Ramchandra Pant Amatya
Ramchandra Neelkanth Bawadekar known as Ramchandra Pant Amatya, served on the Council of 8 as the Finance Minister to Emperor Shivaji dating from 1674 to 1680. He served as the Imperial Regent to four emperors, namely Sambhaji, Shivaji II and Sambhaji II, he authored the Adnyapatra, a famous code of civil and military administration, is renowned as one of the greatest civil administrators and military strategists of the Maratha Empire. Ramchandra Pant was born in a Deshastha Brahmin family in 1650, he was the youngest son of Neelkanth Sondeo Bahutkar who had risen from a local revenue collection post to the post of Minister in the court of Shivaji Maharaj, His family came from the village of Kolwan, near Kalyan Bhiwandi. Ramchandra Pant's grandfather Sonopant and uncle Abaji Sondeo were in the close circle of Shivaji; the Bahutkar family was associated with Samarth Ramdas, the spiritual guru of Shivaji Maharaj Samarth Ramdas is believed to be the one who named the newly born child as Ramchandra.
Before 1672, Ramchandra Pant was engaged in various clerical jobs in Shivaji's administration. In 1672, he and his elder brother Narayan were both promoted to the post of Revenue Minister by Shivaji. In 1674, at the coronation ceremony, the post of Mujumdar was renamed as Amatya and the title was bestowed upon Ramchandra Pant, he worked in this capacity until 1678. On his death bed, Shivaji named him as one among six pillars of the Maratha Empire that would save the kingdom in difficult times. After Shivaji's death in 1680, Sambhaji became ruler of the Maratha Empire and Ramchandra Pant continued with his administration in various posts. Among other duties, Ramchandra Pant was sent to Prince Akbar, Aurangzeb's rebel son, for negotiations and, in 1685, Sambhaji deployed him as an envoy to Vijapur for certain sensitive talks. Ramchandra Pant Amatya was the only person who dedicatedly served The Maratha Swarajya under 5 Chhatrapati's in a row; when the Marathi empire was in trouble he used his wisdom, dedication to the throne and force as needed to keep the empire and its Swarajya safe.
During the coronation of Shivaji Maharaj, Ramchandra Pant Amatya was the youngest Pradhan of all the Asthapradhan's existing at that time. Thereafter, during the reign of Sambhaji Maharaj, Rajaram Maharaj, Maharani Tarabai and Sambhaji Raje, Pant Amatya always held a prominent positions; as Riyasatkar rightly said that ‘ever since the time of Shivaji Maharaj, Ramchandra Pant Amatya was the only person in the history of the Marathas who seems to have dedicatedly served the throne.’ Ramchandra Pant Amatya has laid down all the experiences encountered by him, while serving the throne in his book Rajniti. The said book is a testament to his dedication and service to the throne of Chatrapati's and Hindavi Swarajya; the forefathers of Ramchandra Pant Amatya had close relations with the Bhosle Gharana before the establishment of Swarajya. Before the coronation of Shivaji Maharaj, Ramchandra Pant Amatya's father used to participate in various initiatives undertaken by Shivaji Maharaj. Ramchandra Pant Amatya subsequently carried forward this tradition with more impact.
Ramchandra Pant Amatya took the lead. Being Impressed by his efforts, Shivaji Maharaj included Ramchandra Pant as Amatya in his First AshtaPradhan mandal i.e. Council of Ministers. This, in itself portrays the qualities. During the coronation ceremony of Shivaji Maharaj, Pant was included as Amatya, he must’ve been 22–23 years old then. Before the coronation, a PradhanMandal was appointed by Maharaj in the year 1662 which included Ramchandra Pant's father Neelkanth Sondev as Maharaj's Amatya; this legacy was carried forward, as after the death of Neelkanth Sondev his son Ramchandra Pant was appointed as Maharaj's Amatya. According to the information provided by the bakharkar, Ramchandra Pant Amatya was one of the few people present when Shivaji Maharaj was on his death bed at Raigad. Shivaji maharaj had named a few people. Ramchandra Pant Amatya was one of them. During the Reign of Sambhaji Maharaj, Ramchandra Pant Amatya was given an important position. After the unfortunate demise of Sambhaji Maharaj, the Maratha Empire was in great trouble.
