Haryana is one of the 29 states in India, located in northern part of the country. It was carved out of the former state of East Punjab on 1 November 1966 on linguistic as well as on cultural basis, it is ranked 22nd in terms of area with less than 1.4% of India's land area. Chandigarh is the state capital, Faridabad in National Capital Region is the most populous city of the state and Gurugram is a leading financial hub of NCR with major Fortune 500 companies located in it. Haryana has 6 administrative divisions, 22 districts, 72 sub-divisions, 93 revenue tehsils, 50 sub-tehsils, 140 community development blocks, 154 cities and towns, 6,848 villages and 6222 villages panchayats; as the largest recipient of investment per capita since 2000 in India, among one of the wealthiest and most economically developed regions in South Asia, Haryana has the fifth highest per capita income among Indian states and UTs at ₹199,612 against the national average of ₹112,432 for year 2016–17. Haryana's 2019-20 estimated state GSDP of US$110 billion is growing at 12.96% 2012-17 CAGR and placed on the 13th position behind only much bigger states, is boosted by 30 SEZs, 7% national agricultural exports, 65% of national Basmati rice export, 67% cars, 60% motorbikes, 50% tractors and 50% refrigerators produced in India.
Faridabad has been described as eighth fastest growing city in the world and third most in India by City Mayors Foundation survey. In services, Gurugram ranks number 1 in India in IT growth rate and existing technology infrastructure, number 2 in startup ecosystem and livability. Among the world's oldest and largest ancient civilizations, the Indus Valley Civilization sites at Rakhigarhi village in Hisar district and Bhirrana in Fatehabad district are 9,000 years old. Rich in history, heritage and fauna, human resources and tourism with well developed economy, national highways and state roads, it is bordered by Himachal Pradesh to the north-east, by river Yamuna along its eastern border with Uttar Pradesh, by Rajasthan to the west and south, Ghaggar-Hakra River flows along its northern border with Punjab. Since Haryana surrounds the country's capital Delhi on three sides a large area of Haryana is included in the economically-important National Capital Region for the purposes of planning and development.
The name Haryana is found in the works of the 12th-century AD Apabhramsha writer Vibudh Shridhar. The name Haryana has been derived from the Sanskrit words Hari and ayana, meaning "the Abode of God". However, scholars such as Muni Lal, Murli Chand Sharma, HA Phadke and Sukhdev Singh Chib believe that the name comes from a compound of the words Hari and Aranya; the Vedic state of Brahmavarta is claimed to be located in south Haryana, where the initial Vedic scriptures were composed after the great floods some 10,000 years ago. Rakhigarhi village in Hisar district and Bhirrana in Fatehabad district are home to the largest and one of the world's oldest ancient Indus Valley Civilization sites, dated at over 9,000 years old. Evidence of paved roads, a drainage system, a large-scale rainwater collection storage system, terracotta brick and statue production, skilled metal working have been uncovered. According to archaeologists, Rakhigarhi may be the origin of Harappan civilisation, which arose in the Ghaggar basin in Haryana and and moved to the Indus valley.
Ancient bronze and stone idols of Jain Tirthankara were found in archaeological expeditions in Badli, Dadri, Hansi, Kasan, Narnaul, Rewari, Rohad and Sonepat in Haryana. After the sack of Bhatner fort during the Timurid conquests of India in 1398, Timur attacked and sacked the cities of Sirsa, Sunam and Panipat; when he reached the town of Sarsuti, the residents, who were non-Muslims and were chased by a detachment of Timur's troops, with thousands of them being killed and looted by the troops. From there he travelled to Fatehabad, whose residents fled and a large number of those remaining in the town were massacred; the Ahirs resisted him at Ahruni but were defeated, with thousands being killed and many being taken prisoners while the town was burnt to ashes. From there he travelled to Tohana, whose Jat inhabitants were stated to be robbers according to Sharaf ad-Din Ali Yazdi, they were defeated and fled. Timur's army killed 200 Jats, while taking many more as prisoners, he sent a detachment to chase the fleeing Jats and killed 2,000 of them while their wives and children were enslaved and their property plundered.
