Pact of Biak-na-Bato
Aguinaldo and his fellow revolutionaries were given amnesty and monetary indemnity by the Spanish Government, in return for which the revolutionary government would go into exile in Hong Kong. Aguinaldo had decided to use the money to purchase advance firearms and ammunition on return to the archipelago. According to Aguinaldo, writing in 1899, the conditions of the pact were, That I. The latter part of February was fixed as the limit of time wherein the surrender of arms should be completed. The whole of the money was to be paid to me personally, leaving the disposal of the money to my discretion and knowledge of the understanding with my associates and other insurgents. That Primo de Rivera would pay the sum of P900,000 to the families of the non-combatant Filipinos who suffered during the armed conflict. According to historian Sonia M. Zaide, the agreement consisted of three parts, A document called Program, generally as described by Agoncillo. In accordance with the first part of the pact, the rest of the men received $200,000, but the third installment was never received.
General amnesty was never declared because sporadic skirmishes continued, Teodoro, History of the Filipino People, R. P. Garcia Publishing Company, ISBN 971-10-2415-2 Don Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy, Chapter II. The Treaty of Biak-na-bató, True Version of the Philippine Revolution, Public Domain Books, retrieved 23 September 2008 Halstead, the American Army in Manila, The Story of the Philippines and Our New Possessions Zaide, Sonia M. The Philippines, a nation, All-Nations Publishing, ISBN 978-971-642-071-5
Treaty of Paris (1898)
The cession of the Philippines involved a payment of $20 million from the United States to Spain. The treaty was signed on December 10,1898, and ended the Spanish–American War, the Treaty of Paris came into effect on April 11,1899, when the documents of ratification were exchanged. The Treaty of Paris marked the end of the Spanish Empire and it marked the beginning of the age of the United States as a world power. Many supporters of the war opposed the treaty, and it one of the major issues in the election of 1900 when it was opposed by Democrat William Jennings Bryan because he opposed imperialism. Republican President William McKinley upheld the treaty and was easily reelected, the Spanish–American War began on April 25,1898 due to a series of escalating disputes between the two nations, and ended on December 10,1898 with the signing of the Treaty of Paris. It resulted in Spains loss of its control over the remains of its overseas empire, after much of mainland Latin America had achieved independence, Cuba tried its hand at revolution in 1868–1878, and again in the 1890s, led by José Martí, or El Apóstol.
Martí returned to Cuba and participated at first in the struggles against the Spanish government, the Philippines at this time became resistant to Spanish colonial rule. August 26,1896 presented the first call to revolt, led by Andrés Bonifacio, succeeded by Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy, Bonifacio was executed on May 10,1897. Aguinaldo negotiated the Pact of Biak-na-Bato with the Spaniards and was exiled to Hong Kong along with the revolutionary leaders. The Spanish–American War that followed had overwhelming U. S. public support due to the popular fervor towards supporting Cuban freedom as well as furthering U. S. economic interests overseas, the U. S. was particularly attracted to the developing sugar industry in Cuba. The U. S. military even resorted to falsifying reports in the Philippines in order to maintain support for U. S. involvement abroad. The Philippines stand upon a different basis, without any original thought of complete or even partial acquisition, the presence and success of our arms at Manila imposes upon us obligations which we cannot disregard.
The march of events rules and overrules human action, incidental to our tenure in the Philippines is the commercial opportunity to which American statesmanship cannot be indifferent. It is just to use legitimate means for the enlargement of American trade. In view of what has been stated, the United States cannot accept less than the cession in full right and sovereignty of the island of Luzon. 1,1898, and proceed to the negotiation and conclusion of a treaty of peace, the composition of the American commission was somewhat unusual in that three of its members were Senators. The American delegation members were, William R. Day, the negotiations were conducted in a suite of rooms at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The Americans refused to consider this and for the moment it was pursued no further, felipe Agoncillo, a Filipino lawyer representing the First Philippine Republic, was denied participation in the negotiation
The Political Constitution of 1899, informally known as the Malolos Constitution, was the basic law of the First Philippine Republic. It was written by Felipe Calderón y Roca and Felipe Buencamino as an alternative to a pair of proposals to the Malolos Congress by Apolinario Mabini, after a lengthy debate in the latter part of 1898, it was enacted on 21 January 1899. Over 300 years of Spanish rule, the country developed from an overseas colony governed from the Viceroyalty of New Spain to a land with modern elements in the cities. The Spanish-speaking middle classes of the 19th century were mostly educated in the European ideas, including Liberalism, many studying in Spain and elsewhere in Europe. During the 1890s, the Katipunan, or KKK, a society dedicated to achieving Philippine independence from Spain, was formed and led by Andres Bonifacio. When the KKK was discovered by Spanish authorities, Bonifacio issued the Cry of Balintawak which began the Philippine Revolution in 1896, the revolutionary forces took steps to form a functioning government called the Republic of Biak-na-Bato.
