Violin Sonata No. 9 (Beethoven)
The Violin Sonata No. 9, Op. 47, by Ludwig van Beethoven, is a sonata for piano and violin notable for its technical difficulty, unusual length, emotional scope. It is known as the Kreutzer Sonata after the violinist Rodolphe Kreutzer, who it was dedicated to, but who disliked the piece and refused to play it. In the composer's 1803 sketchbook the work was titled "Sonata per il Pianoforte ed uno violino obligato in uno stile molto concertante come d’un concerto"; the final movement of the work was written for another, sonata for violin and piano by Beethoven, the Op. 30, no. 1, in A major. Beethoven gave no key designation to the work. Although the work is titled as being in A-major, the Austrian composer and music theoretician Gerhard Präsent has published articles indicating that the main key is in fact A-minor. Präsent has revealed interesting connections to the 6th violin sonata op.30/1, for which the third movement was composed, he believes that the unusual opening bars for solo violin form a kind of transition from the earlier sonata, supporting the belief that the acquisition of the finale of Op. 30/1 for the "Kreutzer" was a compositional intention — and not a result of lack of time, as long suspected.
The sonata was dedicated to the violinist George Bridgetower as "Sonata mulattica composta per il mulatto Brischdauer, gran pazzo e compositore mulattico". Shortly after completion the work was premiered by Bridgetower and Beethoven on 24 May 1803 at the Augarten Theatre at a concert that started at the unusually early hour of 8:00 am. Bridgetower sight-read the sonata. After the premiere performance Beethoven and Bridgetower fell out: while the two were drinking, Bridgetower insulted the morals of a woman whom Beethoven cherished. Enraged, Beethoven removed the dedication of the piece, dedicating it instead to Rodolphe Kreutzer, considered the finest violinist of the day; the piece is in three movements, takes 43 minutes to perform: Adagio sostenuto – Presto The sonata opens with a slow 18-bar introduction, of which only the first four bars of the solo violin are in the A-Major-key. The piano enters, the harmony begins to turn darker towards the minor key, until the main body of the movement — an angry A-minor Presto— begins.
Here, the piano part matches. Near the end, Beethoven brings back part of the opening Adagio, before closing the movement in an anguished coda. Andante con variazioni There could hardly be a greater contrast with the second movement, a placid tune in F major followed by five distinctive variations; the first variation transliterates the theme into a lively triple meter while embellishing it with trills, while in the second the violin steals the melody and enlivens it further. The third variation, in F minor, returns to a more meditative state; the fourth recalls the first and second variations with its light and airy feel. The fifth and final variation, the longest, caps the movement with a slower and more dramatic feel returning to the carefree F major. Presto The calm is broken by a crashing A major chord in the piano, ushering in the virtuosic and exuberant third movement, a 6/8 tarantella in sonata form. After moving through a series of contrasting episodes, the theme returns for the last time, the work ends jubilantly in a rush of A major.
After its successful premiere in 1803 the work was published in 1805 as Beethoven's Op. 47, with its re-dedication to Rudolphe Kreutzer, which gave the composition its nickname. Kreutzer never performed the work, considering it "outrageously unintelligible", he did not care for any of Beethoven's music, they only met once, briefly. Referring to Beethoven's composition, Leo Tolstoy's novella The Kreutzer Sonata was first published in 1889; that novella was adapted in various stage and film productions, contributing to Beethoven's composition becoming known to the general public. Rita Dove's 2009 Sonata Mulattica reimagined the life of Bridgetower, the sonata's original dedicatee, in poetry, thus writing about the sonata that connected the composer and the violinist who first performed it. ESTA-Nachrichten No. 51, March 2004, p. 13ff, Stuttgart. "Mitteilungen des Steirischen Tonkünstlerbundes" No. 1/2, June 2003, Graz. Violin Sonata No. 9: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project Gutmann, Peter.