Timur proceeded to Kaithal whose residents were massacred and plundered, destroying all villages along the way. On the next day, he came to Assandh whose residents were "fire-worshippers" according to Yazdi, had fled to Delhi. Next he travelled to and subdued Tughlaqpur fort and Salwan before reaching Panipat whose residents had fled, he marched on to Loni fort. The area, now Haryana has been ruled by some of the major empires of India. Panipat is known for three seminal battles in the history of India. In the First Battle of Panipat, Babur defeated the Lodis. In the Second Battle of Panipat, Akbar defeated the local Haryanvi Hindu Emperor of Delhi, who belonged to Rewari. Hem Chandra Vikramaditya had earlier won 22 battles across India from Punjab to Bengal, defeating Mughals and Afghans. Hemu had defeat
Sialkot is a city in Punjab, Pakistan. Sialkot is Pakistan's 13th largest city and located 9 km from Ghuinke, is located in north-east Punjab — one of Pakistan's most industrialised regions. Along with the nearby cities of Gujranwala and Gujrat, Sialkot forms part of the so-called Golden Triangle of industrial cities with export-oriented economies. Sialkot is believed to be site of ancient Sagala, a city razed by Alexander the Great in 326 BCE, made capital of the Indo-Greek kingdom by Menander I in the 2nd century BCE – a time during which the city prospered as a major centre for trade and Buddhist thought. Sialkot continued to be a major political centre, until it was eclipsed by Lahore around the turn of the first millennium; the city rose again in prominence during the British era, is now one of Pakistan's most important industrial centres. Sialkot is wealthy relative to other cities in South Asia, with an estimated 2014 per capita income of $2800; the city has been noted by The Economist for its entrepreneurial spirit, productive business climate that have made Sialkot an example of a small Pakistani city that has emerged as a "world-class manufacturing hub."
The small city exported $2 billion worth of goods in 2015, or about 10% of Pakistan's total exports. Sialkot is home to the Sialkot International Airport – Pakistan's first owned public airport. Ambiguity regarding Sialkot's ancient history has resulted in the promulgation of various myths and legends to explain the city's origins. One tradition states that the city was founded as the capital city of the Madra kingdom by King Shalya - who served as a general in the central Kurukshetra War of the Mahabharata; the first record of Sialkot dates from the invasion of Alexander the Great, who conquered upper Punjab in 326 BCE. The Anabasis of Alexander, written by the Roman-Greek historian Arrian, recorded that Alexander captured ancient Sialkot, recorded as Sagala, from the Cathaeans, who had entrenched themselves there; the city had been home to 80,000 residents on the eve of Alexander's invasion, but was razed as a warning against any other nearby cities that might resist his invasion. The ancient city was rebuilt, made capital by the Indo-Greek king Menander I, of the Euthydemid dynasty, who ruled between 135 and 160 BCE.
The rebuilt city was shifted from the older city, as rebuilding on the same spot was considered an ill-omen. Under Menander's rule, the city prospered as a major trading centre renowned for its silk. Menander embraced Buddhism, in a process recorded in the Buddhist text Milinda Panha; the text offers an early description of the city's cityscape and status as a prosperous trade centre with numerous green spaces. Following his conversion, Sialkot developed as a major centre for Buddhist though. Ancient Sialkot was recorded by Ptolemy in his 1st century CE work, Geography, in which he refers to the city as Euthymedeia. Around 460 CE, the Hephthalites known as the White Huns, invaded the region from Central Asia, forcing the ruling family of nearby Taxila to seek refuge in Sialkot. Sialkot itself was soon captured, the city was made capital of the Hephthalite Empire around 515, during the reign of Toramana. During the reign of his son, the Hephthalite Empire reached its zenith; the Hepthalites were defeated in 528 by a coalition of princes led by Prince Yasodhara.
The city was visited by the Chinese traveller Xuanzang in 633, who recorded the city's name as She-kie-lo. Xuanzang reported that the city had been rebuilt 15 li, or 2.5 miles, away from the city ruined by Alexander the Great. During this time, Sialkot served as the political nucleus of the Punjab region; the city was invaded in 643 by Rajput princes from Jammu, who held the city until the Muslim invasions during the medieval era. Little was recorded of the city's history during the Rajput period, the city would not feature prominently again until the medieval period. Around the year 1000, Sialkot began to decline in importance as the nearby city of Lahore rose to prominence. Following to fall of Lahore to the Ghaznavid Empire in the early 11th century, the capital of the Hindu Shahi empire was shifted from Lahore to Sialkot. Ghaznavid expansion in northern Punjab encouraged local Khokhar tribes to stop paying tribute to the Rajas of Jammu. Sialkot became a part of the medieval Sultanate of Delhi after Muhammad Ghauri conquered Punjab in 1185.