Aurangzeb had taken a vow to defeat the Maratha empire at any cost, with that motive, he attacked many forts of the Marathas with a huge army. Sadness prevailed all over the Maratha Empire. In this situation, Ramchandra Pant Amatya acted with a lot of patience; this was the era of the freedom struggle of the Maratha empire. Ramchandra Pant Amatya did every thing he could to keep the royal family and the Maratha empire safe and endure the struggle of the troubled times. Ramchandra Pant Amatya, Santaji Ghorpade, Dhanaji Jadhav, Parshurampant Pant-Pratinidhi where the major contributors to the struggle for freedom. Rajaram Maharaj's stay in Jingi ended in 1697, he returned to Maharashtra. However, Rajaram Maharaj died in 1700; the Maratha empire was in trouble again. Ramchandra Pant Amatya did everything he could to save the Maratha Empire from the trouble and he succeeded; this was no mean achievement. Ramchandra Pant had paid a visit to Rajaram Maharaj. Pant had sensed the inevitable, he wrote letters to many Sardars and informed them of the dire situation and brought to their notice, the need to protect the Empire.
After the death of Rajaram Mahar
Muddupalani was a Telugu speaking poet and devadasi attached to the court of Pratap Singh, the Maratha king of Tanjore. Some commentators date her life to 1739-90, her place of birth as Nagavasram in Thanjavur district, she is noted as a poet and scholar and for her erotic epic Rādhikā-sāntvanam Muddupalani was well versed in Telugu and Sanskrit literature, was an accomplished dancer, came from a devadasi family: Muddupalani was the granddaughter of an exceptionally gifted courtesan called Tanjanayaki, not only a talented musician but was adept at the nava rasas. At her soirees, where music and conversation flowed, she entertained learned scholars and aristocrats. But... she longed to have children. She adopted children of Ayyavaya, a man she considered her brother, she raised the young boy, whom she named Muthyalu, to adulthood, got him married to another talented and beautiful courtesan called Rama Vadhuti. A staunch devotee of Lord Subramanya Swami, Muthyalu named his first-born daughter after the temple town of Palani where stands a famour temple dedicated to the beautiful warrior son of Lord Shiva.
Keeping the surname Muddu before the name, a general practise in the south, Muddupalani was thus born into an talented and devout household. She became one of the consorts of Pratap Singh, whose court was noted for its patronage of the arts, whose predecessors included Raghunatha Nayak, whose court played host to numbers of skilled female poets and musicians, such as Ramabhadramba and Madhuravani: Unlike a family woman in her time, as a courtesan Muddupalani would have had access to learning and the leisure to write and practise the arts, she would have expected and enjoyed functional equality with men. The esteem in which Muddupalani was held and the acclaim her work received can be attributed as much to the contexts and social, she drew upon as to her own talent; the Rādhikā-sāntvanam seems to reflect Muddupalani's own experiences of sexual and interpersonal relationships: her grandmother Tanjanayaki too had been a consort of the king, displaced by Muddupalani. After a few years, when the king renewed his attentions towards the older woman, the young and petulant Muddupalani is said to have become progressively jealous and taciturn, leaving the kind no option but to appease her.
Little more is known of Muddupalani's life, beyond what can be gleaned from the Rādhikā-sāntvanam, in which she says Which other woman of my kind has felicitated scholars with such gifts and money? To which other women of my kind have epics been dedicated? Which other woman of my kind has won such acclaim in each of the arts? You are incomparable, among your kind. A face that glows like skills of conversation, matching the countenance. Eyes filled with compassion. A great spirit of generosity, matching the glance; these are the ornaments. Her best-known work is Rādhikā-sāntvanam, an erotic narrative poem that deals with the marital relationship of the deity Krishna, his female friend Radha and new wife Ila, the appeasement of the jealousy of Radha, she received the concept of this poem when Krishna visited her in a dream and suggested that she write about the subject. The poem became the subject of a censorship controversy in the early 20th century, because of its sexual frankness, because it portrayed its women characters as taking the initiative in sex.
