Morning Glory cloud
The Morning Glory cloud is a rare meteorological phenomenon consisting of a low-level atmospheric solitary wave and associated cloud observed in different locations around the world. The wave occurs as an amplitude-ordered series of waves forming bands of roll clouds; the southern part of the Gulf of Carpentaria in Northern Australia is the only known location where it can be predicted and observed on a more or less regular basis due to the configuration of land and sea in the area. Morning Glory clouds can be observed from Burketown from late September to early November; the town attracts glider pilots intent on riding this phenomenon. There are only a handful of well formed spectacular clouds during this period at Burketown. During the 2012 season there were only four to be seen from there, but quite a few ragged unspectacular cloud lines were seen, they start to break up before arriving at Burketown or pass to the north and only stay well formed over water. In an aircraft there is a better chance of sighting the cloud.
A Morning Glory cloud is a roll cloud, or arcus cloud, that can be up to 1,000 kilometres long,1 to 2 kilometres high only 100 to 200 metres above the ground. The cloud travels at the rate of 10 to 20 metres per second. Sometimes there is only one cloud, sometimes there are up to ten consecutive roll clouds. Three distinct types of Morning Glory clouds have been identified; the Morning Glory is accompanied by sudden wind squalls, intense low-level wind shear, a rapid increase in the vertical displacement of air parcels, a sharp pressure jump at the surface. Cloud is continuously formed at the leading edge while being eroded at the trailing edge. Showers or thunderstorms may develop in its wake. In the front of the cloud, there is strong vertical motion that transports air up through the cloud and creates the rolling appearance, while the air in the middle and rear of the cloud becomes turbulent and sinks; the cloud dissipates over land where the air is drier. The cloud can be described as a solitary wave or a soliton or an undular bore, a wave that has a single crest and moves without changing speed or shape.
As such, it is the world's biggest wave. The wave may occur without the appearance of any clouds. Unusual cloud formations have been noticed here since ancient times; the local Garrawa Aboriginal people called. Royal Australian Air Force pilots first reported this phenomenon in 1942; the Morning Glory cloud of the Gulf of Carpentaria has been studied by multiple teams of scientists since the early 1970s. The first studies were published by Reg H. Clarke. Multiple studies have followed since proposing diverse mathematical models explaining the complex movements of air masses in the region; the Morning Glory cloud is not understood because its rarity means it has little significance in terms of rainfall or climate. Regardless of the complexity behind the nature of this atmospheric phenomenon, some conclusions have been made about its causes. Through research, one of the main causes of most Morning Glory occurrences is the mesoscale circulations associated with sea breezes that develop over the peninsula and the gulf.
On the large scale, Morning Glories are associated with frontal systems crossing central Australia and high pressure in northern Australia. Locals have noted that the Morning Glory is to occur when the humidity in the area is high, which provides moisture for the cloud to form, when strong sea breezes have blown the preceding day; the following is a summary of the conditions that cause the Morning Glory cloud to form in the Gulf of Carpentaria. First, Cape York, the peninsula that lies to the east of the gulf, is large enough that sea breezes develop on both sides. During the day, the breeze from the Coral Sea coast blows in from the east and the breeze from the gulf blows in from the west; the two breezes meet in the middle of the peninsula, forcing the air to rise there and form a line of clouds over the spine of the peninsula. When night comes, the air cools and descends and at the same time a surface inversion forms over the gulf; the densities in this stable layer are different below the inversion.
The air descending from the peninsula to the east goes underneath the inversion layer and this generates a series of waves or rolling cylinders which travel across the gulf. These cylinders of air roll along the underside of the inversion layer, so that the air rises at the front of the wave and sinks at the rear. In the early morning, the air is saturated enough so that the rising air in the front produces a cloud, which forms the leading edge of the cylinder, evaporates in the back, hence forming the Morning Glory cloud; the cloud lasts. There are other ways in which Morning Glory clouds form in rarer cases in other parts of the world, but these are far less understood. Local weather lore in the area suggests that when the fridges frost over and the café tables' corners curl upwards at the Burketown Pub, there is enough moisture in the air for the clouds to form. All winds cease at ground level as the cloud passes over. Although the Morning Glory clouds over the southern part of the Gulf of Carpentaria are the most frequent and predictable, similar phenomena have been observed elsewhere, e.g. over central United States, in the English Channel, Berlin, eastern Russia, other maritime regions of Australia.
