Sindh is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country, the historical home of the Sindhi people. Sindh is the third largest province of Pakistan by area, second largest province by population after Punjab. Sindh is bordered by Balochistan province to the west, Punjab province to the north. Sindh borders the Indian states of Gujarat and Rajasthan to the east, Arabian Sea to the south. Sindh's landscape consists of alluvial plains flanking the Indus River, the Thar desert in the eastern portion of the province closest to the border with India, the Kirthar Mountains in the western part of Sindh. Sindh has Pakistan's second largest economy, while its provincial capital Karachi is Pakistan's largest city and financial hub, hosts the headquarters of several multinational banks. Sindh is home to a large portion of Pakistan's industrial sector and contains two of Pakistan's commercial seaports, Port Bin Qasim and the Karachi Port; the remainder of Sindh has an agriculture based economy, produces fruit, food consumer items, vegetables for the consumption other parts of the country.
Sindh is known for its distinct culture, influenced by Sufism, an important marker of Sindhi identity for both Hindus and Muslims in the province. Several important Sufi shrines are located throughout the province which attract millions of annual devotees. Sindh's capital, Karachi, is Pakistan's most ethnically diverse city, with Muhajirs, or descendants of those who migrated to Pakistan from India after 1947 and throughout the 1950s and 1960s, making up the majority of the population. Karachi and other urban centres of Sindh have seen ethnic tensions between the native Sindhis and the Muhajirs boil over into violence on several occasions. Sindh is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites – the Historical Monuments at Makli, the Archaeological Ruins at Moenjodaro; the word Sindh is derived from the Sanskrit term Sindhu, a reference to Indus River. The official spelling "Sind" was discontinued in 1988 by an amendment passed in Sindh Assembly; the Greeks who conquered Sindh in 325 BC under the command of Alexander the Great rendered it as Indós, hence the modern Indus.
The ancient Iranians referred to everything east of the river Indus as hind. Sindh's first known village settlements date as far back as 7000 BCE. Permanent settlements at Mehrgarh in Balochistan, to the west expanded into Sindh; this culture blossomed over several millennia and gave rise to the Indus Valley Civilization around 3000 BCE. The Indus Valley Civilization rivalled the contemporary civilizations of Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia in size and scope, numbering nearly half a million inhabitants at its height with well-planned grid cities and sewer systems; the primitive village communities in Balochistan were still struggling against a difficult highland environment, a cultured people were trying to assert themselves at Kot Diji. This was one of the most developed urban civilizations of the ancient world, it flourished between the 25th century BCE and 1500 BCE in the Indus valley sites of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa. The people had a high standard of art and craftsmanship and a well-developed system of quasi-pictographic writing which remains un-deciphered.
The ruins of the well planned towns, the brick buildings of the common people, public baths and the covered drainage system suggest a organized community. According to some accounts, there is no evidence of large palaces or burial grounds for the elite; the grand and holy site might have been the great bath, built upon an artificially created elevation. This indigenous civilization collapsed around 1700 BCE; the cause may have been a massive earthquake, which dried up the Ghaggar River. Skeletons discovered in the ruins of Moan Jo Daro were thought to indicate that the city was attacked and the population was wiped out, but further examinations showed that the marks on the skeletons were due to erosion and not of violence; the ancient city of Roruka, identified with modern Aror/Rohri, was capital of the Sauvira Kingdom, finds mentioned early Buddhist literature as a major trading center. Sindh finds mention in the Hindu epic Mahabharata as being part of Bharatvarsha. Sindh was conquered by the Persian Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century BC.
In the late 4th century BC, Sindh was conquered by a mixed army led by Macedonian Greeks under Alexander the Great. Alexander described his encounters with these trans-Indus tribes of Sindh: "I am involved in the land of lions and brave people, where every foot of the ground is like a well of steel, confronting my soldier. You have brought only one son into the world, but everyone in this land can be called an Alexander." The region remained under control of Greek satraps for only a few decades. After Alexander's death, there was a brief period of Seleucid rule, before Sindh was traded to the Mauryan Empire led by Chandragupta in 305 BC. During the rule of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka, the Buddhist religion spread to Sindh. Mauryan rule ended in 185 BC with the overthrow of the last king by the Shunga Dynasty. In the disorder that followed, Greek rule returned when Demetrius I of Bactria led a Greco-Bactrian invasion of India and annexed most of the northwestern lands, including Sindh. Demetrius was defeated and killed by a usurper, but his descendants continued to rule Sindh and other lands as the Indo-Greek Kingdom.
