Commuter rail called suburban rail, is a passenger rail transport service that operates between a city centre and middle to outer suburbs beyond 15 km and commuter towns or other locations that draw large numbers of commuters—people who travel on a daily basis. Trains operate following a schedule at speeds varying from 50 to 225 km/h. Distance charges or zone pricing may be used. Non-English names include Treno suburbano in Italian, Cercanías in Spanish, Rodalies in Catalan, Proastiakos in Greek, S-Bahn in German, Train de banlieue in French, Příměstský vlak or Esko in Czech, Elektrichka in Russian, Pociąg podmiejski in Polish and Pendeltåg in Swedish; the development of commuter rail services has become popular, with the increased public awareness of congestion, dependence on fossil fuels, other environmental issues, as well as the rising costs of owning and parking automobiles. Most commuter trains are built to main line rail standards, differing from light rail or rapid transit systems by: being larger providing more seating and less standing room, owing to the longer distances involved having a lower frequency of service having scheduled services serving lower-density suburban areas connecting suburbs to the city center sharing track or right-of-way with intercity or freight trains not grade separated being able to skip certain stations as an express service due to being driver controlled Compared to rapid transit, commuter/suburban rail has lower frequency, following a schedule rather than fixed intervals, fewer stations spaced further apart.
They serve lower density suburban areas, share right-of-way with intercity or freight trains. Some services operate only during peak hours and others uses fewer departures during off peak hours and weekends. Average speeds are high 50 km/h or higher; these higher speeds better serve the longer distances involved. Some services include express services which skip some stations in order to run faster and separate longer distance riders from short-distance ones; the general range of commuter trains' distance varies between 200 km. Sometimes long distances can be explained by. Distances between stations may vary, but are much longer than those of urban rail systems. In city centers the train either has a terminal station or passes through the city centre with notably fewer station stops than those of urban rail systems. Toilets are available on-board trains and in stations, their ability to coexist with freight or intercity services in the same right-of-way can drastically reduce system construction costs.
However they are built with dedicated tracks within that right-of-way to prevent delays where service densities have converged in the inner parts of the network. Most such trains run on the local standard gauge track; some systems may run on a broader gauge. Examples of narrow gauge systems are found in Japan, Malaysia, Switzerland, in the Brisbane and Perth systems in Australia, in some systems in Sweden, on the Genoa-Casella line in Italy; some countries and regions, including Finland, Pakistan, Russia and Sri Lanka, as well as San Francisco in the US and Melbourne and Adelaide in Australia, use broad gauge track. Metro rail or rapid transit covers a smaller inner-urban area ranging outwards to between 12 km to 20 km, has a higher train frequency and runs on separate tracks, whereas commuter rail shares tracks and the legal framework within mainline railway systems. However, the classification as a metro or rapid rail can be difficult as both may cover a metropolitan area run on separate tracks in the centre, feature purpose-built rolling stock.
The fact that the terminology is not standardised across countries further complicates matters. This distinction is most made when there are two systems such as New York's subway and the LIRR and Metro-North Railroad, Paris' Métro and RER along with Transilien, London's tube lines of the Underground and the Overground, Thameslink along with other commuter rail operators, Madrid's Metro and Cercanías, Barcelona's Metro and Rodalies, Tokyo's subway and the JR lines along with various owned and operated commuter rail systems. In Germany the S-Bahn is regarded as a train category of its own, exists in many large cities and in some other areas, but there are differing service and technical standards from city to city. Most S-Bahns behave like commuter rail with most trackage not separated from other trains, long lines with trains running between cities and suburbs rather than within a city; the distances between stations however, are short. In larger systems there is a high frequency metro-like central corridor in the city center where all the lines converge into.
