Austria the Republic of Austria, is a country in Central Europe comprising 9 federated states. Its capital, largest city and one of nine states is Vienna. Austria has an area of 83,879 km2, a population of nearly 9 million people and a nominal GDP of $477 billion, it is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps; the majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects as their native language, German in its standard form is the country's official language. Other regional languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, Slovene. Austria played a central role in European History from the late 18th to the early 20th century, it emerged as a margraviate around 976 and developed into a duchy and archduchy. In the 16th century, Austria started serving as the heart of the Habsburg Monarchy and the junior branch of the House of Habsburg – one of the most influential royal houses in history.
As archduchy, it was a major component and administrative centre of the Holy Roman Empire. Following the Holy Roman Empire's dissolution, Austria founded its own empire in the 19th century, which became a great power and the leading force of the German Confederation. Subsequent to the Austro-Prussian War and the establishment of a union with Hungary, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was created. Austria was involved in both world wars. Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy with a President as head of state and a Chancellor as head of government. Major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is ranked as one of the richest countries in the world by per capita GDP terms; the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2018 was ranked 20th in the world for its Human Development Index. The republic declared its perpetual neutrality in foreign political affairs in 1955. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955 and joined the European Union in 1995.
It is a founding member of the OECD and Interpol. Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, adopted the euro currency in 1999; the German name for Austria, Österreich, derives from the Old High German Ostarrîchi, which meant "eastern realm" and which first appeared in the "Ostarrîchi document" of 996. This word is a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Another theory says that this name comes from the local name of the mountain whose original Slovenian name is "Ostravica" - because it is steep on both sides. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976; the word "Austria" was first recorded in the 12th century. At the time, the Danube basin of Austria was the easternmost extent of Bavaria; the Central European land, now Austria was settled in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes. The Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province. Present-day Petronell-Carnuntum in eastern Austria was an important army camp turned capital city in what became known as the Upper Pannonia province.
Carnuntum was home for 50,000 people for nearly 400 years. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the area was invaded by Bavarians and Avars. Charlemagne, King of the Franks, conquered the area in AD 788, encouraged colonization, introduced Christianity; as part of Eastern Francia, the core areas that now encompass Austria were bequeathed to the house of Babenberg. The area was known as the marchia Orientalis and was given to Leopold of Babenberg in 976; the first record showing the name Austria is from 996, where it is written as Ostarrîchi, referring to the territory of the Babenberg March. In 1156, the Privilegium Minus elevated Austria to the status of a duchy. In 1192, the Babenbergs acquired the Duchy of Styria. With the death of Frederick II in 1246, the line of the Babenbergs was extinguished; as a result, Ottokar II of Bohemia assumed control of the duchies of Austria and Carinthia. His reign came to an end with his defeat at Dürnkrut at the hands of Rudolph I of Germany in 1278. Thereafter, until World War I, Austria's history was that of its ruling dynasty, the Habsburgs.
In the 14th and 15th centuries, the Habsburgs began to accumulate other provinces in the vicinity of the Duchy of Austria. In 1438, Duke Albert V of Austria was chosen as the successor to his father-in-law, Emperor Sigismund. Although Albert himself only reigned for a year, henceforth every emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was a Habsburg, with only one exception; the Habsburgs began to accumulate territory far from the hereditary lands. In 1477, Archduke Maximilian, only son of Emperor Frederick III, married the heiress Maria of Burgundy, thus acquiring most of the Netherlands for the family. In 1496, his son Philip the Fair married Joanna the Mad, the heiress of Castile and Aragon, thus acquiring Spain and its Italian and New World appendages for the Habsburgs. In 1526, following the Battle of Mohács, Bohemia and the part of Hungary not occupied by the Ottomans came under Austrian rule. Ottoman expansion into Hungary led to frequent conflicts between the two empires evident in the Long War of 1593 to 1606.
