of 97.8 km2, it is situated between the cities of Stuttgart and Karlsruhe at the confluence of three rivers. It marks the frontier between Württemberg, being located on Baden territory. From 1535 to 1565, it was the home to the Margraves of Baden-Pforzheim; the City of Pforzheim does not belong to any administrative district, although it hosts the administrative offices of the Enz district that surrounds the town. During World War II, Pforzheim was bombed by the Allies a number of times; the largest raid, one of the most devastating area bombardments of World War II, was carried out by the Royal Air Force on the evening of 23 February 1945. Nearly one third of the town's population, 17,600 people, were killed in the air raid, about 83% of the town's buildings were destroyed.
The Allies believed that precision instruments were being produced here for use in the German war effort and that the town was a transport centre for the movement of German troops. The story of the bombardment is recounted in the history by Giles Milton, titled Wolfram: The Boy Who Went To War. In the twenty years following the end of the war, Pforzheim was rebuilt; the town reflects the architecture of the postwar period and has some landmark buildings of the 1950s. Pforzheim is located at the northern rim of the eastern part of the Black Forest and the rim of the hilly country of the Kraichgau, in an open valley at the confluences of the rivers Würm and Nagold and the rivers Nagold and Enz. Due to its location, this city is called the "three-valleys town" or the "Gateway to the Black Forest". Pforzheim and its surrounding area belongs to the "Densely Populated Area Karlsruhe/Pforzheim". Pforzheim has the functions of a regional center for the towns and municipalities Birkenfeld, Engelsbrand, Heimsheim, Ispringen, Kämpfelbach, Kieselbronn, Königsbach-Stein, Mönsheim, Neuenbürg, Neulingen, Niefern-Öschelbronn, Ölbronn-Dürrn, Straubenhardt, Wiernsheim and Wurmberg.
The following towns and communities share borderlines with the City of Pforzheim. Below they are mentioned beginning to the north of the city. Except for Unterreichenbach, which belongs to the district of Calw, all of them are included in the Enz district. Ispringen, Kieselbronn, Niefern-Öschelbronn, Wimsheim, Tiefenbronn, Unterreichenbach, Birkenfeld, Keltern and Kämpfelbach The city of Pforzheim consists of 16 city wards; the communities Büchenbronn, Eutingen an der Enz, Huchenfeld and Würm, which by way of the latest regional administrative reform during the 1970s were incorporated into Pforzheim's administration, are represented by independent community councils and community administrations according to § 8 and following paragraphs of the main city-ordinance of Pforzheim. In important matters concerning any of these communities the opinions of the respective community councils must be taken into consideration. However, final decisions on the matter will be made by the Pforzheim city council.
City center Northern ward Eastern ward Southeastern ward Southwestern ward Western ward Arlinger Brötzingen Buckenberg and Hagenschiess. These colonists constructed a ford through the river, shortly past the confluence of the three rivers, for their military highway. Due to this strategic location, Pforzheim became a center for the timber-rafting trade, which transported timber from the Black Forest via the rivers Wuerm, Nagold and down the Neckar and Rhine to, among other markets, the Netherlands for use in shipbuilding. There timbers were used to construct the foundations for Amsterdam, built in a swamp. Since 90: A settlement was established by Roman citizens at the Enz River near the modern Altstädter Brücke. Archeological surveys have unearthed several artifacts of that period which are kept and displayed in the Kappelhof Museum; the settlement was located where the Roman military road connecting the military camp Argentoratum and the military camp at Cannstatt at the Upper Germanic Limes border line of the Roman Empire crossed the Enz river.
This place was known as Portus, believed to be the origin of the first part of the city's name "Pforzheim". A Roman milestone from the year 245 was excavated in modern times at present-day Friolzheim. From on, over an extended period of time, historical records about the settlement were not available.6th/7th century: Graves from this period indicate that the settlement