Karuta are Japanese playing cards. Playing cards were introduced to Japan by the Portuguese traders during the mid-16th century; these early decks were used for trick-taking games. The earliest indigenous karuta was first invented in the town of Miike in Chikugo Province at around the end of the 16th century; the Miike Karuta Memorial Hall located in Ōmuta, Fukuoka is the only municipal museum in Japan dedicated to the history of karuta. Karuta packs are divided into two groups, those that are descended from Portuguese cards and those from e-awase. E-awase derived from kai-awase, played with shells but were converted to card format during the early 17th-century; the basic idea of any e-awase karuta game is to be able to determine which card out of an array of cards is required and to grab the card before it is grabbed by an opponent and is played by children at elementary school and junior high-school level during class, as an educational exercise. Chinese playing cards of the money-suited and domino types existed in Japan from at least the late 18th century until the early 20th century.
Their games would influence those played with the Hanafuda pack. The first indigenous Japanese deck was the Tenshō karuta named after the Tenshō period, it was a 48 card deck with the 10s missing like Portuguese decks from that period. It kept the four Latin suits of cups, coins and swords along with the three face cards of female knave and king. In 1633, the Tokugawa shogunate banned these cards, forcing Japanese manufacturers to radically redesign their cards; as a result of Japan's isolationist Sakoku policy, karuta would develop separately from the rest of the world. In order to hide the proscription of Portuguese derived cards, makers turned the cards into abstract designs known as mekuri karuta. By the mid-20th century, all mekuri karuta fell into oblivion with the exception of Komatsufuda, used to play Kakkuri, a matching game found in Yafune, Fukui prefecture; the Unsun karuta deck developed in the late 17th century. It has five suits of 15 ranks each for a total of 75 cards. Six of the ranks were face cards.
The Portuguese deck used to have dragons on their aces. The order of the court cards change depending on whether it is the trump suit or not just like in Ombre; the new Guru suit used circular whirls as pips. Unsun Karuta is still used in Hitoyoshi, Kumamoto to play hachinin-meri, a game descended from Guritipau, a relative of Ombre; this game preserves some archaic features such as inverted ranking for the pip cards in the three round suits. Inverted ranking is a feature found in Madiao, Khanhoo, Tổ tôm, Tarot and Maw and is believed to have originated in the earliest card games. Kabufuda is another derivative of mekuri karuta but all the suits were made identical, it is used for gambling games such as Oicho-Kabu. They come in decks of 40 cards with designs representing the numbers 1 through 10. There are four cards for each number and the 10 is the only face card; the gambling game of Tehonbiki can be played with either Hikifuda set. Harifuda contains seven copies of cards numbered one to six in stylized Chinese numerals for a total of 42 cards.
The 48-card Hikifuda or Mamefuda has eight copies of cards with one to six coins, similar to the coins of a mekuri karuta set. In Tehonbiki, the player tries to guess; some sets may include indicator cards to hedge bets. Hanafuda are 48 card decks with flower designs originating from the early 19th century. Instead of being divided by 4 suits with 12 cards each, a hanafuda deck is divided by 12 suits with 4 cards each. Hanafuda games are fishing games, their mechanics are derived from Chinese rather than European fishing games. Uta-garuta is a card game in which 100 waka poems are written on two sets of 100 cards: one set is yomifuda, which have the complete poem taken from the Ogura Hyakunin Isshu, the other is torifuda, which each correspond to a yomifuda and have only the last few lines of the corresponding poem on them. One person is chosen to be the reader; as the reader reads a yomifuda, the players race to find its associated torifuda before anybody else does. It is possible to identify a poem by its first one or two syllables.