The Turks made incursions into Styria nearly 20 times, of which some are c
Rafael Nadal Parera is a Spanish professional tennis player ranked world No. 2 in men's singles tennis by the Association of Tennis Professionals. Nadal has won 17 Grand Slam singles titles, the second most in history for a male player, as well as a record 33 ATP Tour Masters 1000 titles, 20 ATP Tour 500 titles, the 2008 Olympic gold medal in singles. In addition, Nadal has held the world No. 1 ranking for a total of 196 weeks. In majors, Nadal has won a record 11 French Open titles, three US Open titles, two Wimbledon titles, one Australian Open title. Nadal has won 80 career titles overall, including a record 57 clay court titles. With 81 consecutive match wins on clay, Nadal holds the record for the longest single surface win streak in the Open Era, he was a member of the winning Spain Davis Cup team in 2004, 2008, 2009, 2011. In 2010, he became the seventh male player in history and youngest of five in the Open Era to achieve the Career Grand Slam at age 24, he is the second male player, after Andre Agassi.
In 2011, Nadal was named the Laureus World Sportsman of the Year. Rafael Nadal was born in Manacor, a town on the island of Mallorca in the Balearic Islands, Spain to parents Ana María Parera and Sebastián Nadal, his father is a businessman, owner of an insurance company and window company Vidres Mallorca, the restaurant, Sa Punta. Rafael has María Isabel, his uncle, Miguel Ángel Nadal, is a retired professional footballer, who played for RCD Mallorca, FC Barcelona, the Spanish national team. He idolized Barcelona striker Ronaldo as a child, via his uncle got access to the Barcelona dressing room to have a photo with the Brazilian. Nadal supports football clubs RCD Mallorca. Recognizing in Rafael a natural talent, another uncle, Toni Nadal, a former professional tennis player, introduced him to tennis when he was three years old. At age 8, Nadal won an under-12 regional tennis championship at a time when he was a promising football player; this made Toni Nadal intensify training, at that time he encouraged Nadal to play left-handed for a natural advantage on the tennis court, as he noticed Nadal played forehand shots with two hands.
At age 12, Nadal won the Spanish and European tennis titles in his age group, while playing football full-time. Nadal's father made him choose between football and tennis so that his school work would not deteriorate entirely. Nadal said: "I chose tennis. Football had to stop straight away."When he was 14, the Spanish tennis federation requested that Nadal leave Mallorca and move to Barcelona to continue his tennis training. His family turned down this request because they feared his education would suffer, but because Toni said that "I don't want to believe that you have to go to America, or other places to be a good athlete. You can do it from your home." The decision to stay home meant less financial support from the federation. In May 2001, he defeated former Grand Slam tournament champion Pat Cash in a clay-court exhibition match. Nadal turned professional at age 15, participated in two events on the ITF junior circuit. On 29 April 2002, at 15 years and 10 months, the world No. 762 Nadal won his first ATP match, defeating Ramón Delgado, became the ninth player in the Open Era to do so before the age of 16.
In 2001, Nadal finished the year with a Challenger series record of 1–1 in singles with no titles or finals appearances. He did not participate in any doubles Challengers events. At ITF Futures, Nadal's record was 7–5 in singles and 1–2 in doubles, with no titles or finals appearances. In 2002, aged 16, Nadal reached the semifinals of the Boys' Singles tournament at Wimbledon, in his first ITF junior event. In the same year, he helped Spain defeat the US in the final of the Junior Davis Cup in his second, final, appearance on the ITF junior circuit. Nadal's Challenger level record in 2002 was 4–2 in singles with no titles, he did not participate in any doubles Challengers events. Nadal finished the year with a Futures record of 40 -- 9 in 10 -- 9 in doubles, he won 6 singles tournaments including 5 on clay and 1 on hard courts. He did not reach any doubles finals. Nadal entered the clay-court Mallorca Open, part of the ATP International Series, at the end of April as a wildcard, where he participated in both singles and doubles.