Ghauri was unable to conquer the larger city of Lahore, but deemed Sialkot important enough to warrant a garrison. He extensively repaired the Sialkot Fort around the time of his conquest of Punjab, left the region in charge of Hussain Churmali while he returned to Ghazni. Sialkot was quickly laid siege to by Khokhar tribesmen, Khusrau Malik, the last Ghaznavid sultan, though he was defeated during Ghauri's return to Punjab in 1186. In the 1200s, Sialkot was the only area of western Punjab, ruled by the Mamluk Sultanate in Delhi; the area had been captured by the Ghauri prince Yildiz, but was recaptured by Sultan Iltutmish in 1217. Around 1223, Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu, the last king of the Khwarazmian dynasty of Central Asia that had fled invasion of Genghis Khan there captured Sialkot and Lahore, before being driven out by Iltutmish's forces towards Uch Sharif. During the 13th century, Imam Ali-ul-Haq, Sialkot's most revered Sufi warrior-saint, arrived from Arabia, began his missionary work in the region that converted large numbers of Hindus to Islam, thereby transforming Sialkot into a Muslim city.
The saint died in battle, is revered as a martyr. Sialkot fell to Shaykha Khokhar around 1414. Sialkot's population continued to grow in the 1400s under the rule of
Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee
The Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee is an organization in India responsible for the management of gurdwaras, Sikh places of worship in three states of Punjab and Himachal Pradesh and union territory of Chandigarh. SGPC administers Harmandir Sahib in Amritsar; the SGPC is governed by the chief minister of Punjab. The SGPC manages the security, facility maintenance and religious aspects of Gurdwaras as well as keeping archaeologically rare and sacred artifacts, including weapons, clothes and writings of the Sikh Gurus. Bibi Jagir Kaur became the first woman to be elected president of the SGPC for the second time in September 2004, she had held the same post from March 1999 to November 2000. In 1920 the emerging Akali leadership summoned a general assembly of the Sikhs holding all shades of opinion on 15 November 1920 in vicinity of the Akal Takht in Amritsar; the purpose of this assembly was to elect a representative committee of the Sikhs to administer the Harimandir Sahib Complex and other important historical gurdwaras.
Two days before the proposed conference the British government set up its own committee consisting of 36 Sikhs to manage the Harimandir Sahib. Sikhs held their scheduled meeting and elected a bigger committee consisting of 175 members and named it Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee; the members of the government appointed committee were included in it. Harbans Singh Attari became vice president and Sunder Singh Ramgarhia became secretary of the committee. By that time Master Tara Singh had started taking interest in Sikh religious affairs, he was one of the 175 members elected to the committee. The formation of Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee provided a focal point for the movement for the reformation of Sikh religious places; the Committee began to take over management of gurdwaras one by one, were resisted by incumbent mahants. Starting in late 1920, a large number of reformers both in urban and rural Punjab had joined to form separate and independent religious orders called jathas.
The primary purpose of a jatha was to gain control over local gurdwaras. A jatha under the command of a jathedar would occupy a shrine and try to take over management in its favor from its current incumbents. Sometimes the transfer went peacefully in the case of smaller Gurdwaras with less income resources; this was done sometimes with the threat of force. The Sikh leadership was aware of the importance of the press for the success of any movement, it enlisted the active support and sympathy of some of the important nationalist papers in the country like'The Independent', The Tribune, Kesri, Milap and Bande Matram. Two of the vernacular dailies Akali and the Akali-te-Pardesi, edited by Master Tara Singh played an important role, it brought the necessary awakening among the Sikh masses and prepared them to undertake the struggle for reform. With the direct and indirect support of the Central Sikh League, the Indian National Congress and the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, the Shiromani Akali Dal started a non-violent struggle against the government for the control of the Gurdwaras.
