The State Legislative Assembly is the lower house of a state legislature in the States and Union Territories of India. In the 29 states and 2 union territories with unicameral state legislature it is the sole legislative house. In 7 states it is the lowest house of their bicameral state legislatures with the upper house being Vidhan Parishad or the State Legislative Council. 5 Union Territories have no legislative body. Each Member of the Legislative Assembly is directly elected to serve 5 year terms by single-member constituencies. In 14 states the Governor of a state may appoint one Anglo-Indian MLA to their respective states Assemblies, in accordance with the 23rd Amendment of the Constitution of India; the Constitution of India states that a State Legislative Assembly must have no less than 60 and no more than 500 members however an exception may be granted via an Act of Parliament as is the case in the states of Goa, Sikkim and the union territory of Puducherry which have fewer than 60 members.
A Vidhan Sabha may be dissolved in a state of emergency, by the Governor on request of the Chief Minister, or if a motion of no confidence is passed against the majority coalition. To become a member of a State Legislative Assembly, a person must be a citizen of India, not less than 25 years of age, he or she should not be bankrupt. He or she should state an affidavit that there are no criminal procedures against him or her. Speaker of State Legislative Assembly, responsible for the conduct of business of the body, a Deputy Speaker to preside during the Speaker's absence; the Speaker manages all debates and discussions in the house. He or she is a member of the stronger political party A State Legislative Assembly holds equal legislative power with the upper house of state legislature, the State Legislative Council, except in the area of money bills in which case the State Legislative Assembly has the ultimate authority. A motion of no confidence against the government in the state can only be introduced in the State Legislative Assembly.
If it is passed by a majority vote the Chief Minister and his Council of Ministers must collectively resign. A money bill can only be introduced in State Legislative Assembly. In bicameral jurisdictions, after it is passed in the State Legislative Assembly, it is sent to the Vidhan Parishad, where it can be kept for a maximum time of 14 days. In matters related to ordinary bills, the will of Legislative Assembly prevails and there is no provision of joint sitting. In such cases, Legislative council can delay the legislation by maximum 4 months. † – In these fourteen legislative assemblies, one seat is reserved for the nominated Anglo-Indian member. ‡ – In Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly, two seats are reserved for the nominated women members. # – In Puducherry Legislative Assembly, three seats are reserved for the nominated members by the Union Government of India. Legislative assembly Legislative council State governments of India State Assembly elections in India Politics of India Legislative Bodies in India website Assembly constituency level publications website Laws of India website to download laws made by different states Punjab State Legislative Assembly Election Results 2012
An auto rickshaw is a motorized development of the traditional pulled rickshaw or cycle rickshaw. Most do not tilt. An exception is in Cambodia, where two different types of vehicles are called tuk-tuks, one of which has four wheels and is composed of a motorcycle and trailer; the auto rickshaw is a common form of urban transport, both as a vehicle for hire and for private use, in many countries around the world those with tropical or subtropical climates, including many developing countries. Bajaj Auto of Pune, India is the world's largest auto rickshaw manufacturer. Japan has exported three-wheelers to Thailand since 1934. Moreover, the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications of Japan donated about 20,000 used three-wheelers to Southeast Asia. In Japan, three-wheelers went out of use in the latter half of the 1960s. In 1947 Corradino D'Ascanio, aircraft designer at Piaggio and inventor of the Vespa, came up with the idea of building a light three-wheeled commercial vehicle to power Italy's post-war economic reconstruction.
The Piaggio Ape followed suit. Auto rickshaws in Southeast Asia started from the knockdown production of the Daihatsu Midget, introduced in 1959. There are many different auto rickshaw types and variations; the most common type is characterized by a sheet-metal body or open frame resting on three wheels. Locally named the "toktok," the rickshaw is used to provide transportation in some parts of Egypt. Together with the recent boom of recreational facilities in Gaza for the local residents, donkey carts have all but been displaced by tuk-tuks in 2010. Due to the ban by Egypt and Israel on the import of most motorised vehicles, the tuk-tuks have had to be smuggled in parts through the tunnel network connecting Gaza with Egypt. In Madagascar, man-powered rickshaws are a common form of transportation in a number of cities Antsirabe, they are known as "posy" from pousse-pousse. Cycle rickshaws took off since 2006 in a number of flat cities like Toamasina and replaced the major part of the posy, are now threatened by the auto rickshaws, introduced in 2009.