In singles, Nadal won his first ATP match, defeating Ramon Delgado in the Round of 32. He was defeated in the Round of 16 by Olivier Rochus. In doubles and his partner, Bartolome Salva-Vidal, were defeated in the first round by David Adams and Simon Aspelin. In 2003, Nadal won two Challenger titles and finished the year ranked No. 49. He won the ATP Newcomer of the Year Award. In his Wimbledon debut in 2003, he became the youngest man to reach the third round since Boris Becker in 1984. After Wimbledon Nadal participated at Bastad, where he lost to Nicolas Lapentti in the quarterfinals, at Stuttgart, where he lost to Fernando Gonzalez in the Round of 32. At Umag, he lost to Carlos Moya in the semifinals. After playing two more Challenger level events, the last Challenger tournaments of his career, Nadal finished his 2003 campaign with three first round losses in ATP events. Nadal competed in seven doubles tournaments in 2003, won his first ATP title at the clay-court Croatia Open in Umag, where he partnered with Álex López Morón to defeat Todd Perry and Thomas Shimada in straight sets in the final.2004 started with a doubles championship alongside Tommy Robredo at the Maharashtra Open.
In singles, Nadal reached the third round of the 20
Feliciano López Díaz-Guerra is a Spanish professional tennis player on the ATP Tour. He now lives in the Spanish capital, Madrid. López achieved his career-high singles ranking of world No. 12 in March 2015. In 2005, he was the first male Spanish tennis player to reach the quarter-finals of Wimbledon since 1972, when Manuel Orantes reached the semi-finals, he repeated the feat in 2008 and 2011. López defeated Tim Henman at the 2007 Wimbledon second round in what would be Henman's last Wimbledon match. Throughout his career, he has played in the most five-set matches that have gone beyond 6–6 in the post-tiebreak era, his longest fifth set being 16–14 at the 2009 Australian Open against Gilles Müller, he reached the quarter-finals of the US Open in 2015, won his first Grand Slam title at the 2016 French Open when he won the men's doubles title with Marc López. In 2017 at the age of 35 López won the Aegon Championship at The Queen's Club, beating Marin Čilić in a third set tiebreak. During the 2018 Wimbledon Championships, López made his 66th consecutive Grand Slam main draw appearance, surpassing the previous record of 65 consecutive appearances held by Roger Federer.
As of the 2019 Australian Open, his record stands at 68. López uses a single-handed backhand, he is known for his strong serve and ability to play balls on the baseline, is a confident net player and has been known to serve and volley. Unlike most Spanish players, who always prefer clay courts due to the popularity of that surface in their country, López is an exceptionally strong grass-court player, with three quarter-final runs at Wimbledon, as well as 3 titles on grass at the Aegon International in 2013, 2014 and 2017; this is due in part to his more traditional playing style, more like grass-court legends Pete Sampras and Roger Federer than fellow Spaniard Rafael Nadal. This traditional arsenal includes a willingness to come into the net. In 1997, Feliciano López made his pro circuit debut in Mallorca on 29 September, losing in the second round to Dušan Vemić. In 1998, he made his ATP debut at the 1998 Open SEAT, where he lost to Jiří Novák in the first round, he competed on the Challenger circuit, making the quarter-finals of Spain F7 and Spain F8.
In 1999, he competed on the Futures and Challenger circuits. He won his first Futures event in Spain F6, he reached one other final, losing to Réginald Willems at the Spain F7. In 2000, López competed in only his second ATP tournament at the 2000 Estoril Open, losing to Juan Antonio Marín, his performance was mediocre on the Challenger circuit, he reached only two quarter-finals. The next year was a better one for López, as he won his second Futures event in France F3, defeating Juan Antonio Marín in the final, reaching the final in Maia, losing to Jarkko Nieminen, he made his first ATP win in the 2001 Chevrolet Cup, defeating Adrián García. However, he lost the quarter-final to eventual champion Guillermo Coria, he made his Grand Slam debut at the 2001 French Open, losing to Carlos Moyá in straight sets. In 2002, López competed on the ATP circuit regularly, he started the year with his first semi-final at the 2002 ATP Buenos Aires, losing to Nicolás Massú. He followed it up with a quarter-final appearance at the 2002 Delray Beach International Tennis Championships, losing to Antony Dupuis.