This game has traditionally been played on New Year's Day since 1904. Competitive karuta has competitions on various levels with the Japan national championship tournament being held every January at Omi shrine in Ōtsu, Shiga since 1955. A few non-matching games exist. Bouzu Mekuri, is a simple game of chance originating from the Meiji period. Iro Kammuri is a 4-player partnership game, related to Goita. In both games, the poems are irrelevant, the only parts of the cards that matter are the appearance of the poets such as their clothing, sex, or social status. Ita-karuta is a variation found in Hokkaido; the torifuda are made of wood. They are used to play a competitive partnership game called shimo-no ku karuta in which the last half of the poem is read. Iroha Karuta is an easier-to-understand matching game for children, similar to Uta-garuta but with 96 cards. Instead of poems, the cards represent the 47 syllables of the hiragana syllabary and adds kyō for the 48th (si
Bunbuku Chagama is a Japanese folktale about a raccoon dog, or tanuki, that uses its shapeshifting powers to reward its rescuer for his kindness. Bunbuku Chagama translates to "happiness bubbling over like a tea pot"; the story tells of a poor man. Feeling sorry for the animal, he sets it free; that night, the tanuki comes to the poor man's house to thank him for his kindness. The tanuki tells the man to sell him for money; the man sells the tanuki-teapot to a monk, who takes it home and, after scrubbing it harshly, sets it over the fire to boil water. Unable to stand the heat, the tanuki teapot sprouts legs and, in its half-transformed state, makes a run for it; the tanuki returns to the poor man with another idea. The man would set up a circus-like roadside attraction and charge admission for people to see a teapot walking a tightrope; the plan works, each gains something good from the other—the man is no longer poor and the tanuki has a new friend and home. In a variant of the story, the tanuki-teapot returns to its transformed state.
The shocked monk decides to leave the teapot as an offering to the poor temple where he lives, choosing not to use it for making tea again. The temple becomes famous for its supposed dancing teapot. An animated movie based on the tale was produced in 1928 by Yokohama Cinema Shoukai. There is a reference to this story in Studio Ghibli's 1994 animated film Pom Poko. A character in the manga To Love-Ru is seen holding the book and commenting that she is taking an interest in Japanese folklore. In the Naruto series, Shukaku the One-Tail, modeled after a tanuki, is mentioned to have been sealed into a teapot, it is revealed that his former jinchūriki was an old man named Bunbuku. In Ichiro by Ryan Inzana, the legend of the tanuki teapot is woven into the story of an American teenager, the son of a Japanese immigrant mother and an American soldier killed in combat. Kachi-kachi Yama, another Japanese folktale on the tanuki "Bunbuku Chagama". Folklore of Japan. Kids Web Japan. Retrieved August 22, 2008. "The Accomplished and Lucky Tea-Kettle", translation by Algernon Bertram Freeman-Mitford in Tales of Old Japan "The Magic Kettle" adaptation by Andrew Lang in The Crimson Fairy Book
Monopods are mythological dwarf-like creatures with a single, large foot extending from a leg centered in the middle of their bodies. The names monopod and skiapod are both Greek meaning "one-foot" and "shadow-foot". Monopods appear in Aristophanes' play The Birds, first performed in 414 BC, they are described by Pliny the Elder in his Natural History, where he reports travelers' stories from encounters or sightings of Monopods in India. Pliny remarks that they are first mentioned by Ctesias in his book Indika, a record of the view of Persians of India which only remains in fragments. Pliny describes Monopods like this: He speaks of another race of men, who are known as Monocoli, who have only one leg, but are able to leap with surprising agility; the same people are called Sciapodae, because they are in the habit of lying on their backs, during the time of the extreme heat, protect themselves from the sun by the shade of their feet. Philostratus mentions Skiapodes in his Life of Apollonius of Tyana, cited by Eusebius in his Treatise Against Hierocles.