Provincial capitals like Toamasina, Mahajanga and Antsiranana are taking to them rapidly. They are known as "bajaji" in the north and "tuk-tuk" or "tik-tik" in the east, are now licensed to operate as taxis, they are not yet allowed an operating licence in the congested, more polluted national capital, Antananarivo. The auto rickshaw is used to provide transportation in cities all over Nigeria. Popularity and use varies across the country however. In Lagos, for example, the "keke" is regulated and transportation around the state's highways is prohibited. Tuk-tuks, introduced in Durban in the late 1980s enjoyed growing popularity in recent years in Gauteng. In Cape Town they are used to deliver groceries and, more transport tourists. Rickshaws, known as "Raksha" in Sudan, is the most common mean of transportation followed by the bus in the capital Khartoum. Rickshaws are a common mode of transportation in Dar es Salaam. Auto rickshaws are one of the more popular modes of transport in Bangladesh due to their size and speed.
They are best suited to narrow, crowded streets, are thus the principal means of covering longer distances within urban areas. Two-stroke engines had been identified as one of the leading sources of air pollution in Dhaka. Thus, since January 2003, traditional auto rickshaws were banned from the capital. All CNGs are painted green to signify that the vehicles are eco-friendly and that each one has a meter built-in. Farhad Ilias and brother in-law Adil Ali imported the first auto rickshaws in the late 1940s following the first successful turbo-prop engine factory launch. In Cambodia, the term tuk-tuk refers to a passenger-carrying remorque pulled by a motorcycle, it is a used form of transportation in the capital of Phnom Penh and for visitors touring the Angkor temples in Siem Reap. In Phnom Penh and other Cambodian cities tuk-tuk fares are negotiated with the driver, while at Angkor Wat they are rented on daily basis. Cambodian cities have a much lower volume of automobile traffic than Thai cities, tuk-tuks are still the most common form of urban transport.
There are more than 6,000 tuk-tuks in Phnom Penh, according to the Independent Democracy of Informal Economy Association, a union that represents tuk-tuk drivers among other members. Various types of auto rickshaw are used around China, where they are called sān lún chē and sometimes sān bèng zǐ, meaning three wheeler or tricycle, they may be used to transport cargo or passengers in the more rural areas. However, in many urban areas the auto rickshaws for passengers are operated illegally as they are considered unsafe and an eyesore, they are permitted in some cities, however. The Southeast Asian word tuk tuk is transliterated as dū dū chē. Most cities offer auto rickshaw service, although cycle rickshaws are common and hand-pulled rickshaws exist in certain areas such as Kolkata. Auto rickshaws are used in towns for short distances. Auto rickshaws provide
Chota Nagpur Plateau
The Chhota Nagpur Plateau is a plateau in eastern India, which covers much of Jharkhand state as well as adjacent parts of Odisha, West Bengal and Chhattisgarh. The Indo-Gangetic plain lies to the north and east of the plateau, the basin of the Mahanadi River lies to the south; the total area of the Chota Nagpur Plateau is 65,000 square kilometres. The name Nagpur is taken from Nagavanshis, who ruled in this part of the country. Chhota is the name of a village in the outskirts of Ranchi, which has the remains of an old fort belonging to the Nagavanshis; the Chhota Nagpur Plateau is a continental plateau—an extensive area of land thrust above the general land. The plateau has been formed by continental uplift from forces acting deep inside the earth; the Gondwana substrates attest to the plateau's ancient origin. It is part of the Deccan Plate, which broke free from the southern continent during the Cretaceous to embark on a 50-million-year journey, interrupted by the collision with the Eurasian continent.
The northeastern part of the Deccan Plateau, where this ecoregion sits, was the first area of contact with Eurasia. The Chhota Nagpur Plateau consists of three steps; the highest step is in the western part of the plateau, where pats, as a plateau is locally called, are 910 to 1,070 metres above sea level. The highest point is 1,164 metres; the next part contains larger portions of the old Ranchi and Hazaribagh districts and some parts of old Palamu district, before these were broken up into smaller administrative units. The general height is 610 metres; the topography in undulating with prominent gneissic hills dome-like in outline. The lowest step of the plateau is at an average level of around 300 metres, it covers the old Singhbhum districts. High hills are a striking part of this section - Parasnath Hills rise to a height of 1,370 metres and Dalma Hills to 1,038 metres; the large plateau is subdivided into several small sub plateaux. The western plateau with an average elevation of 1,000 metres above mean sea level merges into the plateau of the Surguja district of Chhattisgarh.