The reports of some immoral acts perpetrated at Tarn-Taran reached the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee at its meeting on 14 January 1921. A fortnight earlier a local jatha was beaten up and not allowed to perform kirtan at the gurdwara, it decided to send a jatha from Amritsar under Jathedar Teja Singh Bhuchar. Jathedar Kartar Singh Jhabbar with Akalis from'Khara Sauda Bar' joined him. On 25 January, a group of about forty workers took over the control of Sri Darbar Sahib Tarn-Taran from its Mahant. In the ensuing conflict two Akalis were killed and several others wounded by the henchmen of the Mahants; the Mahants were ousted from the Gurdwara and the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee appointed a managing committee. At the same time Malcolm Hailey, the governor of the Punjab showed his readiness to assist the Sikhs in taking possession of all the important Gurdwaras in the province through a five-member committee constituted by the Sikh members of the legislative council. Hailey presented a draft of a new Gurdwara Bill to the Akali leaders imprisoned in Lahore fort.
Master Tara Singh, Bhag singh Advocate, gurcharn singh Advocate, Teja Singh Akerpuri Sohan Singh Josh and Sardar Teja Singh Samundri studied each clause of the bill carefully. The bill met all the Akali demands and was passed into law on 28 July 1925 by the Governor General of India after its ratification by the Punjab legislative council; the Act came into force on 1 November 1925 with a gazette notification from the government of Punjab. According to the Act a Central Gurdwara Board elected by the Sikhs was to be the custodian of all-important Sikh places of worship; the first meeting of the Gurdwara board passed a resolution that its designation be changed to Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, accepted by the government. Thus ended what came to be known in common parlance as the'Third Sikh War'; the Punjab government withdrew its orders declaring the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee and other Akali organs as unlawful associations and recognized the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee as a representative body of the Sikhs.
In making the Punjab government agree to such recognition, the Akali leadership undoubtedly scored a victory over the bureaucracy. The Sikh Gurdwara bill met most of the demands of the Sikhs, but the government was willing to release the prisoners conditionally i.e. on the understanding to be given by the Akalis that they would agree to work for the Gurdwara Act. The Shiromani Akali Dal and the executive declared conditions imposed for the release of prisoners as wholly unnecessar
Partition of India
The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions and Pakistan. The Dominion of India became, as of 1950, the Republic of India, the Dominion of Pakistan became, as of 1956, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan In 1971, the People's Republic of Bangladesh came into being after Bangladesh Liberation War; the partition involved the division of three provinces, Assam and Punjab, based on district-wide Hindu or Muslim majorities. The boundary demarcating India and Pakistan came to be known as the Radcliffe Line, it involved the division of the British Indian Army, the Royal Indian Navy, the Indian Civil Service, the railways, the central treasury, between the two new dominions. The partition was set forth in the Indian Independence Act 1947 and resulted in the dissolution of the British Raj, as the British government there was called; the two self-governing countries of Pakistan and India came into existence at midnight on 14–15 August 1947.
The partition displaced over 14 million people along religious lines, creating overwhelming refugee crises in the newly constituted dominions. The violent nature of the partition created an atmosphere of hostility and suspicion between India and Pakistan that plagues their relationship to the present; the term partition of India does not cover the secession of Bangladesh from Pakistan in 1971, nor the earlier separations of Burma and Ceylon from the administration of British India. The term does not cover the political integration of princely states into the two new dominions, nor the disputes of annexation or division arising in the princely states of Hyderabad and Jammu and Kashmir, though violence along religious lines did break out in some princely states at the time of the partition, it does not cover the incorporation of the enclaves of French India into India during the period 1947–1954, nor the annexation of Goa and other districts of Portuguese India by India in 1961. Other contemporaneous political entities in the region in 1947, Bhutan and the Maldives were unaffected by the partition.
In 1905, the viceroy, Lord Curzon, in his second term, divided the largest administrative subdivision in British India, the Bengal Presidency, into the Muslim-majority province of East Bengal and Assam and the Hindu-majority province of Bengal. Curzon's act, the Partition of Bengal—which some considered administratively felicitous, contemplated by various colonial administrations since the time of Lord William Bentinck, but never acted upon—was to transform nationalist politics as nothing else before it; the Hindu elite of Bengal, among them many who owned land in East Bengal, leased out to Muslim peasants, protested fervidly. The large Bengali Hindu middle-class, upset at the prospect of Bengalis being outnumbered in the new Bengal province by Biharis and Oriyas, felt that Curzon's act was punishment for their political assertiveness; the pervasive protests against Curzon's decision took the form predominantly of the Swadeshi campaign and involved a boycott of British goods. Sporadically—but flagrantly—the protesters took to political violence that involved attacks on civilians.