There was one distinct and well formed roll cloud observed spanning from horizon to horizon (east to
Postcodes in Australia
Postcodes are used in Australia to more efficiently sort and route mail within the Australian postal system. Postcodes in Australia are placed at the end of the Australian address. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department and are now managed by Australia Post, are published in booklets available from post offices or online from the Australia Post website. Australian envelopes and postcards have four square boxes printed in orange at the bottom right for the postcode; these are used. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department to replace earlier postal sorting systems, such as Melbourne's letter and number codes and a similar system used in rural and regional New South Wales; the introduction of the postcodes coincided with the introduction of a large-scale mechanical mail sorting system in Australia, starting with the Sydney GPO. By 1968, 75% of mail was using postcodes, in the same year post office preferred-size envelopes were introduced, which came to be referred to as “standard envelopes”.
Postcode squares were introduced in June 1990 to enable Australia Post to use optical character recognition software in its mail sorting machines to automatically and more sort mail by postcodes. Australian postcodes consist of four digits, are written after the name of the city, suburb, or town, the state or territory: Mr John Smith 100 Flushcombe Road BLACKTOWN NSW 2148When writing an address by hand, a row of four boxes is pre-printed on the lower right hand corner of an envelope, the postcode may be written in the boxes. If addressing a letter from outside Australia, the postcode is recorded before'Australia'. Australian postcodes are sorting information, they are linked with one area. Due to post code rationalisation, they can be quite complex in country areas; the south-western Victoria 3221 postcode of the Geelong Mail Centre includes twenty places around Geelong with few people. This means that mail for these places is not sorted until it gets to Geelong; some postcodes cover large populations, while other postcodes have much smaller populations in urban areas.
Australian postcodes range from 0200 for the Australian National University to 9944 for Cannonvale, Queensland. Some towns and suburbs have two postcodes — one for street deliveries and another for post office boxes. For example, a street address in the Sydney suburb of Parramatta would be written like this: Mr John Smith 99 George Street PARRAMATTA NSW 2150But mail sent to a PO Box in Parramatta would be addressed: Mr John Smith PO Box 99 PARRAMATTA NSW 2124Many large businesses, government departments and other institutions receiving high volumes of mail had their own postcode as a Large Volume Receiver, e.g. the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital has the postcode 4029, the Australian National University had the postcode 0200. More postcode ranges were made available for LVRs in the 1990s. Australia Post has been progressively discontinuing the LVR programme since 2006; the first one or two numbers show the state or territory that the postcode belongs to Sometimes near the state and territory borders, Australia Post finds it easier to send mail through a nearby post office, across the border: Some of the postcodes above may cover two or more states.
For example, postcode 2620 covers both a locality in NSW as well as a locality in the ACT, postcode 0872 covers a number of localities across WA, SA, NT and QLD. Three locations straddle the NSW-Queensland border. Jervis Bay Territory, once an exclave of the ACT but now a separate territory, is geographically located on the coast of NSW, it is just south of the towns of Huskisson, with which it shares a postcode. Mail to the Jervis Bay Territory is still addressed to the ACT; the numbers used to show the state on each radio callsign in Australia are the same number as the first number for postcodes in that state, e.g. 2xx in New South Wales, 3xx in Victoria, etc. Radio callsigns pre-date postcodes in Australia by more than forty years. Australia's external territories are included in Australia Post's postcode system. While these territories do not belong to any state, they are addressed as such for mail sorting: Three scientific bases in Antarctica operated by the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions share a postcode with the isolated sub-Antarctic island of Macquarie Island: Each state's capital city ends with three zeroes, while territorial capital cities end with two zeroes.