The flat topped plateaux, locally known as pats are characterized by level surface and accordance of their summit levels shows they are part of one large plateau. Examples include Jamira Pat, Khamar Pat, Rudni Pat and others; the area is referred to as Western Ranchi Plateau. It is believed to be composed of Deccan basalt lava; the Ranchi Plateau is the largest part of the Chhota Nagpur Plateau. The elevation of the plateau surface in this part is about 700 m and slopes down towards south-east into the hilly and undulating region of Singhbhum; the plateau is dissected. The Damodar River flows through a rift valley. To the north it is separated from the Hazaribagh plateau by the Damodar trough. To the west is a group of plateaux called pat. There are many waterfalls at the edges of the Ranchi plateau where rivers coming from over the plateau surface form waterfalls when they descend through the precipitous escarpments of the plateau and enter the area of lower elevation; the North Karo River has formed the 17 m high Pheruaghaugh Falls at the southern margin of the Ranchi plateau.
Such falls are called. Hundru Falls on the Subarnarekha River near Ranchi, Dassam Falls on the Kanchi River, east of Ranchi, Sadni Falls on the Sankh River are examples of scarp falls. Sometimes waterfalls of various dimensions are formed when tributary streams join the master stream from great heights forming hanging valleys. At Rajrappa, the Bhera River coming over from the Ranchi Plateau hangs above the Damodar River at its point of confluence with the latter; the Jonha Falls is another example of this category of falls. The Gunga River hangs over its master stream, the Raru River and forms the said; the Hazaribagh plateau is subdivided into two parts – the higher plateau and the lower plateau. Here the higher plateau is referred to as Hazaribagh plateau and the lower plateau as Koderma plateau; the Hazaribagh plateau on which Hazaribagh town is built is about 64 km east by west and 24 km north by south with an average elevation of 610 m. The north-eastern and southern faces are abrupt, it is separated from the Ranchi plateau by the Damodar trough.
The western portion of Hazaribagh plateau constitutes a broad watershed between the Damodar drainage on the south and the Lilajan and Mohana rivers on the north. The highest hills in this area are called after the villages of Kasiatu and Hudu, rise fronting the south 180 m above the general level of the plateau. Further east along the southern face a long spur projects right up to the Damodar river where it ends in Aswa Pahar, elevation 751 metres. At the south-eastern corner of the plateau is Jilinga Hill at 932 metres. Mahabar Jarimo at 666 m and Barsot at 660 m stand in isolation to the east, on the north-west edge of the plateau Sendraili at 670 m and Mahuda at 734 m are the most prominent features. Isolated on the plateau, in the neighbourhood of Hazaribagh town are four hills of which the highest Chendwar rises to 860 m. On all sides it has an exceedingly abrupt scarp, modified only on the south-east
Bokaro Steel Plant
Bokaro Steel Plant is located in the Bokaro district of Jharkhand. It is the fourth integrated public sector steel plant in India built with Soviet help, it was incorporated as a limited company in 1964. It was merged with the state-owned Steel Authority of India Limited, it houses five blast furnaces with a total capacity to produce 5.2 MT of liquid steel. The plant is undergoing a mass modernisation drive after which its output capacity is expected to cross 10 MT The plant's yearly profit stood at ₹11.2 billion for the financial year 2003–04 and has increased every year since reaching to 84.26 billion INR in the financial year 2007–08. Bokaro Steel Plant is designed to produce a wide range of flat products: Hot rolled coils Hot rolled plates Hot rolled sheets Cold rolled coils Cold rolled sheets Tin mill black plates Galvanised plain and corrugated sheets Oxygen Gas Produced in Oxygen Plant. Hydrogen Gas Coke Oven byproducts Cowdung Mannure Sutinder Bhatia. Bokaro steel plant: some economic aspects.