The violence, was not effective, as most planned attacks were either preempted by the British or failed. The rallying cry for both types of protest was the slogan Bande Mataram, the title of a song by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, which invoked a mother goddess, who stood variously for Bengal and the Hindu goddess Kali; the unrest spread from Calcutta to the surrounding regions of Bengal when Calcutta's English-educated students returned home to their villages and towns. The religious stirrings of the slogan and the political outrage over the partition were combined as young men, in groups such as Jugantar, took to bombing public buildings, staging armed robberies, assassinating British officials. Since Calcutta was the imperial capital, both the outrage and the slogan soon became nationally known; the overwhelming, but predominantly Hindu, protest against the partition of Bengal and the fear, in its wake, of reforms favouring the Hindu majority, now led the Muslim elite in India, in 1906, to meet with the new viceroy, Lord Minto, to ask for separate electorates for Muslims.
In conjunction, they demanded proportional legislative representation reflecting both their status as former rulers and their record of cooperating with the British. This led, to the founding of the All-India Muslim League in Dacca. Although Curzon, by now, had resigned his position over a dispute with his military chief Lord Kitchener and returned to England, the League was in favour of his partition plan; the Muslim elite's position, reflected in the League's position, had crystallized over the previous three decades, beginning with the 1871 Census of British India, which had first estimated the populations in regions of Muslim majority. In the three decades since that census, Muslim leaders across northern India, had intermittently experienced public animosity from some of the new Hindu p
The Cellular Jail known as Kālā Pānī, was a colonial prison in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. The prison was used by the British to exile political prisoners to the remote archipelago. Many notable freedom fighters such as Batukeshwar Dutt, Yogendra Shukla and Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, among others, were imprisoned here during the struggle for India's independence. Today, the complex serves as a national memorial monument. Although the prison complex itself was constructed between 1896 and 1906, the British had been using the Andaman islands as a prison since the days in the immediate aftermath of the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857. Shortly after the rebellion was suppressed, the British executed many rebels; those who survived were exiled for life to the Andamans to prevent their re-offending. Two hundred rebels were transported to the islands under the custody of the jailer David Barry and Major James Pattison Walker, a military doctor, warden of the prison at Agra. Another 733 from Karachi arrived in April, 1868.
In 1863, the Rev. Henry Fisher Corbyn, of the Bengal Ecclesiastical Establishment, was sent out there and he set up the'Andamanese Home' there, a repressive institution albeit disguised as a charitable one. Rev. Corbyn was posted in 1866 as Vicar to St. Luke's Church and died there and is buried at the Old Christian Cemetery, Abbottabad. More prisoners arrived from Burma as the settlement grew. Anyone who belonged to the Mughal royal family, or who had sent a petition to Bahadur Shah Zafar during the Rebellion was liable to be deported to the islands; the remote islands were considered to be a suitable place to punish the independence activists. Not only were they isolated from the mainland, the overseas journey to the islands threatened them with loss of caste, resulting in social exclusion; the convicts could be used in chain gangs to construct prisons and harbour facilities. Many died in this enterprise, they served to colonise the island for the British. By the late 19th century the independence movement had picked up momentum.
As a result, the number of prisoners being sent to the Andamans grew and the need for a high-security prison was felt. From August 1889 Charles James Lyall served as home secretary in the Raj government, was tasked with an investigation of the penal settlement at Port Blair, he and A. S. Lethbridge, a surgeon in the British administration, concluded that the punishment of transportation to the Andaman Islands was failing to achieve the purpose intended and that indeed criminals preferred to go there rather than be incarcerated in Indian jails. Lyall and Lethbridge recommended that a "penal stage" should exist in the transportation sentence, whereby transported prisoners were subjected to a period of harsh treatment upon arrival; the outcome was the construction of the Cellular Jail, described as "a place of exclusion and isolation within a more broadly constituted remote penal space." The construction of the prison started in 1896 and was completed in 1906. The original building was a puce-colored brick building.