In 1897 the Tejeros Convention was convened and the Constitution of Biak-na-Bato drafted and ratified and it was drafted by Isabelo Artacho and Félix Ferrer and based on the first Constitution of Cuba. However, it was never fully implemented, after several battles between the Spanish and Philippine Revolutionary Army, a truce was signed called the Pact of Biak-na-Bato in 1897. Emilio Aguinaldo and other revolutionary leaders accepted a payment from Spain, on May 1,1898, the American force defeated the Spanish in the Battle of Manila Bay. Later that month, the U. S. Navy transported Aguinaldo back to the Philippines, Aguinaldo took control of the newly re-formed Philippine revolutionary forces and quickly surrounded Manila on land while the American blockaded the city from the bay. On June 12, Aquinaldo issued the Philippine Declaration of Independence, elections were held from June 23 to September 10,1898 for a new national legislature, the Malolos Congress. They were all wealthy and well educated, the Political Constitution of 1899 is written in Spanish which was the official language of the Philippines at the time.
It is composed of ninety-three articles divided into fourteen titles, with eight articles with transitory provisions. The style of the document is patterned after the Spanish Constitution of 1812, the twenty-seven articles of Title IV details the natural rights and popular sovereignty of Filipinos. The list is extensive, encompassing not just civil liberties and negative liberties, but protections against self-incrimination and this concept of constitutionally defining what is essentially administrative action is not unique to the Malolos constitution. Calderón mentions in his journal that the constitution was meant to enshrine, all those freedoms that Englishmen enjoyed in the Assize of Clarendon. According to Title III, Article 5 of the Malolos constitution, The State recognizes the freedom and equality of all beliefs, as well as the separation of Church and State. Any two or more of three powers shall never be united in one person or cooperation, nor the legislative power vested in one single individual
American Anti-Imperialist League
The American Anti-Imperialist League was an organization established on June 15,1898, to battle the American annexation of the Philippines as an insular area. The anti-imperialists opposed expansion, believing that imperialism violated the principle that just republican government must derive from consent of the governed. The idea for an Anti-Imperialist League was born in the spring of 1898, on June 2, retired Massachusetts banker James E. An opponent of the Spanish–American War, Bradford decried what he saw as an insane, bradfords organizing efforts proved successful, and on June 15,1898 his protest meeting against the adoption of an imperial policy by the United States was held. The June 15 meeting gave rise to a four member organizing committee known as the Anti-Imperialist Committee of Correspondence. A letter-writing campaign attempting to involve editors of newspapers and magazines was initiated, the Anti-Imperialist League was administered by three permanent officers—a President and Treasurer—working in conjunction with a six-member Executive Committee.
Unsurprisingly given the origins of the organization, the initial members of this leadership group all hailed from the Boston metropolitan area. Practical day-to-day executive operations were placed in the hands of Secretary Erving Winslow and this post was essentially ceremonial but was important in providing legitimacy to the organization. During the first half of 1899 the number of paper Vice-Presidents of the League was boosted to 40, with a number of leading politicians, included among these were religious philosopher Felix Adler, former Iowa Governor William Larrabee, Republican Congressman Henry U. Johnson, and Stanford University president David Starr Jordan, shortly after this expansion the Executive Committee of the League voted to move the offices of the organization to Washington, D. C. to be better situated for influencing American political leaders. Despite this decision to establish a nexus in the nations capital, the decision to move to Washington was made moot with the establishment of an autonomous Washington Anti-Imperialist League in the fall of 1899.