Popular Prakashan. ISBN 978-81-7154-540-7. Padma Desai; the Bokaro steel plant: a study of Soviet economic assistance. North-Holland Pub. Co. ISBN 978-0-444-10388-8
Damodar River is a river flowing across the Indian states of Jharkhand and West Bengal. Rich in mineral resources, the valley is home to industrial activity. Earlier known as the Sorrow of Bengal because of its ravaging floods in the plains of West Bengal, the Damodar and its tributaries have been somewhat tamed with the construction of several dams, it is the most polluted river of India. Means "rope around the belly", derived from Sanskrit दाम "rope" and उदर "belly"; this is another name of the Hindu god Krishna, given to him because his foster-mother tied him to a large urn. It has a number of tributaries and subtributaries, such as Barakar, Bokaro, Jamunia, Guaia and Bhera; the Damodar and the Barakar trifurcates the Chota Nagpur plateau. The rivers pass through hilly areas with great force. Two bridges on the Grand Trunk Road near Barhi in Hazaribagh district were torn down by the Barakar: the great stone bridge in 1913 and the subsequent iron bridge in 1946; the Chota Nagpur Plateau receives an average annual rainfall of around 1,400 mm all of it in the monsoon months between June and August.
The huge volume of water that flows down the Damodar and its tributaries during the monsoons used to be a fury in the upper reaches of the valley. In the lower valley it used to flood large areas. Damodar River was earlier known as the "River of Sorrows" as it used to flood many areas of Bardhaman, Hooghly and Medinipur districts. Now the floods sometimes affect the lower Damodar Valley, but the havoc it wreaked in earlier years is now a matter of history; the floods were an annual ritual. In some years the damage was more. Many of the great floods of the Damodar are recorded in history — 1770, 1855, 1866, 1873–74, 1875–76, 1884–85, 1891–92, 1897, 1900, 1907, 1913, 1927, 1930, 1935 and 1943. In four of these floods most of Bardhaman town was flooded. In 1789 an agreement was signed between Maharaja Kirti Chand of Burdwan and the East India Company wherein the Maharaja was asked to pay an additional amount of ₹193,721 for the construction and maintenance of embankment to prevent floods. However, these ran into dispute and in 1866 and 1873, The Bengal Embankment Act was passed, transferring the powers to build and maintain embankment to the government.
So great was the devastation every year that the floods passed into folklore, as the following Bhadu song testifies: We have sown the crops in Asar We will bring Bhadu in Bhadra. Floods have swollen the Damodar. O Damodar! We fall at your feet Reduce the floods a little. Bhadu will come a year Let the boats sail on your surface; the Damodar Valley is spread across Hazaribagh, Koderma, Dhanbad and Chatra districts in Jharkhand and Bardhaman and Hooghly districts in West Bengal and covers Palamu, Ranchi and Dumka districts in Jharkhand and Howrah and Purulia districts in West Bengal with a command area of 24,235 square kilometres. The Damodar valley is rich in coal, it is considered as the prime centre of coking coal in the country. Massive deposits are found in the central basin spreading over 2,883 square kilometres; the important coalfields in the basin are Jharia, West Bokaro, East Bokaro, South Karanpura and North Karanpura. The Damodar Valley is one of the most industrialised parts of India.
Three integrated steel plants of Steel Authority of India Limited and other factories are in the valley. Several dams have been constructed for the generation of hydroelectric power; the valley is called “the Ruhr of India”. Damodar Valley Corporation, popularly known as DVC, came into being on July 7, 1948, by an Act of the Constituent Assembly of India as the first multipurpose river valley project of independent India, it is modeled on the Tennessee Valley Authority of the United States. The initial focus of the DVC were flood control, generation and distribution of electricity, eco-conservation and afforestation, as well as job creation for the socio-economic well-being of the people residing in and around areas affected by DVC projects. However, over the past few decades, power generation has gained priority. Other objectives of the DVC remain part of its primary responsibility; the dams in the valley have a capacity to moderate peak floods of 7,100 to 18,400 cubic metres per second. DVC has created irrigation potential of 3,640 square kilometres.