The bricks used to build the building were brought from Burma. The building had seven wings, at the centre of which a tower served as the intersection and was used by guards to keep watch on the inmates; the wings radiated from the tower in straight lines, much like the spokes of a bicycle wheel. A large bell was kept in the tower to raise an alarm; each of the seven wings had three stories upon completion. There were a total of 696 cells; each cell was 4.5 by 2.7 metres in size with a ventilator located at a height of 3 metres. The name, "cellular jail", derived from the solitary cells which prevented any prisoner from communicating with any other; the spokes were so designed such that the face of a cell in a spoke saw the back of cells in another spoke. This way, communication between prisoners was impossible, they were all in solitary confinement. "For the best part of a century, the British Raj sent Indian dissidents and mutineers to a remote island penal colony in an'experiment' that involved torture, medical tests, forced labour and, for many, death."
It is estimated that of the total 80,000 political prisioners, the British Raj held at the Kalapani, a few survived. Solitary confinement was implemented as the British government desired to ensure that political prisoners and revolutionaries be isolated from one another; the Andaman island served as the ideal setting for the government to achieve this. Most prisoners of the Cellular Jail were independence activists; some inmates were Fazl-e-Haq Khairabadi, Yogendra Shukla, Batukeshwar Dutt, Babarao Savarkar, Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, Sachindra Nath Sanyal, Bhai Parmanand, Sohan Singh and Subodh Roy. Several revolutionaries were tried in the Alipore Case, such as Barindra Kumar Ghose, the surviving companion of Bagha Jatin, was transferred to Berhampore Jail in Bengal, before his mysterious death in 1924; the Savarkar brothers and Vinayak, didn't know that they were in different cells in the same jail for two years. In March 1868, 238 prisoners tried to escape. By April they were all caught. One committed suicide and of the remainder Superintendent Walker ordered 87 to be hanged.
Among the records of the Government of India's Home Department, we found the Empire's response in its Orders to Provincial Governors and Chief Commissioners. "Very Secret: Regarding security prisoners who hunger strike, every effort should be made to prevent the incidents from being reported, no concessions to be given to the prisoners who must be kept alive. Manual methods of restraint are best mechanical whe
Karnal district is one of the 22 districts of Haryana state in northern India. Karnal town is the administrative headquarters of the district, it is one of the 22 Districts. According to the 2011 census Karnal district has a population of 1,506,323 equal to the nation of Gabon or the US state of Hawaii; this gives it a ranking of 333rd in India. The district has a population density of 598 inhabitants per square kilometre, its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 18.22%. Karnal has a sex ratio of 996 females for every 1,000 males, a literacy rate of 74.73%. Hindi and Punjabi are dominant languages spoken across the district. Kalpana Chawla, first Indo-American woman astronaut. In 2003, Chawla was one of the seven crew members that died in the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan, first Prime Minister of Pakistan. Vikramjeet Virk, Indian actor. Gagsina Chakda Salwan Karnal City Details
Maharaja Ranjit Singh was the leader of the Sikh Empire, which ruled the northwest Indian subcontinent in the early half of the 19th century. He lost sight in his left eye, he fought his first battle alongside his father at age 10. After his father died, he fought several wars to expel the Afghans in his teenage years and was proclaimed as the "Maharaja of Punjab" at age 21, his empire grew in the Punjab region under his leadership through 1839. Prior to his rise, the Punjab region had numerous warring misls, twelve of which were under Sikh rulers and one Muslim. Ranjit Singh absorbed and united the Sikh misls and took over other local kingdoms to create the Sikh Empire, he defeated invasions by outside armies those arriving from Afghanistan, established friendly relations with the British. Ranjit Singh's reign introduced reforms, investment into infrastructure and general prosperity, his Khalsa army and government included Sikhs, Hindus and Europeans. His legacy includes a period of Sikh cultural and artistic renaissance, including the rebuilding of the Harimandir Sahib in Amritsar as well as other major gurudwaras, including Takht Sri Patna Sahib and Hazur Sahib Nanded, Maharashtra under his sponsorship.