"Classical Classics - Beethoven: Kreutzer Sonata". Classical Notes. Oswin, Matthew. Beethoven's'Kreutzer' Sonata: Nineteenth-century Art of Arrangement - One Piece, Three Ways. New Zealand School of Music. Story about the Dedication of Kreutzer Sonata European Archive Copyright free LP recording of the Kreutzer sonata Max Rostal and Franz Osborn at the European Archive. Performance of Violin Sonata No. 9 by Corey Cerovsek and Paavali Jumppanen from the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum
Hans Georg Nägeli
Hans Georg Nägeli was a composer and music publisher. Nägeli was born in Switzerland, he studied under his father as a child, opened a private music shop and publishing firm in the 1790s. In 1803 he began publishing the Repertoire des Clavecinistes, which included the first editions of keyboard pieces by composers such as Muzio Clementi, Johann Baptist Cramer, Ludwig van Beethoven, he founded two singing societies in Zurich, in addition to writing profusely on music theory and aesthetics, as well as introductory treatises for students. He died in Zurich in 1836. Much of Nägeli's compositional output consists of keyboard songs, his "Gold'ne Abendsonne" was adapted by others for various purposes. One version of the tune, sung by a bird on Today, was described by its presenters as a "Folk Song", but appears in various music editions of the Metrical psalter, where it is attributed to Nägeli. Nowadays he is best known for the hymn tune Dennis. Don Randel, The Harvard Biographical Dictionary of Music.
Harvard, 1996, p. 627. Free scores by Hans Georg Nägeli at the International Music Score Library Project Literature by and about Hans Georg Nägeli in the German National Library catalogue Nägeli, Hans Georg in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
Beethoven Project Trio
The Beethoven Project Trio is an American piano trio, formed in Chicago in 2008. Its founding members are pianist violinist Sang Mee Lee and cellist Wendy Warner; the first public concert given by the trio was on March 1, 2009 at Chicago’s Murphy Auditorium for the world premiere of a rediscovered piano trio by Ludwig van Beethoven, as well as the American premiere of another Beethoven trio and the Chicago premiere of yet another Trio. John von Rhein, music critic of the Chicago Tribune, wrote about the trio's first concert that "for musicians who had never worked together as a trio before, pianist George Lepauw, violinist Sang Mee Lee and cellist Wendy Warner made a splendid ensemble, playing with finely judged balance, evenness of sound and unanimity of style Lepauw and Warner ended their program with Beethoven’s familiar “Archduke” Trio, a masterpiece that drew on their individual and collective abilities; the slow movement emerged with particular eloquence here." The Beethoven Project Trio is one of the performing ensembles of an umbrella organization, the International Beethoven Project, which organized the trio's world premiere Beethoven performance in March 2009 and co-produced their recording along with Cedille Records.
The International Beethoven Project is a branch of the PianoForte Foundation of Chicago. The purpose of the Beethoven Project Trio is to explore all of Beethoven's trio works and to approach them within the context of Beethoven's complete output and life-story. On occasion, the group will explore the trio repertoire by other composers who either inspired or were inspired by Beethoven. Of interest to the group is the occasional commission of a new piano trio; the Beethoven Project Trio has a strong educational mission, which the group fulfills by giving performances in schools, giving lectures, master classes. When possible, the group supports charities by donating performances or by helping to raise awareness of important issues that help to make the world better, in the spirit of Beethoven's own care for humanity; the Beethoven Project Trio made the world-premiere recording of Beethoven's Piano Trio in E flat Major, Hess 47, along with Beethoven's Opus 63 and his Piano Trio in D Major, Kinsky/Halm Anhang 3 in an edition by Robert McConnell.
The recording took place in New York at the American Academy of Arts and Letters, with Max Wilcox producing for the Chicago-based Cedille Records label, was released May 23, 2010. The CD reached #24 on the Classical Billboard Charts] in its first week, has since received great critical acclaim: “Beethoven chamber music enthusiasts will rejoice in this issue; the chance to hear splendid examples of unfamiliar Beethoven, in his most frolicsome classical vein, played with great flair by three of Chicago’s finest young musicians makes this a welcome and self-recommending release.” The Beethoven Project Trio has been featured several times on Chicago's 98.7WFMT Radio, as well as on American Public Media's Performance Today. The group was featured on CBS Evening News February 28, 2009, their recording has been the featured CD of the Week at numerous radio stations across the United States, including Chicago's WFMT, New York's WQXR, Washington DC's WETA. The Beethoven Project Trio is the subject of a documentary in production and directed by the Emmy Award winning film maker, Mike Cahill.