Under the reign of Menander I, many Indo-Greeks converted to Buddhism. In the late 2nd century BC, Scythian tribes shattered the Greco-Bactrian empire and invaded the Indo-Greek lands. Unable to take the P
The Sabarmati river is one of the major west-flowing rivers in India. It originates in the Aravalli Range of the Udaipur District of Rajasthan and meets the Gulf of Khambhat of Arabian Sea after travelling 371 km in a south-westerly direction across Rajasthan and Gujarat. 48 km of the river length is in Rajasthan. The Sabarmati basin has a maximum length of 300 km. and maximum width of 105 km. The total catchment area of the basin is 21674 km2 out of which, 4124 km2 lies in Rajasthan State and the remaining 18550 km2 in Gujarat. Sabarmati river basin is situated in the mid-southern part of Rajasthan. To its east lie the Banas and Mahi Basins, to its north the Luni Basin and to its west the West Banas Basin, its southern boundary is the border with Gujarat State. The Sabarmati river basin extends over parts of Udaipur, Sirohi and Dungarpur Districts. Orthographically, the western part of the Basin is marked by hilly terrain belonging to the Aravalli Range. East of the hills lies a narrow alluvial plain with a gentle eastward slope.
The major tributaries are the Sei, Watrak, Harnav, Hathmati, Meshwo and Mohar. Average annual water availability in the Sabarmati basin is 308 m3/capita, lower than the national average of 1545 m3/capita; the origin legend is that Shiva brought the goddess Ganga to Gujarat and that caused the Sabarmati to come into being. The ancient name of sabarmati river is Bhogwa. Ahmedabad and Gandhinagar, the commercial and political capitals of Gujarat were established on the banks of Sabarmati river; the legend is that Sultan Ahmed Shah of Gujarat, resting on the bank of Sabarmati, was inspired by the courage of a rabbit chasing a dog to the extent of establishing Ahmedabad in 1411. The soils of the Sabarmati area on the banks of the river are rich. During India's independence struggle, Mahatma Gandhi established Sabarmati Ashram as his home on the banks of this river; the National Water Quality Programme led by Central Pollution Control Board positions Sabarmati River as one of the most polluted rivers in India.
There are several reservoirs on its tributaries. The Dharoi dam is located on the main river. Hathmati dam, Harnav dam and Guhai dam are located on the tributaries meeting the main river upstream of Ahmedabad while Meshvo reservoir, Meshvo pick-up weir, Mazam dam and Watrak dam are located on tributaries meeting downstream; the Kalpasar is planned project in the Gulf of Khambhat. The area covering upper sub-basin and the catchment of the main river up to Dharoi dam is designated as Dharoi sub-basin. Constructed in 1978, Dharoi dam is located about 165 km upstream Ahmedabad in village Dharoi of Mehsana district; this covers drainage area of the main river up to Dharoi dam. Catchment area of the sub basin is 5540 km2, out. Ahmedabad List of rivers in India Sabarmati Ashram Sabarmati Basin Sustainable water project Sabarmati River Basin Map of Sabarmati Basin Integrated management of the Sabarmati river basin Information about sabarmati riverfront project of Ahmedabad
Kalachuris of Tripuri
The Kalachuris of Tripuri known the Kalachuris of Chedi, ruled parts of central India during 7th to 13th centuries. Their core territory included the historical Chedi region, their capital was located at Tripuri; the origin of the dynasty is uncertain, although one theory connects them to the Kalachuris of Mahishmati. By the 10th century, the Kalachuris of Tripuri had consolidated their power by raiding neighbouring territories and by fighting wars with the Gurjara-Pratiharas, the Chandelas and the Paramaras, they had matrimonial relations with the Rashtrakutas and the Chalukyas of Kalyani. In the 1030s, the Kalachuri king Gangeyadeva assumed imperial titles after achieving military successes at his eastern and northern frontiers; the kingdom reached its zenith during the reign of his son Lakshmikarna, who assumed the title Chakravartin after military campaigns against several neighbouring kingdoms. He controlled a part of the Paramara and Chandela kingdoms for a brief period; the dynasty declined after Lakshmikarna, whose successors lost control of their northern territories to the Gahadavalas.