This affiliated group concentrated its efforts upon the lobbying of national politicians, the Anti-Imperialist League would remain based in Boston for the duration of its existence. The Anti-Imperialist League attempted to establish a network of organizations in an effort to decentralize. The groups largest and most influential local affiliates were located in New York City, Washington, DC, Minneapolis, Portland and Los Angeles. In February 1899 the national office of the Anti-Imperialist League would peg the groups membership at considerably over 25,000. The total number of branches of the group was reckoned as at least 100 by November of that year. Local groups maintained a degree of autonomy and often had unique local monikers, including the American League of Philadelphia. The roster of officers of the New York branch was nearly as expansive and impressive as that of the original Boston organization, despite this formal organizational change, the Boston office remained the leading center of the anti-imperialist movement nationwide
Republic of Negros
The Republic of Negros was a short-lived revolutionary republic, and later, an administrative division, which existed while the Philippines was under Spanish and American sovereignty. It took its name from Negros Island, from 3 November to 6 November 1898, the people of Negros rose in revolt against the Spanish authorities headed by politico-military governor, colonel Isidro de Castro. The Spaniards decided to surrender upon seeing armed troops marching in a movement towards Bacolod. By the afternoon of 6 November, colonel de Castro signed the Act of Capitulation, on November 27,1898, the unicameral Chamber of Deputies met in Bacolod and declared the establishment of the Cantonal Republic of Negros. The Chamber of Deputies acted as a Constituent Assembly to draft a constitution, with the looming invasion of the United States Army, President Aniceto Lacson raised the American flag in the Casa Real to welcome the army as a friendly force. On 22 July 1899, it was renamed the Republic of Negros, Negros Revolution Negros The opposition to the Americans and the Canton Republic of Negros
Jones Law (Philippines)
The Jones Law was an Organic Act passed by the United States Congress. The law replaced the Philippine Organic Act of 1902 and acted as a constitution of the Philippines from its enactment until 1934, the Jones Law created the first fully elected Philippine legislature. The law provides that the grant of independence would come only as soon as a government can be established. The law changed the Philippine Legislature into the Philippines first fully elected body, the 1902 Philippine Organic Act provided for an elected lower house, while the upper house was appointed. The Jones Law provided for both houses to be elected and changed the name of the Assembly to the House of Representatives, the executive branch continued to be headed by an appointed Governor General of the Philippines, always an American. Elections were held on October 3,1916 to the newly created Philippine Senate, elections to the Philippine Assembly had already been held on June 6,1916, and those elected automatically became members of the House of Representatives.
In 1898, the Philippines were ceded by Spain to the United States, the ultimate goal for the Philippines was independence. U. S. Woodrow Wilson said, during the 1912 election campaign which made him US President, The Philippines are at present our frontier but I hope we presently are to deprive ourselves of that frontier. Even before the 1912 elections, U. S. House Committee on Insular Affairs Chairman William Atkinson Jones attempted to launch a bill which set a date for Philippine independence. Manuel L. Quezon was one of the Philippines two resident commissioners to the US House of Representatives, Jones delayed to launch his bill, so Quezon drafted the first of two Jones Bills. Wilson had informed Quezon of his hostility to any fixed timetable for independence, the bill passed the House in October 1913 and went to the Senate, backed by Harrison, US Secretary of War Lindley Garrison, and Wilson. A final version of the bill was signed into US law by Wilson on August 29,1916, after amendment by the Senate, among the provisions of the law was the creation of an all-Filipino legislature.
It created the Philippine Senate to replace the Philippine Commission, which had served as the chamber of the legislature. Hare–Hawes–Cutting Act Commonwealth of the Philippines Jones–Shafroth Act The Philippine Autonomy Act, corpus Juris online Philippine law library
Philippine Revolutionary Army
The Philippine Revolutionary Army was founded on March 22,1897 in Cavite. General Artemio Ricarte was designated as its first Captain General during the Tejeros Convention and this armed force of General Emilio Aguinaldos central revolutionary government replaced the Katipunan militia. The revolutionary army used the 1896 edition of the Spanish regular armys Ordenanza del Ejército to organize its forces, Filipino artist Juan Luna is credited with this design. His brother, General Antonio Luna commissioned him with the task, Juan Luna designed the collar insignia for the uniforms, distinguishing between the services, cavalry, artillery and medics. At least one researcher has postulated that Juan Luna may have patterned the tunic after the English Norfolk jacket, Infantry officers wore blue pants with a black stripe down the side, while Cavalry officers wore red trousers with black stripes. When the Philippine–American War erupted on February 4,1899, the Filipino army suffered heavy losses on every sector, even Antonio Luna urged Apolinario Mabini, Aguinaldos chief adviser, to convince the President that guerrilla warfare must be announced as early as April 1899.