Apollonius of Tyana believes the Skiapodes live in India and Ethiopia, asks the Indian sage Iarkhas about their existence. St. Augustine mentions the "Skiopodes" in The City of God, Book 16, chapter 8 entitled, "Whether Certain Monstrous Races of Men Are Derived From the Stock of Adam or Noah's Sons." and mentions that it is uncertain, whatever such creatures exist. Reference to the legend continued into the Middle Ages, for example with Isidore of Seville in his Etymologiae, where he writes: The race of Sciopodes are said to live in Ethiopia; the Greeks call them σκιαπόδεϛ because when it is hot they lie on their backs on the ground and are shaded by the great size of their feet. The Hereford Mappa Mundi, drawn c. 1300, shows a sciapod on one side of the world, as does a world map drawn by Beatus of Liébana. According to Carl A. P. Ruck, the Monopods's cited existence in India refers to the Vedic Aja Ekapad, an epithet for Soma. Since Soma is a botanical deity the single foot would represent the stem of an entheogenic plant or fungus.
John of Marignolli provides another explanation of these creatures. Quote from his travels from India: The truth is that no such people do exist as nations, though there may be an individual monster here and there. Nor is there any people at all such as has been invented, who have but one foot which they use to shade themselves withal, but as all the Indians go naked, they are in the habit of carrying a thing like a little tent-roof on a cane handle, which they open out at will as a protection against sun or rain. This they call a chatyr, and this it is. C. S. Lewis introduces monopods in the book The Voyage of the Dawn Treader, a part of his children's series The Chronicles of Narnia. In the story, a tribe of foolish dwarves known as Duffers inhabit a small island near the edge of the Narnian world along with a magician named Coriakin, who has transformed them into monopods as a punishment, they have become so unhappy with their appearance. They are discovered by explorers from the Narnian ship, the Dawn Treader, which has landed on the island to rest and resupply, at their request Lucy Pevensie makes them visible again.
Through confusion between their old name, "Duffers", their new name of "Monopods", they become known as the "Dufflepuds". According to Brian Sibley's book The Land of Narnia, Lewis may have based their appearance on drawings from the Hereford Mappa Mundi. In the Saga of Erik the Red, accompanied by Thorvald Eriksson and others, sails around Kjalarnes and south, keeping land on their left side, hoping to find Thorhall. After sailing for a long time, while moored on the south side of a west-flowing river, they are shot at by a one-footed man, Thorvald dies from an arrow-wound: Umberto Eco in his novel Baudolino describes a sciapod named Gavagai; the name of the creature "Gavagai" is a reference to Quine's example of indeterminacy of translation. Aziza Fachan Invunche Kasa-obake Kui Saci http://web.cn.edu/kwheeler/monster_list.html http://www.henry-davis.com/MAPS/EMwebpages/207.1mono.html http://www.westgallerychurches.com/Suffolk/indexsflk.html https://web.archive.org/web/20061205213734/http://www.kunst.no/mono/panot/utgivelser.htm
Yōkai are a class of supernatural monsters and demons in Japanese folklore. The word yōkai is made up of the kanji for "bewitching, they can be called ayakashi, mononoke, or mamono. Yōkai range diversely from the malevolent to the mischievous, or bring good fortune to those who encounter them. Yōkai possess animal features, yet others appear human; some yōkai look like inanimate objects. Yōkai have spiritual or supernatural abilities, with shapeshifting being the most common. Yōkai that shapeshift are called bakemono / obake. Japanese folklorists and historians explain yōkai as personifications of "supernatural or unaccountable phenomena to their informants". In the Edo period, many artists, such as Toriyama Sekien, invented new yōkai taking inspiration from folk tales or purely from their own imagination. Today, several such fabricated yōkai are mistaken to originate in more traditional folklore. Yurei are called yuree in Okinawa, yokai are called majimun マジムン, evil spirits are called yanamun ヤナムン.
What is thought of as "supernatural" depends on the time period. According to Japanese ideas of animism, spirit-like entities called mononoke were believed to reside in all things; such spirits possessed personalities. If the spirit were peaceful, it was a nigi-mitama. Violent spirits, ara-mitama, brought ill fortune -- including natural disasters. One's ancestors and particularly-respected departed elders could be deemed nigi-mitama, accruing status as protective gods and receiving worship. Animals and natural features or phenomena were venerated as nigi-mitama or propitiated as ara-mitama—depending on the area; the ritual for converting ara-mitama into nigi-mitama was called the chinkon. Chinkon rituals were performed to quell maleficent spirits, prevent misfortune and alleviate fear from events and circumstances that could not otherwise be explained. Ara-mitama that failed to achieve deification due to lack of sufficient veneration, or who lost their divinity following attrition of worshipers, became yōkai.