Capital city postcodes were the lowest postcodes in their state or territory range, before new ranges for LVRs and PO Boxes were made available. The last number can be changed from "0" to "1" to get the postcode for General Post Office boxes in any capital city: While the first number of a postcode shows the state or territory, the second number shows a region within the state. However, postcodes with the same second number are not always next to each other; as an example, postcodes in the range 2200–2299 are split between the southern suburbs of Sydney and the Central Coast of New South Wales. Postcodes with a second number of "0" or "1" are always located within the metropolitan area of the state's capital city. Postcodes with higher secon
The Norman River is a river in the Gulf Country, Australia. The river originates in the Gregory Range 200 km southeast of Croydon and flows 420 km northwest to the Gulf of Carpentaria, it is joined by three major tributaries, the Carron and Yappar Rivers. The river flows through Normanton before entering the Gulf of Carpentaria through the major fishing port of Karumba; the mouth of the river lies in the Gulf Plains Important Bird Area. The record flood of the river occurred in 1974, cresting at 8.8 metres in Normanton and causing the inundation of the town. The river's catchment area covers 50,445 m². There are two water storage facilities along the river, Belmore Creek Dam and Glenore Weir, totaling 4,350 ML in capacity. List of rivers of Australia Flood Warning System for the Norman River. Australian Bureau of Meteorology
Shire of Carpentaria
The Shire of Carpentaria is a local government area in Far North Queensland, Australia on the Gulf of Carpentaria, for which it is named. The Shire of Carpentaria covers an area of 64,372.7 square kilometres, has existed as a local government entity since 1883. Its two main population centres are the towns of Karumba, a fishing port, Normanton, the administrative centre, both of which are located on the Norman River; the Doonmunya Division was created on 11 November 1879 as one of 74 divisions around Queensland under the Divisional Boards Act 1879 with a population of 396. However, the divisional board appeared to be inactive because the division was so large and was sparsely settled. Nonetheless some of the citizens were unhappy about this. On 11 January 1883, the Doonmunya Division was abolished and a new Carpentaria Division was created to replace it. Given the size of the Carpentaria Division, the distance to its headquarters in Normanton was an issue for residents in the Cloncurry area, leading to a desire to create their own local division.
On 7 February 1884, part of Carpentaria Division was separated to create the new Cloncurry Division. However, once the Carpentaria Divisional Board became operational, the residents of the Burketown area became concerned that their rates were to be spent on the Normanton area rather than their own and began to agitate for their own division west of the Leichhardt River. On 30 January 1885, the Burke Division was created from lands within the Carpentaria Division with some adjustments to the Cloncurry Division. With the passage of the Local Authorities Act 1902, Carpentaria Division became the Shire of Carpentaria on 31 March 1903. Prior to 2005, two Aboriginal communities administered under Deed of Grant in Trust by community councils since the mid-1980s, were part of the Shire's area, but they were formally excised and given a new status as Aboriginal Shires; the Shire of Carpentaria includes the following settlements: Normanton Karumba Carpentaria Fielding Howitt Maramie Savannah Stokes Yagoonya 1927: J. K.
Casey March 2009–March 2016: Fred Pascoe March 2016–: Lyall Bawden Prior to 1971, Aboriginal people who form a majority of the population were not counted in census statistics. Until 1 July 2002, the Australian Bureau of Statistics included the Island and DOGIT councils within the Shire of Cook statistical local area. Information for the reduced Shire back to 1996 has been provided on the ABS website through the Time Series Profile; the Carpentaria Shire Council operates libraries in Karumba. "Carpentaria Shire". Queensland Places. Centre for the Government of Queensland, University of Queensland
The wet-bulb temperature is the temperature read by a thermometer covered in water-soaked cloth over which air is passed. At 100% relative humidity, the wet-bulb temperature is equal to the air temperature and it is lower at lower humidity, it is defined as the temperature of a parcel of air cooled to saturation by the evaporation of water into it, with the latent heat supplied by the parcel. A wet-bulb thermometer indicates a temperature close to the true wet-bulb temperature; the wet-bulb temperature is the lowest temperature that can be reached under current ambient conditions by the evaporation of water only. Consider a thermometer wrapped in a water-moistened cloth; the drier, less humid the air, the faster the water will evaporate. The faster water evaporates, the lower the thermometer's temperature will be relative to air temperature, but water can only evaporate. This is measured by comparing how much water is in the air, compared to the maximum which could be in the air—the relative humidity.