Muddupalani's other well-known work is a Telugu translation of Jayadeva's eponymous work. She translated the Thiruppavai by Andal, experimented with a form called saptapadalu, seven-lined songs, none of which survive
Madhav Rao I was the fourth Peshwa of the Maratha Empire. During his tenure, the Maratha empire recovered from the losses they suffered during the Third Battle of Panipat, a phenomenon known as Maratha Resurrection, he is considered one of the greatest Peshwas in Maratha history. Madhavrao was second son of Nanasaheb Peshwa, he was born in Savnur in 1745. At the time of his birth, Maratha Empire was stretched across a sizeable portion of Western and Northern India. On December 9, 1753, Madhavrao married Ramabai in Pune. Nanasaheb had expanded the Maratha Empire and had tried to establish better governance. However, he was held responsible for the severe defeat of the Marathas by Ahmad Shah Abdali at the Third Battle of Panipat; the Marathas suffered heavy losses including Nanasaheb's eldest son and heir Vishwasrao and cousin Sadashivrao Bhau. He died on June 1761 at Parvati in Pune. After his father's death, the sixteen-year-old Madhav Rao was made the next Peshwa of Maratha Empire, his father's brother Raghunathrao was to act as regent.
At the ascendancy of Madhavrao, the Maratha empire was in complete shambles as their defeat at Panipat had accumulated big debts to their wealth. At Shaniwar Wada, the prime residence of Peshwa, religious rituals and ceremonies were being conducted; the discipline required for the smooth running of administrative affairs was non-existent. The security at the treasury was poor; when these weaknesses were brought to Madhavrao's notice and he introduced changes by looking into the administration and the treasury. He reduced the religious practices being followed at Shaniwar Wada. In February 1762, Peshwas set out to conquer Karnataka; this was one of the earliest wars against the Nizam when conflict arose between Madhavrao and his uncle Raghunathrao. Due to difference of opinion between the two, Raghunathrao decided to abandon the troop midway and return to Pune, while Madhavrao continued. A treaty was signed with the Nizam and Madhavrao returned. Both Madhavrao and Raghunathrao had their preferences over the Sardars.
Madhavrao preferred the company of Gopalrao Patwardhan, Tryambakrao Mama Pethe, Nana Fadnavis and Ramshastri Prabhune. The discord between Madhavrao and Raghunathrao was increasing and on August 22, 1762, Raghunathrao fled to Vadgaon Maval where he started grooming his own army. Raghunathrao's men started looting this act angered Madhavrao, he decided to wage a war against his uncle Ragunathrao on November 7, 1762. However, Madhavrao didn't wish to battle against his own uncle and thus, proposed for a treaty. Raghunathrao agreed to sign the treaty with Madhavrao and asked him to move back to a non-attacking position. Madhavrao did so. However, Raghunathrao deceived Madhavrao; when the Maratha camp under Madhavrao was relaxed and unsuspecting of a battle, they were caught unawared as Raghunathrao attacked treacherously. Thus, Madhavrao was defeated in this war and on November 12, 1762 surrendered himself to Raghunathrao near Alegaon. After the surrender, Raghunathrao decided to control all the major decisions under the assistance of Sakharam Bapu.