Trailokyamalla, the last known ruler of the dynasty, ruled at least until 1212 CE, but it is not certain how and when his reign ended. In the half of the 13th century, the former Kalachuri territories came under the control of the Paramaras and the Chandelas, under the Delhi Sultanate. According to the 12th century poem Prithviraja Vijaya, the Kalachuris of Tripuri descended from Kartavirya, a legendary Heheya king who ruled from Mahishmati, through one Sahasikh. Historian V. V. Mirashi connected the Kalachuris of Tripuri to the early Kalachuris of Mahishmati, who ruled in the west-central India. Mirashi theorized that the early Kalachuris moved their capital from Mahishmati to Kalanjara at the end of the 7th century, moved to Tripuri. However, there is no concrete evidence. Little is known about the earliest rulers of the dynasty, who find mentions in the inscriptional genealogies; the earliest extant inscriptions of the dynasty have been discovered at Chhoti Sagar. These inscriptions are from the reign of Shankaragana I, have been dated to the 8th century CE.
Shankaragana III, who ascended the Kalachuri throne around 970 CE, adopted an aggressive expansion policy. He defeated the contemporary Gurjara-Pratihara king, Vijayapala, he died in a battle against the Chandelas. Shankaragana was succeeded by his younger brother Yuvarajadeva II, who established matrimonial relations with the Kalyani Chalukya ruler Tailapa II; the Paramara king Munja, an enemy of Tailapa, invaded the Kalachuri kingdom and raided their capital Tripuri. After the death of Yuvarajadeva II, the ministers placed his son Kokalla II on the throne. According to the Gurgi inscription of Kokalla, three neighbouring kings were afraid of him: the Gurjara king, the Gauda king, the Kuntala king; these claims suggest. Gangeyadeva, the son and successor of Kokalla II, ascended the throne around 1015 CE. During the early part of his reign, he served as a vassal to another king the Paramara king Bhoja, he fought a war against the Chalukyas of Kalyani as a vassal of Bhoja. The triple alliance of Bhoja and Rajendra Chola engaged the Chalukya king Jayasimha II at multiple frontiers.
Both Kalachuri and Chalukya inscriptions claim success in this war: it appears that Gangeyadeva and his allies were repulsed after achieving some initial successes. Bhoja defeated Gangeyadeva in a war. According to one theory, Bhoja defeated Gangeyadeva before the anti-Chalukya campaign, in which Gangeyadeva fought as a Paramara vassal. Another theory is. In the 1030s, Gangeyadeva achieved military successes at his eastern and northern frontiers, assumed the titles of a sovereign emperor. In the east, he raided Utkala, assisted by his Ratnapura vassals; the Kalachuris defeated the Bhauma-Kara king Shubhakara II in this war. Gangeyadeva seems to have fought an inconclusive war against Yayati, the Somavanshi ruler of Dakshina Kosala. In the north, Gangeyadeva expanded his kingdom at the expense of the Chandelas, weakened by Ghaznavid invasions, he suffered a defeat against the Chandela king Vijayapala, but extended his control over the sacred cities of Varanasi and Prayaga. During his reign, the Ghaznavid general Ahmad Niyaltigin raided Varanasi in 1033 CE.