A short version of the film can be seen online. The International Beethoven Project is a not-for-profit organization based out of Chicago, it was established in 2009 by founder and artistic director George Lepauw. The IBP serves as an umbrella organization for the Beethoven Project Trio, the Prometheus Ensemble, the Beethoven Festival, the Beethoven Festival Orchestra, the Beethoven Spirit Award; the International Beethoven Project is most well known for its productions of festivals, films, educational outreach and art exhibits both in the United States and internationally. The Prometheus Ensemble is a group formed to supplement the Beethoven Project Trio; the group’s size changes according to the repertoire. Regular performers have included David Taylor, Li-Kuo Chang, Patrick Jee, Paula Kosower, Larry Combs, Aurelien Pederzoli, Kenneth Olsen, Sang Mee Lee, Wendy Warner and George Lepauw; the Beethoven Festival is a multidisciplinary event in celebration of Beethoven’s music and influences, which includes musical performances, dance performances and contemporary art expositions, as well as master classes and other educational outreach.
While the festival is centered around the music and idea of Beethoven, it does not limit itself to his works only, but rather uses Beethoven as an inspiration for making music and art relevant in the 21st century. "Beethoven Festival 2011: Man and Muse" - the inaugural IBP festival - took place over five days at the Chicago Urban Arts Society September 14–18, 2011. Some of the festival's performers included pianists George Lepauw, Winston Choi and Marta Aznavoorian. John Von Rhein of the Chicago Tribune called the festival “an ambitious, barrier-blasting, uneve
Beethoven Hall (Boston)
Beethoven Hall was an auditorium in Boston, that hosted musical performances and other entertainments in the 1870s. It sat on Washington Street, near Boylston Street, in today's Boston Theater District/Chinatown neighborhood. In 1879 the renovated hall re-opened as the Park Theatre; the building survived until 1990. Annie de Montford, mesmerist Charlotte Cushman Mrs. Adelia Dauncey Maskell Berger Family and Sol Smith Russell Buckley's Serenaders Callender's Georgia Minstrels Marius Cazeneuve's "grand soirees of prestidigitation and anti-spiritualistic seances" Buffalo Bill combination Tomasi's Grand Juvenile English Opera Brown's Brigade Band Lingards and Company G. B. Bunnell's "living human wonders from the New American Museum, New York City"
Ludwig van Beethoven
Ludwig van Beethoven was a German composer and pianist. A crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras in classical music, he remains one of the most recognised and influential of all composers, his best-known compositions include 9 symphonies. His career as a composer is conventionally divided into early and late periods. Beethoven was born in Bonn the capital of the Electorate of Cologne and part of the Holy Roman Empire, he displayed his musical talents at an early age and was taught by his father Johann van Beethoven and composer and conductor Christian Gottlob Neefe. At the age of 21 he moved to Vienna, where he began studying composition with Joseph Haydn and gained a reputation as a virtuoso pianist, he lived in Vienna until his death. By his late 20s his hearing began to deteriorate and by the last decade of his life he was completely deaf. In 1811 he continued to compose. Beethoven was the grandson of Ludwig van Beethoven, a musician from the town of Mechelen in the Austrian Duchy of Brabant who had moved to Bonn at the age of 21.
Ludwig was employed as a bass singer at the court of the Elector of Cologne rising to become, in 1761, Kapellmeister and thereafter the pre-eminent musician in Bonn. The portrait he commissioned of himself towards the end of his life remained displayed in his grandson's rooms as a talisman of his musical heritage. Ludwig had one son, who worked as a tenor in the same musical establishment and gave keyboard and violin lessons to supplement his income. Johann married Maria Magdalena Keverich in 1767. Beethoven was born of this marriage in Bonn. There is no authentic record of the date of his birth; as children of that era were traditionally baptised the day after birth in the Catholic Rhine country, it is known that Beethoven's family and his teacher Johann Albrechtsberger celebrated his birthday on 16 December, most scholars accept 16 December 1770 as his date of birth. Of the seven children born to Johann van Beethoven, only Ludwig, the second-born, two younger brothers survived infancy. Kaspar Anton Karl was born on 8 April 1774, Nikolaus Johann, the youngest, was born on 2 October 1776.