He decided to befriend Nizam, but this proved to be a wrong masterplan as Nizam started infiltrating the zones of Maratha Empire. As time slipped by, Madhavrao pointed out the gravity of the situation to his uncle. On March 7, 1763 the Peshwas, once again under Madhavrao's leadership, decided to attack Aurangabad to crush Nizam. After months of chasing, Peshwas faced Nizam's army on August 10, 1763 in the Battle of Rakshasbhuvan near Aurangabad. Nizam's army suffered huge losses in Nizam retreated. In January 1764, for the second time, Madhavrao decided to gather up his defences and conquer Hyder Ali; this time his massive army included efficient generals like Gopalrao Patwardhan, Murarrao Ghorpade and Naro Shankar. Raghunathrao instead chose to visit Nashik; this was a long conquest which went for a year in and around the districts of Karnataka. However, Hyder Ali somehow managed to escape the clutches of the Peshwas. Madhavrao decided to call Raghunathrao for his assistance, but Raghunathrao only signed a treaty with Hyder Ali, much to Madhavrao's disappointment.
Raghunathrao intentionally made this move, since he was now fearfully aware of Madhavrao's burgeoning power. Additionally, his loyal assistant Sakharam bapu warned him against the consequences of conquering Hyder Ali. Peshwa's failure to impose authority over Hyder Ali triggered a major setback on Madhavrao's health. In 1767, Madhavrao I organized a 3rd expedition against Hyder Ali and inflicted defeats on Hyder Ali in the battles of Sira and Madgiri and made a surprise discovery of Queen Virammaji the last ruler of the Keladi Nayaka Kingdom and her son who were kept in confinement in the fort of Madgiri by Hyder Ali, they were sent to Pune for protection. Peshwas were expanding their territory in the northern regions of India. Raghunathrao and Shindes together marched towards Delhi with the intention of expanding the Maratha Empire in these territories. In the meanwhile, Madhavrao made a bold decision of bonding with his old rival, Nizam Ali Khan, Asaf Jah II; the Nizam genuinely expressed his desire to increase the relationship and thus the two met at Kurumkhed on February 5, 1766.
The next few days saw open expressions of concern. The levels of mutual understanding alleviated and this relationship started growing stronger. On December 3, 1767, British officer Mastin arr
Jijabai Shahaji Bhosale, referred to as Rajmata Jijabai, was the mother of Shivaji, founder of Maratha Empire. She was a daughter of Lakhuji Jadhavrao of Sindhkhed. Jijabai was born on 12 January 1598, as the daughter of Laojiao Jadhav of Deulgaon, near Sindkhed, in present-day Buldhana district of Maharastra, her mother's name was Mhalsabai. Jijabai was married at an early age to Shahaji Bhosle, son of Maloji Bhosle of Verul village, a military commander serving under the Adil Shahi sultans. Jijabai's father-in-law, Maloji Bhosle, had begun his career as a shilledh 5, 2019edar serving under the command of her father, Lakhojirao Jadhav, her natal family the Jadhav family was of high standing in the region, whereas her husband's family were just raising into importance newly. Jijabai had given birth to six children. Out of six, four children died in infancy and only the two sons and Shivaji, reached adulthood. Jijabai died on 17 June 1674. Today in Maharashtra, she is regarded as an ideal mother.
Her upbringing of Shivaji is a subject of folklore. The 2011 film Rajmata Jijau is a biography of Jijabai. List of Maratha dynasties and states Maratha clan system Bhosale Maratha Kranti Morcha
Shivaji Bhonsle was an Indian warrior king and a member of the Bhonsle Maratha clan. Shivaji carved out an enclave from the declining Adilshahi sultanate of Bijapur that formed the genesis of the Maratha Empire. In 1674, he was formally crowned as the chhatrapati of his realm at Raigad. Over the course of his life, Shivaji engaged in both alliances and hostilities with the Mughal Empire, Sultanate of Golkonda, Sultanate of Bijapur, as well as European colonial powers. Shivaji's military forces expanded the Maratha sphere of influence and building forts, forming a Maratha navy. Shivaji established a competent and progressive civil rule with well-structured administrative organisations, he revived ancient Hindu political traditions and court conventions and promoted the usage of Marathi and Sanskrit, rather than Persian, in court and administration. Shivaji's legacy was to vary by observer and time but he began to take on increased importance with the emergence of the Indian independence movement, as many elevated him as a proto-nationalist and hero of the Hindus.