He reached the second round of the Miami Masters, losing to Àlex Corretja in the final. He won his first Grand Slam match at the 2002 French Open, defeating Didac Pérez in five sets, before losing to third seed Tommy Haas in straight sets. In his Wimbledon debut, he reached the fourth round, losing to André Sá four sets, after defeating Guillermo Cañas in five sets with the fifth going to 10–8, in the second round, a match that lasted 3 hours and 40 minutes; this was his first win over a top-20 player. He gained revenge for his loss to Sá by defeating him in López's US Open debut in the first round in straight sets, before losing to Gastón Gaudio in the next round, he reached the quarter-finals in Hong Kong and Tokyo. In Tokyo, he defeated Marat Safin in his first win over a top-5 player, he reached the third round of the 2002 Madrid Masters, losing to Andre Agassi. He ended the year in the top 100 for the first time, at no. 62. In 2003, López started the year with first-round exits at Auckland.
He made his Australian Open debut, reaching the third round, but losing to Younes El Aynaoui in four sets. He performed badly in the first rounds in Milan and Rotterdam, he reached the quarter-finals in Dubai, losing to Tommy Robredo, in Estoril, losing to Max Mirnyi. He reached the second rounds of Monte Carlo. In his second French Open, he lost to Mariano Zabaleta in straight sets, he once again reached the fourth round of Wimbledon, where he lost to Roger Federer in straight sets. He reached two straight semi-finals in Stuttgart and Kitzbühel, losing both to eventual champion Guillermo Coria, he continued his form by reaching the quarter-finals at the 2003 Canada Masters, losing to David Nalbandian in straight sets. After early losses in Cincinnati, Long Island, the US Open, Moscow, he reached the quarter-finals of Vienna, the Madrid Masters, Basel, he ended the year with second-round exit at the Paris Masters, where he lost to Guillermo Coria, his fifth lost to Coria. He ended the year ranked no. 28.
In 2004, López began the year with a 1–3 record, losing in the first rounds of Sydney, the 2004 Australian Open, Milan, with his only win coming at the Davis Cup. He reached his first final at the 2004 Dubai Open
Pakistan the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world’s sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212,742,631 people. In area, it is the 33rd-largest country. Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, China in the far northeast, it is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, shares a maritime border with Oman. The territory that now constitutes Pakistan was the site of several ancient cultures and intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent; the ancient history involves the Neolithic site of Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation, was home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including Hindus, Indo-Greeks, Turco-Mongols and Sikhs. The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander III of Macedon, the Seleucid Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, the Gupta Empire, the Arab Umayyad Caliphate, the Delhi Sultanate, the Mongol Empire, the Mughal Empire, the Afghan Durrani Empire, the Sikh Empire and, most the British Empire.
Pakistan is the only country to have been created in the name of Islam. It is an ethnically and linguistically diverse country, with a diverse geography and wildlife. A dominion, Pakistan adopted a constitution in 1956, becoming an Islamic republic. An ethnic civil war and Indian military intervention in 1971 resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh. In 1973, Pakistan adopted a new constitution which stipulated that all laws are to conform to the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Quran and Sunnah. A regional and middle power, Pakistan has the sixth-largest standing armed forces in the world and is a nuclear power as well as a declared nuclear-weapons state, the second in South Asia and the only nation in the Muslim world to have that status. Pakistan has a semi-industrialised economy with a well-integrated agriculture sector and a growing services sector, it is ranked among the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world, is backed by one of the world's largest and fastest-growing middle class.
Pakistan's political history since independence has been characterized by periods of military rule, political instability and conflicts with India. The country continues to face challenging problems, including overpopulation, poverty and corruption. Pakistan is a member of the UN, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the OIC, the Commonwealth of Nations, the SAARC and the Islamic Military Counter Terrorism Coalition; the name Pakistan means "land of the pure" in Urdu and Persian. It alludes to the word pāk meaning pure in Pashto; the suffix ـستان is a Persian word meaning the place of, recalls the synonymous Sanskrit word sthāna स्थान. The name of the country was coined in 1933 as Pakstan by Choudhry Rahmat Ali, a Pakistan Movement activist, who published it in his pamphlet Now or Never, using it as an acronym referring to the names of the five northern regions of British India: Punjab, Kashmir and Baluchistan; the letter i was incorporated to ease pronunciation. Some of the earliest ancient human civilisations in South Asia originated from areas encompassing present-day Pakistan.