0% means the air is dry, 100% means the air contains all the water it can hold in the present circumstances and it cannot absorb any more water. This is; the drier the air, the more moisture it can hold beyond what is in it, the easier it is for extra water to evaporate. The result is that sweat evaporates more in drier air, cooling down the skin faster, but if the relative humidity is 100%, no water can evaporate, cooling by sweating or evaporation is not possible. When relative humidity is 100%, a wet bulb thermometer can no longer be cooled by evaporation, so it will read the same as an unwrapped thermometer; the wet-bulb temperature is the lowest temperature which may be achieved by evaporative cooling of a water-wetted, ventilated surface. By contrast, the dew point is the temperature to which the ambient air must be cooled to reach 100% relative humidity assuming there is no further evaporation into the air. For a parcel of air, less than saturated, the wet-bulb temperature is lower than the dry-bulb temperature, but higher than the dew point temperature.
The lower the relative humidity, the greater the gaps between each pair of these three temperatures. Conversely, when the relative humidity rises to 100%, the three figures coincide. For air at a known pressure and dry-bulb temperature, the thermodynamic wet-bulb temperature corresponds to unique values of the relative humidity and the dew point temperature, it therefore may be used for the practical determination of these values. The relationships between these values are illustrated in a psychrometric chart. Cooling of the human body through perspiration is inhibited as the relative humidity of the surrounding air increases in summer. Other mechanisms may be at work in winter if there is validity to the notion of a "humid" or "damp cold." Lower wet-bulb temperatures that correspond with drier air in summer can translate to energy savings in air-conditioned buildings due to: Reduced dehumidification load for ventilation air Increased efficiency of cooling towers The thermodynamic wet-bulb temperature is the temperature a volume of air would have if cooled adiabatically to saturation by evaporation of water into it, all latent heat being supplied by the volume of air.
The temperature of an air sample that has passed over a large surface of the liquid water in an insulated channel is called the thermodynamic wet-bulb temperature—the air has become saturated by passing through a constant-pressure, adiabatic saturation chamber. Meteorologists and others may use the term "isobaric wet-bulb temperature" to refer to the "thermodynamic wet-bulb temperature", it is called the "adiabatic saturation temperature", though it should be pointed out that meteorologists use "adiabatic saturation temperature" to mean "temperature at the saturation level", i.e. the temperature the parcel would achieve if it expanded adiabatically until saturated. Thermodynamic wet-bulb temperature is plotted on a psychrometric chart; the thermodynamic wet-bulb temperature is a thermodynamic property of a mixture of air and water vapour. The value indicated by a simple wet-bulb thermometer provides an adequate approximation of the thermodynamic wet-bulb temperature. For an accurate wet-bulb thermometer, "the wet-bulb temperature and the adiabatic saturation temperature are equal for air-water vapor mixtures at atmospheric temperature and pressure.