In Maharashtra, debates over his history and role have engendered great passion and sometimes violence as disparate groups have sought to characterise him and his legacy. Shivaji was born near the city of Junnar in what is now Pune district. Scholars disagree on his date of birth; the Government of Maharashtra lists 19 February as a holiday commemorating Shivaji's birth. Shivaji was named after the goddess Shivai. Shivaji's father Shahaji Bhonsle was a Maratha general, his mother was Jijabai, the daughter of Lakhuji Jadhavrao of Sindhkhed, a Mughal-aligned sardar claiming descent from a Yadav royal family of Devagiri. At the time of Shivaji's birth, power in Deccan was shared by three Islamic sultanates: Bijapur and Golkonda. Shahaji changed his loyalty between the Nizamshahi of Ahmadnagar, the Adilshah of Bijapur and the Mughals, but always kept his jagir at Pune and his small army. Shivaji was devoted to his mother Jijabai, religious, his studies of the Hindu epics, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata influenced his lifelong defence of Hindu values.
He was interested in religious teachings, sought the company of Hindu and Sufi saints. Shahaji, meanwhile had married Tuka Bai from the Mohite family. Having made peace with the Mughals, ceding them six forts, he went to serve the Sultanate of Bijapur, he moved Shivaji and Jijabai from Shivneri to Pune and left them in the care of his jagir administrator, Dadoji Konddeo, credited with overseeing the education and training of young Shivaji. Many of Shivaji's comrades, a number of his soldiers, came from the Maval region, including Yesaji Kank, Suryaji Kakade, Baji Pasalkar, Baji Prabhu Deshpande and Tanaji Malusare. Shivaji traveled the hills and forests of the Sahyadri range with his Maval friends, gaining skills and familiarity with the land that would prove useful in his military career. Shivaji's independent spirit and his association with the Maval youths did not sit well with Dadoji, who complained without success to Shahaji. In 1639, Shahaji was stationed at Bangalore, conquered from the nayaks who had taken control after the demise of the Vijayanagara Empire.
He was asked to settle the area. Shivaji was taken to Bangalore where he, his elder brother Sambhaji, his half brother Ekoji I were further formally trained, he married Saibai from the prominent Nimbalkar family in 1640. As early as 1645, the teenage Shivaji expressed his concept in a letter. In 1645, the 15-year-old Shivaji bribed or persuaded Inayat Khan, the Bijapuri commander of the Torna Fort, to hand over possession of the fort to him; the Maratha Firangoji Narsala, who held the Chakan fort, professed his loyalty to Shivaji, the fort of Kondana was acquired by bribing the Bijapuri governor. On 25 July 1648, Shahaji was imprisoned by Baji Ghorpade under the orders of Bijapuri ruler Mohammed Adilshah, in a bid to contain Shivaji. According to Sarkar, Shahaji was released in 1649 after the capture of Jinji secured Adilshah's position in Karnataka. During these developments, from 1649–1655 Shivaji paused in his conquests and consolidated his gains. After his release, Shahaji retired from public life, died around 1664–1665 in a hunting accident.
Following his father's release, Shivaji resumed raiding, in 1656, under controversial circumstances, killed Chandrarao More, a fellow Maratha feudatory of Bijapur, seized from him the valley of Javali. Adilshah was displeased at his losses to Shivaji's forces. Having ended his conflict with the Mughals and having a greater ability to respond, in 1657 Adilshah sent Afzal Khan, a veteran general, to arrest Shivaji. Before engaging him, the Bijapuri forces desecrated the Tulja Bhavani Temple, holy to Shivaji's family, the Vithoba temple at Pandharpur, a major pilgrimage site for the Hindus. Pursued by Bijapuri forces, Shivaji retreated to Pratapgad fort, where many of his colleagues pressed him to surrender; the two forces found themselves at a stalemate, with Shivaji unable to break the siege, while Afzal Khan, having a powerful cavalry but lacking siege equipment, was unable to take the fort. After two months, Afzal Khan sent an envoy to Shivaji suggesting the two leaders meet in private outside the fort to parley.