Gangeyadeva's successor Lakshmikarna, was the most noted military commander of the dynasty. He assumed the title Chakravartin after several successful campaigns against his neighbours. In the east, he invaded Vanga. In Vanga, he defeated a Chandra king Govindachandra. Lakshmikarna invaded the Pala-ruled Gauda region, his invasion was repulsed by Nayapala. The Tibetan accounts suggest that the Buddhist monk Atisha negotiated a peace treaty between the two kings. Lakshmikarna seems to have raided Gauda during the reign of Nayapala's successor Vigrahapala III; the two kings concluded a peace treaty, with Lakshmikarna's daughter Yuvanashri marrying the Pala king. In the south-west, Lakshmikarna fought an inconclusive war with the Kalyani Chalukya king Someshvara I, he seems to have fought with his south-eastern neighbour, the Chola king Rajadhiraja. In the east, he defeated a Gurjara king, who
Karna known as Vasusena, Anga-Raja and Radheya, is one of the major characters in the Hindu epic Mahābhārata. He is the son of princess Kunti, he was conceived and born to unmarried teenage Kunti, who hides the pregnancy out of shame abandons the new born Karna in a basket on a river. The basket is discovered floating on the Ganges River, he is adopted and raised by foster Suta parents named Radha and Adhiratha Nandana of the charioteer and poet profession working for king Dhritarashtra. Karna grows up to be an accomplished warrior of extraordinary abilities, a gifted speaker and becomes a loyal friend of Duryodhana, he is appointed the king of Anga by Duryodhana. Karna joins the losing Duryodhana side of the Mahabharata war, he is a key antagonist who aims to kill Arjuna but dies in a battle with him during the Kurushetra war. He is a tragic hero in the Mahabharata, in a manner similar to Aristotle's literary category of "flawed good man", he meets his biological mother late in the epic discovers that he is the older half-brother of those he is fighting against.
Karna is a symbol of someone, rejected by those who should love him but do not given the circumstances, yet becomes a man of exceptional abilities willing to give his love and life as a loyal friend. His character is developed in the epic to discuss major emotional and dharma dilemmas, his story has inspired many secondary works and dramatic plays in the Hindu arts tradition, both in India and in southeast Asia. A regional tradition believes. Karṇa is a word found in the Vedic literature, where it means "the ear", "chaff or husk of a grain" or the "helm or rudder". In another context, it refers to a spondee in Sanskrit prosody. In the Mahabharata and the Puranas, it is the name of a warrior character. Called Vasusena as a child by his foster parents, he became known by the name Karna because of the golden earrings of Surya he used to wear, according to the Sanskrit epics scholar David Slavitt; the word Karna, states the Indologist Kevin McGrath, signifies "eared, or the ear-ringed one". In section 3.290.5 of the Mahabharata, Karna is described as a baby born with the ear-rings and armored breastplate, like his father Surya.
The second meaning of Karna as "rudder and helm" is an apt metaphor given Karna's role in steering the war in Book 8 of the epic, where the good Karna confronts the good Arjuna, one of the climax scenes wherein the Mahabharata authors deploy the allegories of ocean and boat to embed layers of meanings in the poem. For example, his first entry into the Kurukshetra battlefield is presented as the Makara movement; as Duryodhana's army crumbles each day, the sea and vessel metaphor appears in the epic when Karna is mentioned. As a newborn, Karna's life begins in a basket without a rudder on a river, in circumstances that he neither chose nor had a say. In Book 1, again in the context of Karna, Duryodhana remarks, "the origins of heroes and rivers are indeed difficult to understand"; the name Karna is symbolically connected to the central aspect of Karna's character as the one, intensely preoccupied with what others hear and think about him, about his fame, a weakness that others exploit to manipulate him.
This "hearing" and "that, heard", states McGrath makes "Karna" an apt name and subtle reminder of Karna's driving motivation. The story of Karna is told in the Mahābhārata, one of the Sanskrit epics from the Indian subcontinent; the work is written in Classical Sanskrit and is a composite work of revisions and interpolations over many centuries. The oldest parts in the surviving version of the text date to about 400 BCE. Within Mahabharata, which follows the story within a story style of narration, the account of Karna's birth has been narrated four times. Karna appears for the first time in the Mahabharata in the verse 1.1.65 of Adi Parvan where he is mentioned through the metaphor of a tree, as someone, refusing to fight or help in the capture of Krishna. He is presented again in sections 1.2.127–148, chapter 1.57 of the Adi Parvan. It is here that his earrings "that make his face shine", as well as the divine breastplate he was born with, are mentioned for the first time; this sets him apart with gifts no ordinary mortal has.