The earliest known inhabitants in the region were Soanian during the Lower Paleolithic, of whom stone tools have been found in the Soan Valley of Punjab. The Indus region, which covers most of present day Pakistan, was the site of several successive ancient cultures including the Neolithic Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro; the Vedic period was characterised by an Indo-Aryan culture. Multan was an important Hindu pilgrimage centre; the Vedic civilisation flourished in the ancient Gandhāran city of Takṣaśilā, now Taxila in the Punjab, founded around 1000 BCE. Successive ancient empires and kingdoms ruled the region: the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander the Great's empire in 326 BCE and the Maurya Empire, founded by Chandragupta Maurya and extended by Ashoka the Great, until 185 BCE; the Indo-Greek Kingdom founded by Demetrius of Bactria included Gandhara and Punjab and reached its greatest extent under Menander, prospering the Greco-Buddhist culture in the region.
Taxila had one of the earliest universities and centres of higher education in the world, established during the late Vedic period in 6th century BCE. The school consisted of several monasteries without large dormitories or lecture halls where the religious instruction was provided on an individualistic basis; the ancient university was documented by the invading forces of Alexander the Great, "the like of which had not been seen in Greece," and was recorded by Chinese pilgrims in the 4th or 5th century CE. At its zenith, the Rai Dynasty of Sindh ruled the surrounding territories; the Pala Dynasty was the last Buddhist empire, under Dharmapala and Devapala, stretched across South Asia from what is now Bangladesh through Northern India to Pakistan. The Arab conqueror Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh in 711 CE; the Pakistan government's official chronol
Rohan Bopanna is an Indian professional tennis player. His singles career high ranking was World No. 213 in 2007 and his career high ranking in doubles was World No. 3 on 22 July 2013. Most of his appearances in professional tournaments have been in doubles matches, he is a member of the Indian Davis Cup team since 2002. In 2010, he finished as a runner-up in doubles at the US Open, he won the 2017 French Open - Mixed Doubles title with Gabriela Dabrowski of Canada becoming the fourth Indian player to win a Grand Slam title. Bopanna partnered with Aisam-ul-Haq Qureshi in doubles in 2007; the duo, nicknamed the IndoPak Express, went on to win four Challenger titles in quick succession. However, it was only in the 2010 season; that year, they reached the quarterfinals at Wimbledon, finished runners-up in the US Open and in five ATP Tour events, won the Johannesburg Open. Rohan began playing tennis at the age of 11 because his father wanted him to pursue an individual sport, he did enjoy other games like hockey and football, but by the time he turned 19, tennis became his main priority.
His father, M. G. Bopanna, is a coffee planter, his mother, Malika Bopanna, is a housewife. Both his parents are ardent supporters of Rohan's career, they live in Coorg/ Kodagu District in the South Indian State of Karnataka, a six-hour drive from Bangalore. He has an older sister. Growing up, Rohan idolized and was influenced by Stefan Edberg, he made his Davis Cup debut for India versus Australia in September 2002 and turned pro in 2003. He completed his education from Sri Bhagawan Mahaveer Jain College which comes under the umbrella of Jain University, Bengaluru. Bopanna distinguished himself as one of India's finest doubles players at the 2007 Hopman Cup, he lost his first singles match, but helped clinch a 2–1 victory with Sania Mirza over the Czech Republic in the final and decisive mixed doubles match. In their second confrontation against Croatia, the scenario was repeated, with Mirza winning her singles match while Bopanna lost. Together they defeated. India lost to Spain to finish runners-up in Group B, with Mirza and Bopanna losing both their singles matches, but winning in mixed doubles.