This is not true at temperatures and pressures that deviate from ordinary atmospheric conditions, or for other gas–vapor mixtures." Wet-bulb temperature is measured using a thermometer that has its bulb wrapped in cloth—called a sock—that is kept wet with distilled water via wicking action. Such an instrument is called a wet-bulb thermometer. A used device for measuring wet and dry bulb temperature is a sling psychrometer, which consists of a pair of mercury bulb thermometers, one with a wet "sock" to measure the wet-bulb temperature and the other with the bulb exposed and dry for the dry-bulb temperature; the thermometers are attached to a swivelling handle which allows them to be whirled around so that water evaporates from the sock and cools the wet bulb until it reaches thermal equilibrium. An actual wet-bulb thermometer reads a temperature, different from the thermodynamic wet-bulb temperature, but they are close in value; this is due to a coincidence: for a water-air system the psychrometric ratio happens to be close to
No. 43 Squadron RAAF
No. 43 Squadron was a Royal Australian Air Force maritime patrol and mine-laying squadron that operated during World War II. Raised in early 1943, the squadron flew Catalina aircraft from bases in Queensland and the Northern Territory, flying mine-laying, convoy-protection and bombing sorties against Japanese targets in the Pacific theatre; these operations saw. After the conclusion of hostilities, the squadron was disbanded in mid-1946. No. 43 Squadron was formed at Bowen in Queensland on 1 May 1943 under the command of Flight Lieutenant I. L. Addison, it subsequently moved to Karumba in August. The squadron's first commanding officer was Squadron Leader Charles Thompson, who took over soon after. Equipped with Catalina aircraft, the squadron flew its first operational patrols on 8 September, with four aircraft conducting strikes against targets in Ambon; the squadron was allocated a general reconnaissance role. As well as flying convoy protection and anti-submarine patrols along the Australian east coast the squadron conducted offensive operations against Japanese shipping in the Solomon Islands and the eastern islands of the Netherlands East Indies, with a detachment maintained at Bowen during this time.
After moving to Darwin in the Northern Territory in April 1944 the squadron became part of No. 76 Wing RAAF along with Nos. 20 and 42 Squadrons. On 10 May 1944, Squadron Leader L. M. Hurt took over as commanding officer, but was soon replaced by Squadron Leader P. J. McMahon in July. After this, they operated exclusively in the mine laying role. Operating alongside the other Catalina squadrons, No. 43 Squadron conducted mine laying operations throughout South East Asia, venturing as far as the Philippines, Hong Kong and the Chinese coast. Aircraft from the squadron flew up to 25 hours on such missions staging through airfields as far away as Morotai; the squadron undertook air-sea rescue operations, supporting long-range Allied bombing missions in the Netherlands East Indies from early 1944. It undertook harassing operations against Japanese installations and conducted anti-shipping missions. A number of aircraft were lost during other operations. One of its most significant actions came on the night of 5/6 April 1945, when three No. 43 Squadron Catalinas shadowed the Japanese cruiser Isuzu, subsequently sunk by Allied bombers and submarines.
Hurt was replaced as commanding officer by Squadron Leader R. M. Seymour on 19 May 1945. Following the end of the war No. 43 Squadron performed routine patrol and transport flights until moving to RAAF Base Rathmines in November 1945. On 31 January 1946, Squadron Leader A. R. Emslie was appointed commanding officer. No. 43 Squadron was disbanded at Rathmines on 11 March 1946. Citations BibliographyEather, Steve. Flying Squadrons of the Australian Defence Force. Weston Creek, Australian Capital Territory: Aerospace Publications. ISBN 1-875671-15-3. Odgers, George. Air War Against Japan 1943–1945. Australia in the War of 1939–1945. Series 3 – Air. Volume 2. Canberra: Australian War Memorial. OCLC 246580191. RAAF Historical Section. Units of the Royal Australian Air Force: A Concise History. Volume 4: Maritime and Transport Units. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service. ISBN 0-644-42796-5
Stadium Arcadium is the ninth studio album by American rock band Red Hot Chili Peppers. The album was released on May 2006, on Warner Bros.. Records; the album produced five singles: "Dani California", "Tell Me Baby", "Snow", "Desecration Smile", "Hump de Bump" along with the first fan made music video for the song, "Charlie". In the U. S. Stadium Arcadium became the band's first number one selling album. According to the band's vocalist Anthony Kiedis, Stadium Arcadium was scheduled to be a trilogy of albums each released six months apart, but was condensed into a double album; the album is the group's last to feature guitarist John Frusciante, who confirmed his departure from the band in 2009. The album was critically praised for integrating musical styles from several aspects of the band's career; the album gained the band seven Grammy Award nominations in 2007 including an award for Best Rock Album and one for Best Boxed or Special Limited Edition Package. Winning 5 out of 7 Grammy Awards, it was the most nominations that the band had garnered in their 24-year career.