However in the epic, the generous Karna gives the "earrings and breastplate" away in charity, thereby becomes a mortal and dies in a battle with Arjuna. The story of his young mother getting pregnant due to her curiosity, his divine connection to the Hindu sun god Surya his birth appears for the first time in the epic in section 1.104.7. The epic uses glowing words to describe Karna, but the presentation here is compressed in 21 shlokas unlike the books which expand the details; these sections with more details on Karna's birth and childhood include 3.287, 5.142 and 15.38. According to McGrath, the early presentation of Karna in the Mahabharata is such as if the poets expect the audience to know the story and love the character of Karna; the text does not belabor the details about Karna in the early sections, rather uses metaphors and metonyms to colorfully remind the audience of the fabric of a character they are assumed to be aware of. The complete narrative of his life appears for the first time in chapter 1.125.
The Mahabharata manuscripts exist in numerous versions, wherein the specifics and details of major characters and episodes vary significantly. Except for the sections containing the Bhagavad Gita which i
Rann of Kutch
The Rann of Kutch is a large area of salt marshes located in Gujarat and the southern tip of Sindh, Pakistan. It is divided into Little Rann of Kutch; the Rann of Kutch is located in the Thar Desert bio-geographic area in the Indian state of Gujarat, with some parts in Pakistani province of Sindh. It is a seasonally marshy region, the word Rann meaning "salt marsh", alternating with medaks, elevated pieces of land where vegetation grows. Kori Creek and Sir creek are located in Rann of Kutch area, part of Indus river delta. Kutch is the name of the district in Gujarat; the marsh covers an area of around 10,000 square miles and is positioned between the Gulf of Kutch and the mouth of the Indus River in southern Pakistan. Many rivers located in Rajasthan and Gujarat flow in to Rann of Kutch; these are Luni, Bharud, Kharod, Sarswati, Rupen and Machchhu. The Rann of Kutch is the only large flooded grasslands zone in the whole Indo-Malayan region; the fact that the area has desert on one side and the sea on the other provides the Rann of Kutch with a variety of ecosystems, including mangroves and desert vegetation.
The grassland and deserts of the Rann of Kutch are home to forms of wildlife that have adapted to the harsh conditions of this vast area. These include plant species. Arid Forest Research Institute Southern Asia: Western India into Pakistan - Ecoregions Global Species: Ecoregion: Rann of Kutch seasonal salt marsh
Bhima I was a Chaulukya king who ruled parts of present-day Gujarat, India. The early years of his reign saw an invasion from the Ghaznavid ruler Mahmud, who sacked the Somnath temple. Bhima left his capital and took shelter in Kanthkot during this invasion, but after Mahmud's departure, he recovered his power and retained his ancestral territories, he crushed a rebellion by his vassals at Arbuda, unsuccessfully tried to invade the Naddula Chahamana kingdom. Towards the end of his reign, he formed an alliance with the Kalachuri king Lakshmi-Karna, played an important role in the downfall of the Paramara king Bhoja; the earliest of the Dilwara Temples and the Modhera Sun Temple were built during Bhima's reign. The construction of Rani ki vav is attributed to his queen Udayamati. Bhima's father Nagaraja was a son of the Chaulukya king Chamunda-raja. Chamunda was succeeded by Vallabha-raja and Durlabha-raja, in that order. Both Vallabha and Durlabha died childless. According to the 12th century author Hemachandra, Durlabha was fond of his nephew Bhima, appointed Bhima as his successor before his death.
Durlabha and Nagaraja died soon after Bhima's ascension to throne. Early during his reign, Bhima faced an invasion by Mahmud of Ghazni, whose plunder of the Somnath temple has been described in detail by the medieval Muslim historians. According to Ali ibn al-Athir, Mahmud started out from Ghazni on 18 October 1025. At Multan, he gathered supplies, he left Multan on 26 November, with a large army well-equipped to cross the Thar desert, reached the Chaulukya capital in December 1025 CE. According to the Muslim accounts, Bhima fled his capital Anahilapataka, he took shelter in Kanthkot. Mahmud's sudden invasion, coupled with the lack of any fortifications in Anahilapataka, may have forced Bhima to abandon his capital. Other residents of the city appear to have evacuated it, as the Muslim historians do not mention any massacre or looting in the Chaulukya capital. Mahmud rested at Anahilapataka for a few days, replenished his supplies, left for Somnath. A small force of 20,000 soldiers unsuccessfully tried to check Mahmud's advance at Modhera.