Bopanna won the men's doubles title at the 2008 Countrywide Classic in Los Angeles with partner Eric Butorac. This was his first ATP doubles title. Rohan started 2009 well by qualifying for the Chennai Open, but lost in the first round of the main draw. In February, he made it to the final of the SAP Open in San Jose. Rohan Bopanna started the year on a high, reaching the quarterfinal of the Chennai Open partnering Mahesh Bhupathi. In February, with Aisam-ul-Haq Qureshi, Bopanna won his second, the duo's first, ATP doubles title, beating Karol Beck and Harel Levy in the final of the SA Tennis Open, 2–6, 6–3; the duo reached the final of the Grand Prix Hassan II in Morocco. They reached the final of the Nice Open, before losing to the Brazilian pair of Marcelo Melo and Bruno Soares. In June and Qureshi made it to the quarterfinals of a Grand Slam event for the first time in their careers at the 2010 Wimbledon Championships. After a successful Wimbledon and Qureshi achieved another finals finish at the Atlanta Open.
They beat the world no. 1 pair of the Bryan brothers, 7-6, 7-5, in the quarterfinals of the Legg Mason Tennis Classic in Washington, D. C, they lost their semifinal match to Mark Knowles. They reached the finals of the New Haven Open at Yale and the St. Petersburg Open. At the 2010 US Open, Bopanna reached the finals of a Grand Slam tournament for the first time. Bopanna and Qureshi were seeded 16th and beat the American team of Brian Battistone and Ryler DeHeart, 6-3, 7-6. In the second round, they eliminated Kohlmann and Jarkko Nieminen, 6-4, 6-4. In the third round, the pair upset the second seeds Daniel Nestor and Zimonjic, 6-3, 6-4. In a entertaining quarterfinal, Bopanna's big serves made a difference as they knocked out Wesley Moodie and Dick Norman, 7-5, 7-6. In their first semifinal appearance, the duo defeated the Argentine pair of Schwank and Zeballos, 7-6, 6-4; the big-serving Bopanna was spot-on again. Bopanna pounded an overhead over his shoulder, while retrieving a lob to force an error, causing the commentator Pam Shriver to compare it to Roger Federer's between-the-legs winners against Novak Djokovic and Brian Dabul.
The ambassadors of India and Pakistan to the US supported the duo at the finals. The pair took on the world no. top-seeded Bryan brothers. The pair lost the final in two fought sets, 6-7, 6-7. Bopanna was exceptional on conjured some high-intensity aces. Bopanna played a decisive role in India's 2010 Davis Cup triumph over Brazil, taking India back to the World Group for the first time since 1998, he won the decider against Rocardo Mello, 6-3, 7-6, 6-3 to clinch the tie 3-2 and take India into the World Group for the first time in 19 years. Bopanna finished the 2010 season as world no. 8 in doubles. Bopanna began the 2011 season with Qureshi at the Chennai Open in early January. With the IndoPak Express and the re-united Indian pair of Mahesh Bhupathi and Leander Paes on opposite sides of the draw, there were hopes for a dream final; however and Qureshi lost in the quarterfinal to eventual finalists Robin Haase and David Martin 4-6, 5-7. The duo finished in the semifinals at the Medibank International in Sydney.
They exited the 2011 Australian Open in the third round. At the 2011 Davis Cup in Serbia, Bopanna played in singles and doubles with
Mikhail Mikhailovich Youzhny, nicknamed "Misha" and "Colonel" by his fans, is a Russian retired professional tennis player, ranked inside the top 10 and was the Russian No. 1. He achieved a top-10 ranking by the Association of Tennis Professionals for the first time on 13 August 2007, reached a career peak of World No. 8 in January 2008, again in October 2010. Youzhny reached the quarterfinals of all grand slams; the closest he came to a grand slam final was at the 2006 US Open semifinals when he took the first set from World No. 9 Andy Roddick, after upsetting World No. 2 Rafael Nadal in the quarterfinals. At the other semifinal he lost in straight sets to Nadal. Youzhny reached the finals of twenty-one ATP tour-level titles, winning ten of them, his first title win came at the Mercedes Cup held in Stuttgart, when he defeated Guillermo Cañas from Argentina. Youzhny never won a singles title on grass. In 2010—his best season—Youzhny reached five ATP finals, winning two and ending the year as a top-10 player.