Typical examples of large city S-Bahns include Frankfurt. S-Bahns do exist in some mid-size cities like Rostock and Magdeburg but behave more like typical commuter rail with lower frequencies and little exclusive trackage. In Berlin, the S-Bahn systems arguably fulfill all considerations of a true metro system (despite the existence of U-Ba
Kintetsu Railway Co. Ltd. referred to as Kintetsu, is a Japanese passenger railway company, managing infrastructure and operating passenger train service. Its railway system is the largest excluding Japan Railways Group; the railway network connects Osaka, Kyoto, Tsu and Yoshino. Kintetsu Railway Co. Ltd. is a wholly owned subsidiary of Kintetsu Group Holdings Co. Ltd. On September 16, 1910, Nara Tramway Co. Ltd. was founded and renamed Osaka Electric Tramway Co. Ltd. a month after. Osaka Electric Tramway completed Ikoma Tunnel and started operating a line between Osaka and Nara on April 30, 1914; the modern Kashihara and Shigi lines were completed in the 1920s, followed by the Kyoto Line. Daiki founded Sangu Electric Railway Co. Ltd. in 1927, which consolidated Ise Electric Railway Co. Ltd. on September 15, 1936. In 1938, Daiki teamed up with its subsidiary Kansai Express Electric Railway Co. Ltd. to operate the first private railway service from Osaka to Nagoya. Another subsidiary Sankyū bought Kansai Express Electric Railway on January 1, 1940 and continued the service on its own.
Sankyū consolidated Yoro Railway Co. Ltd. on August 1. Daiki consolidated its largest subsidiary Sankyū on March 15, 1941 and was renamed Kansai Express Railway Co. Ltd.. Kankyū consolidated Osaka Railway Co. Ltd. on February 1, 1943 and moved its headquarters from Uehommachi to Osaka Abenobashi. Kankyū was renamed Kinki Nippon Railway Co. Ltd. after it consolidated Nankai Railway in June 1944: it maintained the name when Nankai regained its independence in 1947. After World War II, Kintetsu branched out and became one of the world's largest travel agencies, Kinki Nippon Tourist Co. Ltd. opening offices in the United States of America and other countries. The first charged limited express train service started between Uehommachi and Nagoya in 1947, this is the start of the present Kintetsu limited express trains; the current rail network was completed by consolidating Nara Electric Railway Co. Ltd. Shigi-Ikoma Electric Railway Co. Ltd. Mie Electric Railway Co. Ltd. and other companies. Kintetsu moved its headquarters again from Osaka Abenobashi to Osaka Uehommachi on December 5, 1969.
On June 28, 2003, Kinki Nippon Railway Co. Ltd. was renamed Kintetsu Corporation. The corporation was split on April 1, 2015, its railway business division was succeeded by Kintetsu Split Preparatory Company, Ltd. while its real estate business division by Kintetsu Real Estate Co. Ltd. its hotel business division by Kintetsu Hotel Systems, Inc. and its retail business by Kintetsu Retail Service Corporation, respectively. On the same day Kintetsu Corporation was split, it was renamed as Kintetsu Group Holdings Co. Ltd. as a holding company, while Kintetsu Split Preparatory Company, Ltd. was renamed as Kintetsu Railway Co. Ltd. From its founding to present September 16, 1910—April 14, 1941: Daiki April 15, 1941—May 31, 1944: Kankyū June 1, 1944—1948: Kinki Nippon or Kin-nichi Present: Kintetsu — used for the official corporate name in English since 2003. Acquired or merged companies Sangu Express Electric Railway Co. Ltd.: Sankyū Ise Electric Railway Co. Ltd.: Iseden Osaka Railway Co. Ltd.: Daitetsu Nara Electric Railway Co. Ltd.: Naraden Mie Electric Railway Co. Ltd.: Mieden Following lines belong to Kintetsu's Type I Railway Business and Cableway Business under the Railway Business Act.