Historian A. K. Majumdar theorizes that the Modhera Sun Temple, constructed during 1026-1027 CE, might have been built to commemorate this defence. Mahmud advanced to Delvada. Although the town surrendered without offering any resistance, Mahmud massacred all its residents. Mahmud's army reached Somnath on 6 January 1026 CE; the Muslim historians suggest that the town was well-defended by a fort guarding the temple. According to Abu Sa'id Gardezi, the commander of the defending force fled to a nearby island. Other defenders put up a resistance. Mahmud desecrated the temple, looted a huge amount of wealth including jewels and silver idols. During his return journey, Mahmud came to know that a powerful Hindu king named Param Dev had gathered a large army to fight him. Gardezi, in his Kitab Zainu'l-Akhbar, states that Mahmud chose to avoid any confrontation with this king; the invader was carrying back a large amount of looted wealth, which may have motivated him to avoid a battle. Mahmud decided to return via Mansura in Sindh, although the route connecting Gujarat and Sindh was more dangerous than the desert route to Multan.
Muslim historians mention this incident. The 16th century historian Firishta identified Param Dev with Bhima I, calling him the king of Nahrwala. Historian A. K. Majumdar agrees with this identification, arguing that "Param" might be a Muslim mistranscription of "Bhima". Scholars who are critical of this theory identify Param dev with the Paramara king Bhoja, who ruled the neighbnouring territory of Malwa. K. N. Seth and Mahesh Singh point out that Bhima had ascended the throne and was not a powerful ruler at the time of Mahmud's raid. In fact, as attested by the Muslim historians, he had fled his hid in Kanthkot; the Muslim historians before Firishta, such as Gardezi and Nizamuddin Ahmad, mention the king of Nahrwala and Param Dev as two distinct kings. Unlike Bhima, Bhoja was a famous ruler at that time. Bhoja was a Shaivite, according to the Udaipur Prashasti, had constructed a temple dedicated to Somnath, thus Mahmud's desecration of the Somnath temple in Gujarat would have motivated Bhoja to lead an army against him.
Based on these evidences, several scholars identify Param Dev with Bhoja. "Param Dev" is a corruption of "Paramara-Deva" or of Bhoja's titles Paramabhattakara-Parameshvara. According to the 12th century scholar Hemachandra, patronized by the Chaulukyas, Bhima defeated Hammuka, a ruler of Sindh; this claim has been repeated by the 14th century chronicler Merutunga. Hemachandra's account of Bhima's war against Sindh goes like this: one day Bhima's spies told him that the kings of Andhra and Magadha obeyed him. On the other hand and Karna not only refused to acknowledge his supremacy, but defamed him. Bhima marched to Sindh and crossing the Indus river in the process, he defeated Hammuka, forced to acknowledge his supremacy. He defeated Karna. According to the epic Mahabharata, the legendary hero Bhima defeated two other warriors: Jayadratha and Karna. Hemachandra's poetic account compares Bhima I to his legendary namesake, because the Chaulukya king had defeated the king of Sindhu and Karna. There is no epigraphic evidence of Bhima ha
Jagadeva known as Jagaddeva or Jagdev Parmar, was an 11th-12th century prince from the Paramara dynasty of central India. He is known from an inscription discovered at some folk legends, his political status is uncertain, although according to one theory, he may have been a vassal of the Western Chalukyas. The coins and inscriptions from Jagadeva's period have been found in the northern parts Berar and Deccan regions, not the traditional Paramara territory of Malwa; these regions were dominated by the Chalukyas of Kalyani. An inscription discovered at Jainad names Jagaddeva as the son of the Paramara king Udayaditya. Four gold coins bearing the name "Shri-Jagadeva" have been discovered. Several scholars, including P. C. Roy, identify the issuer of these coins as the Paramara prince. M. H. Krishna surmised that the Chalukya king Someshvara was known by the title "Jagaddeva" in the northern part of his kingdom, it was he who issued these coins. However, all the known Chalukya coins feature Kannada script, while coins of Jagaddeva feature the Nagari script used by the Paramaras.