Youzhny was a member of the winning Russian national team at the Davis Cup in both 2002 and 2006. Youzhny was born on 25 June 1982 to Mikhail, a Soviet army colonel and Lubov, a professional tennis player. 25 June is his father's birthday. His father sacrificed his career in the Soviet army to steer Youzhny and his older brother Andrei into becoming tennis players, it was because of his father. He was talented. At 13, he was a ballboy for a Russia – United States Davis Cup final in Moscow. Youzhny's father was recommended that Mikhail and his brother should join the tennis club Spartak Club if they wanted to become professional players. Mikhail and Andrei had to travel on an underground metro train and on two buses to reach their destination, taking well over an hour to reach the club, his mother had to take a part-time job to pay for their club membership fees. At Spartak Club, along with many others his age, would watch Andrei Chesnokov, a former top-10 player, practice for hours. However, his parents had difficulty finding a good coach for Andrei.
According to Mikhail, "It was not so easy. In the beginning me and Andrei would watch. We would make our own drills with a bag of old balls that we collected." Remembering Youzhny's early years, Sobkin said, "Mischa and Andrei were practising together all the time without coach". Sobkin continued: "In the beginning, Mischa is all the time crying. Not so many coaches want to work with boy with strong character like this. So, they would practise on one court for 15 minutes and comes a member so they must leave court and move to another court. Ten minutes maybe 20 minutes comes another member and like this all day. There was something in Mischa's eyes, a sparkle, maybe, I don't know. Sometimes the eyes tells more than parents. Of course, I did not see, but I could see he had something special." Youzhny played in his first junior tournament in April 1995 at the 8th Sochi International Junior Tournament, but lost in the first round to Andrei Stoliarov. He next played in a junior tournament—the Ozerov Cup—in 1997, where he reached the semifinals but lost to Belorussian Maxim Belski.
In the quarterfinals, Youzhny beat Nikolay Davydenko. He played doubles at the tournament, partnering with Davydenko. Youzhny's first junior tournament win came in August 1997, where he partnered with Igor Kunitsyn and defeated Josef Nesticky and Igor Ogrinc, he first won a junior singles tournament in February 1998. At Wimbledon, his first junior grand slam event, he lost to Andrej Kracman in the first round. At the US Open, he lost in the third round to David Nalbandian. At the junior Australian Open Youzhny defeated second-seed Jarkko Nieminen on his way to the final, which he lost in straight sets to Kristian Pless. Youzhny reached his highest junior world ranking of No. 20 in January 2000. Youzhny began, he reached his first ATP Challenger final in Cherbourg, but lost to Julien Boutter ranked 162 in the world. In May that year, Youzhny won his first ATP Challenger title in Samarkand, Uzbekistan, by defeating Jan Frode Andersen from Norway, his good form continued and he won his first ATP tour-level match at the 2000 edition of the Rosmalen Grass Court Championships by defeating 154-ranked Canadian Daniel Nestor.
He lost to the runner-up Nicolas Escudé. At the Kremlin Cup tournament in Moscow, Youzhny reached his first ATP tour-level quarterfinals, beating 36-ranked Frenchman Fabrice Santoro and 60-ranked Swede Thomas Johansson, but lost to Marc Rosset, 35th in the world, he ended. He reached the third round, where he lost to 49th-ranked Australian Andrew Ilie, who had beaten number nine seed Juan Carlos Ferrero in the second round, he continued his good form into February, reaching his first ATP tour-level semifinals at the 2000 Copenhagen Open, but lost to eventual runner-up Andreas Vinciguerra from Sweden. Playing at his first and only ATP Masters 1000 event that year in Monte Carlo, Youzhny reached the third round. At his French Open debut he lost in the first round to world number seventy-nine Jacobo Diaz from Spain. At the Queen's Club Championships, Youzhny defeated future world number one Andy Roddick in straight sets, but lost in the
Bratislava is the capital of Slovakia. With a population of about 430,000, it is one of the smaller capitals of Europe but still the country's largest city; the greater metropolitan area is home to more than 650,000 people. Bratislava is in southwestern Slovakia, occupying both banks of the River Danube and the left bank of the River Morava. Bordering Austria and Hungary, it is the only national capital; the city's history has been influenced by people of different nations and religions, namely Austrians, Croats, Germans, Jews and Slovaks. It was the coronation site and legislative center of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1536 to 1783, has been home to many Slovak and German historical figures. Bratislava is the political and economic centre of Slovakia, it is the seat of the parliament and the Slovak Executive. It has several universities, many museums, theatres and other cultural and educational institutions. Many of Slovakia's large businesses and financial institutions have headquarters there. In 2017, Bratislava was ranked as the third richest region of the European Union by GDP per capita.