This means that Kintetsu is the operator of the lines. All lines operate with 1,500 V DC overhead catenary except for the Keihanna Line, which operates on 750 V DC third rail. Osaka Line and its branch Osaka Line Shigi Line Nagoya Line and its branches Nagoya Line Yunoyama Line Suzuka Line Yamada/Toba/Shima Line Yamada Line Toba Line Shima Line Namba/Nara Line and its branch Namba Line Nara Line Ikoma Line Keihanna Line ** Kyoto/Kashihara Line and its branches Kyoto Line Kashihara Line Tenri Line Tawaramoto Line Minami Osaka/Yoshino Line and its branches Minami Osaka Line Domyoji Line Nagano Line Gose Line Yoshino Line Ikoma Line Nishi-Shigi Line Katsuragisan Ropeway Following line belongs to Kintetsu's Type II Railway Business under the Railway Business Act; this means that Kintetsu operates trains on the line, but the owner of the railway trackage is a separate company. 1,435 mm standard gauge line
The Tenri Line is a railway line of Kintetsu Railway in Nara Prefecture, Japan connecting Hirahata Station in Yamato-Kōriyama and Tenri Station in Tenri. The line has four stations including the transfer station Hirahata, it is used by commuters in the morning and evening, as well as by followers of Tenrikyo, headquartered in Tenri during festivals of the religion. Gauge: 1,435 mm Length: 4.5 km Interlocking system: Electronic Interlocking The Tenri Light Railway Co. opened a 762mm gauge line from its namesake town to Horyuji on the Kansai Main Line in 1915. The Osaka Electric Railway Co. acquired the line in 1921, the year it opened the Kashihara Line, which connected at Hirahata. The following year the line was converted to 1435mm gauge and electrified at 600 VDC; that company merged with Kintetsu in 1944. The Hirahata - Horyuji section closed in 1952, in 1969 the voltage was raised to 1500 VDC; the line was duplicated in 1988. Express trains and local trains stop at every station on the Tenri Line.
This article incorporates material from the corresponding article in the Japanese Wikipedia
Kashiharajingū-mae Station is a train station located in Kashihara, Nara Prefecture, Japan. It is on Minami Osaka Line and Yoshino Lines, it is one of the major stations on the Kintetsu lines, all trains in service stop at this station. The center station building was designed by an architect representing the 20th century. Kintetsu Railway B Kashihara Line F Minami Osaka Line F Yoshino Line This station has two island platforms serving 4 narrow gauge tracks for the Minami Osaka Line and the Yoshino Line in the west, two island platforms serving 3 standard gauge tracks for the Kashihara Line and a narrow gauge track for the Yoshino Line in the east; the number of passengers who get on and off trains at this station is 19,960 persons per day, according to the research by Kintetsu Corporation on November 9, 2010. Buses are operated by Nara Kotsu Bus Lines; as of October 2014 West stop Route 25 for Minami-Shirakashi Route 26 and 28 for Minami-Shirakashi via Minami-Myohojicho Route 28 for Yagi Station via Kashihara Gymnasium Unebigoryo-mae, Idai-byoin-mae, Kashihara City Hall Route 53 for Yagi Station via Ousa, Idai-byoin Genkanguchi, Kashihara City Hall Route 53 for Kintetsu Gose Station via Gunkaibashi and DaikanchoCenter stop Route 28 for Yagi Station via Unebigoryo-mae, Idai-byoin-mae, Kashihara City Hall Route 28 for Minami-Shirakashi via Kashiharajingu-eki-nishiguchi and Minami-MyohojichoEast stop 1 Route 8 for Yagi Station via Ousa and Idai-byoin-mae Routes 51, 52 and 53 for Yagi Station via Ousa and Idai-byoin Genkanguchi Route 51 for Oyodo Bus Center via Kamihigaimoto Route 53 for Kintetsu Gose Station via Kashiharajingu-eki nishiguchi and DaikanchoTown Office East stop 2 Route 2 for Okadera-mae for Toyoura and Asuka Daibutsu-mae Route 5 for Okadera-mae via Shobucho Yonchome-minami Route 7 for Shobusho Yonchome-minani via Shobucho Itchome, Shobucho Sanchome and Shobucho Yonchome Route 8 and 9 for Shobusho Yonchome via Shobucho Itchome and Shobucho Sanchome Route 11 for Shuhodai via Okadera Station Route 12 for Shuhodai via Shobucho Yonchome Route 15 "Aka-Kame" for Hinokuma via Asuka Station Route 16 "Aka-Kame" for Asuka Station via Asuka Historical Museum, Man'yo Bunkakan and Ishibutai Route 17 "Aka-Kame" for Okahashimoto