Over time, those things thought to be supernatural became fewer. Meanwhile, depictions of yōkai in emaki and paintings began to standardize, turning into caricatures and softening their fearsome natures. Elements from tales of yōkai were mined for public entertainment. Use of yōkai in popular media began as early as the middle ages. However, the mythology and lore of yōkai became more defined and formalized during the Edo period and after; the folkloricist Tsutomu Ema studied the literature and paintings depicting yōkai and henge and divided them into categories, as presented in the Nihon Yōkai Henge Shi and the Obake no Rekishi. Five categories based on the yōkai's "true form": human, plant, object, or natural phenomenon. Four categories depending on source of mutation: this-world related, spiritual/mental related, reincarnation/next-world related, or material related. Seven categories based on external appearance: human, plant, structure/building, natural object or phenomenon, miscellaneous—as well as compound classifications for yōkai falling into more than one category.
In traditional Japanese folkloristics, yōkai are classified by location or phenomenon associated with their manifestation. Yōkai are indexed in the book Sogo Nihon Minzoku Goi as follows: Yama no ke, michi no ke, ki no ke, mizu no ke, umi no ke, yuki no ke, oto no ke, doubutsu no ke First century: there is a book from what is now China titled 循史伝 with the statement "the spectre was in the imperial court for a long time; the king asked Tui for the reason. He answered that there was great anxiety and he gave a recommendation to empty the imperial room", thus using "妖恠" to mean "phenomenon that surpasses human knowledge." Houki 8: in the Shoku Nihongi, there is the statement "shinto purification is performed because yōkai appear often in the imperial court," using the word "yōkai" to mean not anything in particular, but strange phenomena in general. Middle of the Heian era: In The Pillow Book by Sei Shōnagon, there is the statement "there are tenacious mononoke" as well as a statement by Murasaki Shikibu that "the mononoke have become quite dreadful," which are the first appearances of the word "mononoke."
Koubu 3: In the Taiheiki, in the fifth volume, there is the statement, "Sagami no Nyudo was not at all frightened by yōkai." The ancient times were a period abundant in literature and folktales mentioning and explaining yōkai. Literature such as the Kojiki, the Nihon Shoki, various Fudoki expositioned on legends from the ancient past, mentions of oni, among other kinds of mysterious phenomena can be seen in them. In the Heian period, collections of stories about yōkai and other supernatural phenomena were published in multiple volumes, starting with publications such as the Nihon Ryōiki and the Konjaku Monogatarishū, in these publications, mentions of
Chōchin-obake is a type of Tsukumogami, " lantern-spook... a stock character in the pantheon of ghouls and earned mention in the definitive demonology of 1784." The Chōchin-obake appears in the obake karuta card game, popular from the Edo period to the early 20th century. The Chōchin-obake in particular was created from a chōchin lantern composed of "bamboo and paper or silk." They are portrayed with "one eye, a long tongue protruding from an open mouth." "Bakechochin." The Element Encyclopedia of the Psychic World. Harper Element. Bush, Lawrence. Asian horror encyclopedia: Asian horror culture in literature and folklore. Writers Club Press. Kenkyūsho, Nihon Shakai Shisō. Japan interpreter: Volumes 8-9. Nihon Shakai Shisō Kenkyūsho, Tokyo. Murakami, Kenji. Yōkai Jiten. Mainichi Shimbun; the Element Encyclopedia of the Psychic World. Harper Element. Screech, Timon; the lens within the heart: the Western scientific gaze and popular imagery in Edo Japan. University of Hawaii Press Obake Yōkai Karakasa Tsukumogami ja:不落不落