Aguinaldo adopted guerilla tactics on November 13,1899, dissolving what remained of the regular army, the main weapon of the new Filipino army was the Spanish M93, the standard infantry arm of the Spanish, and the Remington Spanish rifle. Crew-served weapons of the Philippine military included lantakas, Krupp guns, Hontoria guns, an Ordóñez gun, Hotchkiss guns, Nordenfelt guns, Maxim guns, and Colt guns. Also, there were improvised artillery weapons made of water pipes reinforced with bamboo or timber, the evolution of Philippine revolutionary insignia can be divided into three basic periods, early Katipunan, late Katipunan and the Republican army. During the revolution against Spain, the Katipunan gave leaflets to the people to them to join the revolution. Since the revolutionaries had become regular soldiers at the time of Emilio Aguinaldo, they started to recruit males and some females aged 15, during the existence of the Revolutionary Army, over 100 individuals were appointed to General Officer grades.
For details, see the List of Filipino generals in the Philippine Revolution, Colonel Agapito Bonzón Colonel Felipe Salvador – Commander of the Santa Iglesia faction. Colonel Apolinar Vélez Colonel Alejandro Avecilla Colonel Francisco Paco Román – Aide to Lieutenant General Antonio Luna, Colonel Manuel Bernal – Aide to Lieutenant General Antonio Luna. Colonel Pablo Tecson – Leader, Battle of Quingua, Colonel Alipio Tecson – Supreme Military Commander of Tarlac in 1900 and exiled to Guam. Colonel Simón Tecson – Leader of Siege of Baler, signatory of the Biak-na-Bato Constitution, Colonel Simeón Villa Colonel Luciano San Miguel Colonel José Tagle – Known for his role in the Battle of Imus. Lieutenant Colonel Lázaro Macapagal – Commanding officer in-charge at the execution of Andrés, Lieutenant Colonel José Torres Bugallón – Hero of the Battle of La Loma. Lieutenant Colonel Regino Díaz Relova – Fought as one of the heads of columns under General Juan Cailles in the Laguna province, Captain José Bernal – Aide to Lieutenant General Antonio Luna.
Captain Eduardo Rusca – Aide to Lieutenant General Antonio Luna, Captain Pedro Janolino – Commanding Officer of the Kawit Battalion
El Filibusterismo, known by its English alternative title The Reign of Greed, is the second novel written by Philippine national hero José Rizal. It is the sequel to Noli me tangere and, like the first book, was written in Spanish and it was first published in 1891 in Ghent. The novel, along with its predecessor, was banned in parts of the Philippines as a result of their portrayals of the Spanish governments abuse. These novels along with Rizals involvement in organizations that aim to address and reform the Spanish system and its issues led to Rizals exile to Dapitan, both the novel and its predecessor, along with Rizals last poem, are now considered Rizals literary masterpieces. These novels on became the inspiration to start the Philippine Revolution. Abandoning his idealism, he becomes a saboteur, seeking revenge against the Spanish Philippine system responsible for his misfortunes by plotting a revolution. Simoun insinuates himself into Manila high society and influences every decision of the Captain-General to mismanage the country’s affairs so that a revolution will break out.
He cynically sides with the classes, encouraging them to commit abuses against the masses to encourage the latter to revolt against the oppressive Spanish colonial regime. This time, he not attempt to fight the authorities through legal means. His two reasons for instigating a revolution are at first, to rescue María Clara from the convent and second, a now grown-up Basilio visits the grave of his deranged mother, Sisa, in a forested land owned by the Ibarra family one evening. Near the grave site, Simoun digs for his buried treasures and his identity is discovered by Basilio when the two happen to meet up just as the latter leaves Sisas grave to go home. Basilio declines the offer as he hopes that the country’s condition will improve. Basilio, at point, is a graduating medical student at the Ateneo Municipal. After the death of his mother and the disappearance of his brother, Crispín, Basilio heeded the advice of the dying boatman, Elías. Basilio was adopted by Capitan Tiago after María Clara entered the convent, Capitan Tiago’s confessor, Father Irene is making Captain Tiago’s health worse by giving him opium even as Basilio tries hard to prevent Capitan Tiago from smoking it.
Dejected and defeated, they hold a celebration at a pancitería while a spy for the friars witnesses the proceedings. Basilio, did not show up during the event, for his part, keeps in close contact with the bandit group of Kabesang Tales, a former cabeza de barangay who suffered misfortunes at the hands of the friars. Once a farmer owning a prosperous sugarcane plantation and a cabeza de barangay, he was forced to give everything he had owned to the greedy, unscrupulous Spanish friars, before joining the bandits, Tales took Simoun’s revolver while Simoun was staying at his house for the night