via Asuka Historical Museum, Man'yo Bunkakan and Ishibutai Route 18 for Kashiharajingu-eki higashiguchi via Shobucho Yonchome-minami, Okadera-mae, Asuka Daibutsu-mae and Toyoura Route 19 for Kashiharajingu-eki higashiguchi via Toyoura, Asuka Daibutsu-mae, Okadera-mae and Shobucho Yonchome-minami Route 23 "Aka-Kame" for Asuka Station via Asuka-Koyama, Asuka Historical Museum, Man'yo Bunkakan and Ishibutai Route 文 for Kenko Fukushi Center for Toyoura and Asuka Daibutsu-mae and Okadera-mae Wakakusa shoten Matsumoto-Kiyoshi Kiharu FamilyMart Doutor Coffee Small convenience store on Platforms Nos. 6 and 7 ATM Kashihara Royal Hotel Kashihara Kanko Hotel Kashihara Park Athletic Stadium Baseball Stadium Mister Donut Daily Yamazaki Kashihara Shrine Official website
Kyoto Line (Kintetsu)
The Kyoto Line is a Japanese railway line owned and operated by the Kintetsu Railway, a private railway operator. It connects the cities of Kyoto and Nara, competes with the Nara Line of West Japan Railway Company, which connects those cities. Many trains on the line continue to the Nara Line to Kintetsu Nara Station or the Kashihara Line via Yamato-Saidaiji Station; the line provides the through train services with the Karasuma Line of Kyoto Municipal Subway. S: All trains stop M: Only express trains operated from Kyoto to Kintetsu Miyazu stop X: limited stop of limited express trains |: Trains pass Local trains stop at every station between Kyoto and Yamato-Saidaiji. SE: Semi-express Ex: Express LE: Limited expressTrains down to Local: Nara, Kashiharajingū-mae Express: Nara, Kashiharajingū-mae Limited Express: Nara, Kashiharajingū-mae, Kashikojima The Kyoto Line was built by Nara Electric Railway in November 1928 as dual track electrified at 600 V DC; the track between Kyoto Station and Horiuchi Station was placed on the site of a removed railway, rerouted and is now called the JR Nara Line.
The railway provided the through services to the lines of Kintetsu from the beginning. As of September 1961, Kintetsu was the largest shareholder of Nara Electric Railway with 980,000 shares out of the company's 1.9 million shares, while Keihan Electric Railway owned 710,000 shares. Through a deal between the two major shareholders, the shares owned by Keihan were transferred to Kintetsu in April 1962 and the company was merged into Kintetsu from October 1963. Between 1945 and 1968, there were through services with the Keihan Main Line using crossovers at Tambabashi; the line voltage was increased to 1,500 V DC in 1969, in 1988 through services with the Karasuma Line were introduced. This article incorporates material from the corresponding article in the Japanese Wikipedia. Tourist Guide of Kintetsu
Tawaramoto is a town located in Shiki District, Nara Prefecture, Japan. As of March 31, 2017, the town has an estimated population of 32,241; the total area is 21.09 km². It has many shrines including Jinrakuji. Located in the center of the Nara Basin, the majority of the land is flat; the Yamato River flows through the eastern portion of the town. Nara Prefecture Tenri Sakurai Kashihara Miyake Kōryō Tawaramoto Agriculture School Koutou Special School Shiki High School Media related to Tawaramoto, Nara at Wikimedia Commons Tawaramoto official website
A smart card, chip card, or integrated circuit card is a physical electronic authorization device, used to control access to a resource. It is a plastic credit card sized card with an embedded integrated circuit. Many smart cards include a pattern of metal contacts to electrically connect to the internal chip. Others are contactless, some are both. Smart cards can provide personal identification, data storage, application processing. Applications include identification, mobile phones, public transit, computer security and healthcare. Smart cards may provide strong security authentication for single sign-on within organizations. Several nations have deployed smart cards throughout their populations. In 1968 and 1969 Helmut Gröttrup and Jürgen Dethloff jointly filed patents for the automated chip card. Roland Moreno patented the memory card concept in 1974. An important patent for smart cards with a microprocessor and memory as used today was filed by Jürgen Dethloff in 1976 and granted as USP 4105156 in 1978.