He was popularly known as Sher-e-Punjab, or "Lion of Punjab". Maharaja Ranjit Singh was succeeded by his son Maharaja Kharak Singh. Ranjit Singh was born on 13 November 1780, to Maha Singh Sukerchakia and Raj Kaur – the daughter of Raja Gajpat Singh of Jind, in Gujranwala, in the Majha region of Punjab. Several different clans have claimed Ranjit Singh as their own, his grand-daughters - the daughters of his son Duleep Singh - believed that their true ancestors belonged to the Sandhawalia family of Raja Sansi. Ranjit Singh has been described as "Sansi" in some records, which has led to claims that he belonged to the low-caste Sansi tribe. However, it is more that he belonged to a Jat gotra named Sansi: the Sandhawalias, who claimed Rajput descent, belonged to the same gotra. Ranjit Singh's birth name was Buddh Singh, after his ancestor, a disciple of Guru Gobind Singh, a Khalsa, whose descendants created the Sukerchakia misl before the birth of Ranjit Singh, which became the most powerful of many small Sikh kingdoms in northwestern Southern Asia in the wake of the disintegrating Mughal Empire.
The child's name was changed to Ranjit by his father to commemorate his army's victory over the Muslim Chatha chieftain Pir Muhammad. Ranjit Singh contracted smallpox as an infant, which resulted in the loss of sight in his left eye and a pockmarked face, he was short in stature, never schooled, did not learn to read or write anything beyond the Gurmukhi alphabet, however, he was trained at home in horse riding and other martial arts. At age 12, his father died, he inherited his father's Sukerchakia misl estates and was raised by his mother Raj Kaur, along with Lakhpat Rai managed the estates. The first attempt on his life was made when he was 13, by Hashmat Khan, but Ranjit Singh prevailed and killed the assailant instead. At age 18, his mother died and Lakhpat Rai was assassinated, thereon he was helped by his mother-in-law from his first marriage. In his teens, Ranjit Singh took to alcohol, a habit that intensified in the decades of his life, according to the chronicles of his court historians and the Europeans who visited him.
However, he neither smoked nor ate beef, required all officials in his court, regardless of their religion, to adhere to these restrictions as part of their employment contract. Ranjit Singh married many times, in various ceremonies, had twenty wives; some scholars note that the information on Ranjit Singh's marriages is unclear, there is evidence that he had many mistresses. According to Khushwant Singh in an 1889 interview with the French journal Le Voltaire, his son Dalip Singh remarked, "I am the son of one of my father's forty-six wives". At age 15, Ranjit Singh married his first wife Mehtab Kaur, the only daughter of Gurbaksh Singh Kanhaiya and his wife Sada Kaur, the granddaughter of Jai Singh Kanhaiya, the founder of the Kanhaiya Misl; this marriage was pre-arranged in an attempt to reconcile warring Sikh misls, wherein Mahtab Kaur was betrothed to Ranjit Singh. However, the marriage failed, with Mehtab Kaur never forgiving the fact that her father had been killed by Ranjit Singh's father and she lived with her mother after marriage.
The separation became complete when Ranjit Singh married his second wife Raj Kaur of Nakai Misl in 1798. Mehtab Kaur died in 1813. Raj Kaur, the daughter of Sardar Ran Singh Nakai, the third ruler of Nakai Misl, was Ranjit Singh's second wife and the mother of his heir, Kharak Singh, she changed her name from Raj Kaur to avoid confusion with Ranjit Singh's mother. Throughout her life she remained the favourite of Ranjit Singh. Like his first marriage, the second marriage brought him a strategic military alliance, his second wife died in 1818. Ratan Kaur and Daya Kaur were wives of Sahib Singh Bhangi of Gujrat. After Sahib Singh's death, Ranjit Singh took them under his protection in 1811 by marrying them via the rite of chādar andāzī, in which a cloth sheet was unfurled over each of their heads. Ratan Kaur gave birth to Multana Singh in 1819, Daya Kaur gave birth to Kashmira Singh in 1819 and to Pashaura Singh in 1821, his other wives include Moran Sarkar in 1802, Chand Kaur in 1815, Lakshmi in 1820, Mehatab Kaur in 1822, Saman Kaur in 1832, as well as Guddan, Gulbahar, Ram Devi, Bannat and Danno before his l