Therefore, Krishna's theory is purely conjectural. V. P. Rode theorizes. Vikramaditya made him a part of Deccan. P. C. Roy disagrees with this theory, arguing that a vassal could not have issued gold coins in his own name, the coins do not mention the Chalukyas. A legendary account in the Ras-Mala states. Therefore, D. C. Ganguly suggested. According to Ganguly's theory, he abdicated the throne in favour of his brother Naravarman, he governed the southern part of the Paramara kingdom until at least 1112 CE. He lived at the Chalukya court at Vikramaditya's invitation. K. C. Jain disagrees with this theory, arguing that Lakshmadeva were two distinct princes; the undated Jainad inscription was found on the floor of a temple mandapa. It was composed by the poet Ashvatthama in Sanskrit language, has been dated to the 11th century on a palaeographical basis, it records the construction of a temple dedicated to Surya by one Padmavati. The inscription states; the inscription begins with verses praising Shiva. It mentions the Agnivansha myth, which states that the founder of the Paramara dynasty was created by Vashistha from a sacrificial fire pit.
Jagaddeva was born in this dynasty: his father and paternal uncle are named as Udayaditya and Bhoja respectively. Next, the record describes the military achievements of Jagaddeva: He defeated the king of Andhra. Historian H. V. Trivedi believes that this refers to the Chola king Rajaraja II, Jagaddeva may have led a Chalukya invasion against the Chola occupation of Andhra territory, he "uprooted in sport" the king of Chakradurga. Chakradurga can be identified with the present-day Bastar district, he invaded Dorasamudra, causing "acute pain in the heart of the chief of Malahara". Trivedi theorizes that this refers to the Chalukya invasion of the Hoysala kingdom, ruled by Ballala. According to him, "Malahara" is a variation of "Malaha" or "Malapa", referred to a hill tribe to which the Hoysalas belonged, he fought against the Gurjaras. The inscription mentions the word "Jayasimha" in this sentence. D. C. Ganguly interpreted the sentence to mean that Jagaddeva's bravery was an "announcement of the valour of Jayasimha".
He concluded that Jagaddeva may have fought against the Chaulukya king of Gujarat, as part of the Paramara army under Jayasimha I. However, a translation appearing in Epigraphia Indica interprets the verse to mean that Jayasimha was an enemy of Jagaddeva. On basis of this, Trivedi identifies Jayasimha as the Chaulukya king Jayasimha Siddharaja, he subdued the king Karna. Ganguly identified Karna as the Chaulukya king Karna, but V. V. Mirashi disagreed with this theory, pointing out that Jagadeva's father Udayaditya is said to have destroyed the king of Dahala; the Dahala region was ruled by the Kalachuris, so Mirashi identifies Karna as the Kalachuri king Karna. According to H. V. Trivedi, the Kalachuri king may be identified as either Karna or his son Yashah-Karna. Jaggadeva's brother Lakshmadeva is known to have invaded the Kalachuri capitalTripuri during Yashah-Karna's reign, might have been aided by Jagaddeva in this campaign; the rest of the inscription describes Padmavati, who resembled Lakshmi and constructed the "Nimbaditya" temple "in this city".
The inscription does not name the city, but it is possible that it refers to Jainad, where the inscription was found in a temple. Padmavati is described as the queen of Arjuna, a member of the Dahima family. Arjuna is described as a favourite of the king Udayaditya; the inscription mentions Udayaditya's minister Lolarka as another member of the Dahima family. He is described a Shaivite, loyal to Jagaddeva. Lolarka's father Gunaraja was a favourite of Udayaditya. One legend about Jagadeva is mentioned in a collection of Gujarati legends, it names Jagdev Parmar as the son of king Udayadit of his Solanki wife. The king's favourite son and the heir apparent was Rindhaval, his son by another wife from Vagheli family; the Chavda ruler of Tuktoda was impressed with Jagdev's merits, married his daughter Virmati to the Paramara prince. Jagdev left his father's kingdom because of harassment fro