In 1977, Michel Ugon from Honeywell Bull invented the first microprocessor smart card with two chips: one microprocessor and one memory, in 1978, he patented the self-programmable one-chip microcomputer that defines the necessary architecture to program the chip. Three years Motorola used this patent in its "CP8". At that time, Bull had 1,200 patents related to smart cards. In 2001, Bull sold its CP8 division together with its patents to Schlumberger, who subsequently combined its own internal smart card department and CP8 to create Axalto. In 2006, Axalto and Gemplus, at the time the world's top two smart-card manufacturers and became Gemalto. In 2008, Dexa Systems spun off from Schlumberger and acquired Enterprise Security Services business, which included the smart-card solutions division responsible for deploying the first large-scale smart-card management systems based on public key infrastructure; the first mass use of the cards was as a telephone card for payment in French payphones, starting in 1983.
After the Télécarte, microchips were integrated into all French Carte Bleue debit cards in 1992. Customers inserted the card into the merchant's point-of-sale terminal typed the personal identification number, before the transaction was accepted. Only limited transactions are processed without a PIN. Smart-card-based "electronic purse" systems store funds on the card, so that readers do not need network connectivity, they entered European service in the mid-1990s. They have been common in Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Finland, UK, Denmark and Portugal. Private electronic purse systems have been deployed such as the Marines corps at Parris Island allowing small amount payments at the cafeteria. Since the 1990s, smart cards have been the subscriber identity modules used in GSM mobile-phone equipment. Mobile phones are used across the world, so smart cards have become common. Europay MasterCard Visa -compliant cards and equipment are widespread with the deployment led by European countries.
The United States started deploying the EMV technology in 2014, with the deployment still in progress in 2018. A country's national payment association, in coordination with MasterCard International, Visa International, American Express and Japan Credit Bureau, jointly plan and implement EMV systems. In 1993 several international payment companies agreed to develop smart-card specifications for debit and credit cards; the original brands were MasterCard and Europay. The first version of the EMV system was released in 1994. In 1998 the specifications became stable. EMVCo maintains these specifications. EMVco's purpose is to assure the various financial institutions and retailers that the specifications retain backward compatibility with the 1998 version. EMVco upgraded the specifications in 2000 and 2004. EMV compliant cards were first accepted into Malaysia in 2005 and into United States in 2014. MasterCard was the first company, allowed to use the technology in the United States; the United States has felt pushed to use the technology because of the increase in identity theft.
The credit card information stolen from Target in late 2013 was one of the largest indicators that American credit card information is not safe. Target made the decision on April 30, 2014 that it would try to implement the smart chip technology in order to protect itself from future credit card identity theft. Before 2014, the consensus in America was that there were enough security measures to avoid credit card theft and that the smart chip was not necessary; the cost of the smart chip technology was significant, why most of the corporations did not want to pay for it in the United States. The debate came when online credit theft was insecure enough for the United States to invest in the technology; the adaptation of EMV's increased in 2015 when the liability shifts occurred in October by the credit card companies. Contactless smart cards do not require physical contact between a reader, they are becoming more popular for ticketing. Typical uses include mass motorway tolls. Visa and MasterCard implemented a version deployed in 2004–2006 in the U.
S. with Visa's current offering called Visa Contactless. Most contactless fare collection systems are incompatible, though the MIFARE Standard card from NXP Semiconductors has a considerable mark