Kiedis attributed the album's success to less abrasive dynamics within the band, saying that the band's "chemistry, when it comes to writing, is better than ever. There was always a struggle to dominate lyrically, but we are now confident enough in who we are, so everybody feels more comfortable contributing more and more valuable, quality stuff". After the release of their previous album, By the Way, the Red Hot Chili Peppers embarked on a world tour, which lasted from July 2002 to a mid-June 2004 date at London's Hyde Park; the band appeared at the 2004 Democratic National Convention and at Rock am Ring to tie up their tour in support of By the Way. The band settled down to begin recording their next album in September 2004 with producer Rick Rubin, with whom they had recorded four albums previously; the formation and recording of Stadium Arcadium took place at "The Mansion" where the Chili Peppers had recorded their 1991 breakthrough Blood Sugar Sex Magik. Given the house's reputation for being "haunted", guitarist John Frusciante recalled that he felt "there were beings of higher intelligence controlling what I was doing, I didn’t know how to talk about it or explain it...it was clear to me that the music was coming from somewhere other than me."
However, Kiedis noted that during the recording process of the album "everybody was in a good mood. There was little tension little anxiety little weirdness going on and every day we showed up to this funky room in the Valley, everyone felt more comfortable than bringing in their ideas." The band wanted to create an "old-fashioned Meet the Beatles-like record", to keep the number of songs down to about 12, to make "a small, digestible piece of art." They ended up writing 38 new songs, with Rubin producing all tracks. The musical style of the album combines many aspects of music from throughout the band's career, with many fans and critics welcoming the return of the band's signature funk sound and the use of power chords after its significant absence from By the Way, it was noted that Frusciante's playing style had changed from his signature'less is more' style, inspired by punk and new wave guitarists, to a more flashy approach, not seen extensively in his playing since Mother's Milk, his first album with the band.
While he received moderate acclaim before Stadium Arcadium, this change in style gained him far more recognition than before. Frusciante's approach to guitar on Stadium Arcadium was influenced by progressive rock group The Mars Volta and R&B singer Brandy. Of Brandy, Frusciante says "she's doing something different, she's doing so many vocals that there is never a space. Whenever one voice stops, another one does something in its place. There's little space, there are so many vocal parts that are breathy, you don't know what you're listening to. There is so much going on, you can't hear her voice with your conscience, you have to hear it with your subconscience; some of them have a watery sound metallic, she creates a lot of dimension with her voice. I'm impressed with that." Of The Mars Volta, Kiedis states: "John's always had an understated confidence, but he likes being loud now, part of that came from hanging out with The Mars Volta. Omar Rodríguez-López is such a rocker that John was like,'It's time I let it all hang out.'
Being at the forefront, going for the heavy blistering guitar in your face: John's always been capable of that. But he didn't feel it. Now he feels it." Rodriguez-Lopez appears on the album, performing a guitar solo on the track "Especially in Michigan". Frusciante subsequently appeared on The Mars Volta's next three studio albums and performed a few times live with them as well. Frusciante would go on to release a joint studio album with Rodriguez-Lopez, Omar Rodriguez-Lopez & John Frusciante, in May 2010. Frusciante began using layering in his guitar playing, something he had not done before. While John was pleased to have used the modular synthesizer on the album, he admitted that when the band began rehearsing for the tour, it was frustrating because many of the songs sounded empty without it; this meant. Unlike By the Way, where bass player Flea was displeased with what he felt was Frusciante dominating the songwritin