The two met in a hut at the foothills of Pratapgad fort on 10 November 1659. The arrangements had dictated that each come armed only with a sword, attended by one follower. Shivaji, either suspecting Afzal Khan would arrest or attack him, o
Shripatrao Pant Pratinidhi
Shriniwasrao Parshuram, popularly known as Shripatrao Pratinidhi or Shripatrao Pant Pratinidhi, was a General of the Maratha Empire. He served as Pratinidhi during Chhatrapati Shahu I reign. After the death of his father Parshuram Pant Pratinidhi in 1718, Shripat Rao won the favour of Shahu by his brilliant efforts as a soldier fighting many battles in the defence of the Maratha Empire. In 1718, he was appointed as the Pant Pratinidhi of Maratha Empire. Shripatrao was not only a able administrator and organizer, but a great statesman too, his work to consolidate the Maratha Raj has been praised by most of its historians. Shahu Maharaj depended upon the advice of Shripatrao. If owing to some unavoidable reasons Rao didn't present at the court at the usual hour the king would go to his house and inquire about him, thus Shripatrao, unlike his father had no problem of loyalty to Chatrapathi Shripatrao was asked by peshwas to establish his headquarters at Poona. Rao refused to do so, he wanted to be at the side of King of the Maratha Empire, away from the intrigues pomp and debauchery of the Peshwa court.
Shripatrao, was born in 1687. He must have been influenced by his father, he had lived a life of turmoil as well as of glory, benefited from it. Shahu Maharaj had great regard for Parshuram Pant Pratinidhi. Krishnaji Khatavkar had received the pargana of Khatav in 1689 A. D from the Mughal Emperor, Aurangazeb, he had become overbearing. Shripatro defeated him in battle. Submitting to Shahu's authority was appreciated by Shahu, who released Shripatro's father. In between 1724 and 1727, the Marathas led two expeditions into the Karnatak, one led jointly by Shripatrao Pratinidhi, Peshwa Bajirao I and the Sarlashkar, the other by Peshwa and Senapati; the first Karnatak expedition, which lasted for two years, from November 1724 and May 1726, led by Fateh Singh Bhonsale, accompanied by both Shripatrao Pratinidhi and Bajirao I, proved to be futile. The Nizam gave lukewarm support to Marathas; however he regarded the south as his sphere of influence and did not want Marathas to interfere with it. He therefore gave secret instructions to officers to thwart the plans of Marathas in Karnatak.
The Maratha leaders who led this campaign could not shed their differences. The Marathas could not realize their objective in this campaign; the second Karnatak expedition was led by Bajirao him in October 1727. The Pratinidhi, secretly negotiating with the Nizam, rewarded with a personal jagir i Varhad by Nizam. Bajirao therefore did not associate with Pratinidhi with this expedition, he besieged the fort of Serinaapatnam and succeeded in levying chauth and Sardeshmukhi from the rulers of Mysore and Arcot. After the death of Shripatrao Pratinidhi in 1746 Shahu Maharaj made his younger brother, Jagjivan Parshuram the next Pratinidhi. Jagjivan parashuram was the youngest son of Parashuram Trimbak Pant, he became Pratinidhi at the age of fifty-five. Pant Pratinidhi family Udgaonkar, P. B. Political Institutions & Administration. Motilal Banarsidass Publications. Bond, J. W. Indian States: A Biographical and Administrative Survey. Asian Educational Services. Pant, Apa. An Extended Family Or Fellow Pilgrims.
Sangam Books. Kulkarni, A. R.. The Marathas. Diamond Publications. Vaidya, Sushila. Role of women in Maratha politics, 1620-1752 A. D. Sharada Publication House