GDP at purchasing power parity is about three times higher than in other Slovak regions. Bratislava receives around 1 million tourists every year; the city received its contemporary name in 1919. Until it was known in English by its German name, since after 1526 it was dominated by the Habsburg Monarchy and the city had a relevant ethnic-German population; that is the term from which the pre-1919 Czech names are derived. The city's Hungarian name, was given after the castle's first castellan, "Poson"; the origin of the name is unclear: it might come from the Czech Pos or the German Poscho, which are personal names. The medieval settlement Brezalauspurc is sometimes attributed to Bratislava, but the actual location of Brezalauspurc is under scholarly debate; the city's modern name is credited to Pavel Jozef Šafárik's misinterpretation of Braslav as Bratislav in his analysis of mediaeval sources, which led him to invent the term Břetislaw, which became Bratislav. During the revolution of 1918–1919, the name'Wilsonov' or'Wilsonstadt' was proposed by American Slovaks, as he supported national self-determination.
The name Bratislava, used only by some Slovak patriots, became official in March 1919. Other alternative names of the city in the past include Greek: Ιστρόπολις Istropolis, Czech: Prešpurk, French: Presbourg, Italian: Presburgo, Latin: Posonium, Romanian: Pojon and Serbo-Croatian: Požun / Пожун. In older documents, confusion can be caused by the Latin forms Bratislavia, Wratislavia etc. which refer to Wrocław, not Bratislava. The first known permanent settlement of the area began with the Linear Pottery Culture, around 5000 BC in the Neolithic era. About 200 BC, the Celtic Boii tribe founded the first significant settlement, a fortified town known as an oppidum, they established a mint, producing silver coins known as biatecs. The area fell under Roman influence from the 1st to the 4th century AD and was made part of the Danubian Limes, a border defence system; the Romans introduced grape growing to the area and began a tradition of winemaking, which survives to the present. The Slavs arrived from the East between the 6th centuries during the Migration Period.
As a response to onslaughts by Avars, the local Slavic tribes rebelled and established Samo's Empire, the first known Slavic political entity. In the 9th century, the castles at Bratislava and Devín were important centres of the Slavic states: the Principality of Nitra and Great Moravia. Scholars have debated the identification as fortresses of the two castles built in Great Moravia, based on linguistic arguments and because of the absence of convincing archaeological evidence; the first written reference to a settlement named "Brezalauspurc" dates to 907 and is related to the Battle of Pressburg, during which a Bavarian army was defeated by the Hungarians. It is connected to the fall of Great Moravia weakened by its own inner decline and under the attacks of the Hungarians; the exact location of the battle remains unknown, some interpretations place it west of Lake Balaton. In the 10th century, the territory of Pressburg became part of Hungary, it developed as a key administrative centre on the kingdom's frontier.
This strategic position destined the city to be the site of frequent attacks and battles, but brought it economic development and high political status. It was granted its first known "town privileges" in 1291 by the Hungarian King Andrew III, was declared a free royal town in 1405 by King Sigismund. In 1436 he authorized the town to use its own coat of arms; the Kingdom of Hungary was defeated by the Ottoman Empire in the Battle of Mohács in 1526. The Turks failed to conquer it. Owing to Ottoman advances into Hungarian territory, the city was designated the new capital of Hungary in 1536, after becoming part of the Habsburg Monarchy and marking the beginning of a new era; the city became a coronation town and the seat of kings, the nobility and all major organisations and offices. Between 1536 and 1830, eleven Hungarian kings and queens were crowned at St. Martin's Cathedral. The