The first dam was built across the Barakar River, a tributary of the Damodar river at Tilaiya in 1953. The second one was built across the Konar River, another tributary of the Damodar river at Konar in 1955. Two dams across the rivers Barakar and Damodar were built at Maithon in 1957 and Panchet in 1958. Both the dams are some 8 kilometres upstream of the confluence point of the rivers; these four major dams are controlled by DVC. Durgapur Barrage was constructed downstream of the four dams in 1955, across the Damodar river at Durgapur in 1955, with head regulators for canals on either side for feeding an extensive system of canals and distributaries. In 1978, the government of Bihar constructed the Tenughat Dam across the Damodar river outside the control of DVC, it proposes constructing a dam across the Barakar river at Belpahari in Jharkhand state
The Lok Sabha is the lower house of India's bicameral Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha. Members of the Lok Sabha are elected by adult universal suffrage and a first-past-the-post system to represent their respective constituencies, they hold their seats for five years or until the body is dissolved by the President on the advice of the council of ministers; the house meets in the Lok Sabha Chambers of the Sansad Bhavan in New Delhi. The maximum strength of the House allotted by the Constitution of India is 552; the house has 545 seats, made up by the election of up to 543 elected members and at a maximum, 2 nominated members of the Anglo-Indian Community by the President of India. A total of 131 seats are reserved for representatives of Scheduled Tribes; the quorum for the House is 10% of the total membership. The Lok Sabha, unless sooner dissolved, continues to operate for five years from the date appointed for its first meeting. However, while a proclamation of emergency is in operation, this period may be extended by Parliament by law.
An exercise to redraw Lok Sabha constituencies' boundaries is carried out by the Boundary Delimitation Commission of India every decade based on the Indian census, last of, conducted in 2011. This exercise earlier included redistribution of seats among states based on demographic changes but that provision of the mandate of the commission was suspended in 1976 following a constitutional amendment to incentivise the family planning programme, being implemented; the 16th Lok Sabha is the latest to date. The schedule for the 2019 Lok Sabha Election has been announced by the Election Commission of India. Broken into seven phases the General Elections will be held from 11th April 2019 till 19th May 2019; the Lok Sabha has its own television channel, Lok Sabha TV, headquartered within the premises of Parliament. A major portion of the Indian subcontinent was under British rule from 1858 to 1947. During this period, the office of the Secretary of State for India was the authority through whom British Parliament exercised its rule in the Indian sub-continent, the office of Viceroy of India was created, along with an Executive Council in India, consisting of high officials of the British government.
The Indian Councils Act 1861 provided for a Legislative Council consisting of the members of the Executive Council and non-official members. The Indian Councils Act 1892 established legislatures in each of the provinces of British India and increased the powers of the Legislative Council. Although these Acts increased the representation of Indians in the government, their power still remained limited, the electorate small; the Indian Councils Act 1909 and the Government of India Act 1919 further expanded the participation of Indians in the administration. The Government of India Act 1935 introduced provincial autonomy and proposed a federal structure in India; the Indian Independence Act 1947, passed by the British parliament on 18 July 1947, divided British India into two new independent countries and Pakistan, which were to be dominions under the Crown until they had each enacted a new constitution. The Constituent Assembly was divided into two for the separate nations, with each new Assembly having sovereign powers transferred to it for the respective dominion.
The Constitution of India was adopted on 26 November 1949 and came into effect on 26 January 1950, proclaiming India to be a sovereign, democratic republic. This contained the founding principles of the law of the land which would govern India in its new form, which now included all the princely states which had not acceded to Pakistan. According to Article 79 of the Constitution of India, the Parliament of India consists of the President of India and the two Houses of Parliament known as the Council of States and the House of the People; the Lok Sabha was duly constituted for the first time on 17 April 1952 after the first General Elections held from 25 October 1951 to 21 February 1952. Article 84 of Indian Constitution sets qualifications for being a member of Lok Sabha, which are as follows: He / She should be a citizen of India, must subscribe before the Election Commission of India an oath or affirmation according to the form set out for the purpose in the Third Schedule of Indian Constitution.
He / She should not be less than 25 years of age. He / She possesses such other qualifications as may be prescribed in that behalf by or under any law made by Parliament, he / She should not be proclaimed criminal i.e. they should not be a convict, a confirmed debtor or otherwise disqualified by law. However, a member can be disqualified of being a member of Parliament: If he / she holds office of profit. A seat in the Lok Sabha will become vacant in the following circumstances: When the holder of the seat, by writing to the speaker, resigns; when the holder of the seat is absent from 60 consecutive days of proceedings of the House, without prior permission of the Speaker. When the holder of the seat is subject to any dis