Beethoven's first music teacher was his father. He had other local teachers: the court organist Gilles van den Eeden, Tobias Friedrich Pfeiffer, Franz Rovantini. From the outset his tuition regime, which began in his fifth year, was harsh and intensive reducing him to tears, his musical talent was obvious at a young age. Johann, aware of Leopold Mozart's successes in this area, attempted to promote his son as a child prodigy, claiming that Beethoven was six on the posters for his first public performance in March 1778; some time after 1779, Beethoven began his studies with his most important teacher in Bonn, Christian Gottlob Neefe, appointed the Court's Organist in that year. Neefe taught him composition, by March 1783 had helped him write his first published composition: a set of keyboard variations. Beethoven soon began working with Neefe as assistant organist, at first unpaid, as a paid employee of the court chapel conducted by the Kapellmeister Andrea Luchesi, his first three piano sonatas, named "Kurfürst" for their dedication to the Elector Maximilian Friedrich, were published in 1783.
Maximilian Frederick noticed his talent early, subsidised and encouraged the young man's musical studies. Maximilian Frederick's successor as the Elector of Bonn was Maximilian Francis, the youngest son of Empress Maria Theresa of Austria, he brought notable changes to Bonn. Echoing changes made in Vienna by his brother Joseph, he introduced reforms based on Enlightenment philosophy, with increased support for education and the arts; the teenage Beethoven was certainly influenced by these changes. He may have been influenced at this time by ideas prominent in freemasonry, as Neefe and others around Beethoven were members of the local chapter of the Order of the Illuminati. In December 1786, Beethoven travelled to Vienna, at his employer's expense, for the first time in the hope of studying with Mozart; the details of their relationship are uncertain, including whether they met. Having learned that his mother was ill, Beethoven returned to Bonn in May 1787, his mother died shortly thereafter, his father lapsed deeper into alcoholism.
As a result, he became responsible for the care of his two younger brothers, spent the next five years in Bonn. He was introduced in these years to several people. Franz Wegeler, a young medical student, intro
The Beethoven Frieze is a painting by Gustav Klimt on display in the Secession Building, Austria. In 1901, Klimt painted the Beethoven Frieze for the 14th Vienna Secessionist exhibition in celebration of the composer, featured a monumental polychrome sculpture by Max Klinger. Meant for the exhibition only, the frieze was painted directly on the walls with light materials. After the exhibition the painting was preserved, although it did not go on display again until 1986; the Beethoven Frieze is on permanent display in the Vienna Secession Building in a specially built, climate-controlled basement room. The frieze is large, standing at 7 feet high with a width of 112 feet; the entire work weighs four tons. Because of the frieze's fame and popularity, it was made the main motif of a collectors' coin: the Austrian 100 euro Secession Coin, minted on November 10, 2004; the reverse side features a small portion of the frieze. The extract from the painting features three figures: a knight in armor representing "Armored Strength", one woman in the background symbolizing "Ambition" holding up a wreath of victory and a second woman representing "Sympathy" with lowered head and clasped hands.
List of paintings by Gustav Klimt Beethoven Frieze in the online catalog of the Vienna Secession "Portion of Beethoven Frieze". Beethoven Frieze, video discussion about the painting from Smarthistory at Khan Academy
Johann van Beethoven
Johann van Beethoven was a German musician and singer who sang in the chapel of the Archbishop of Cologne, whose court was at Bonn. He is best known as the father of the celebrated composer Ludwig van Beethoven. Johann was an alcoholic and an abusive father who beat Ludwig. At 18, Ludwig had to obtain an order to force Johann to support his family. Johann died. Johann van Beethoven was the son of Maria Josepha Ball and Lodewijk or Ludwig van Beethoven, born in or near the city of Mechelen, in the Habsburg Netherlands, had served as a musician in several communities in and around Mechelen before establishing himself in Bonn in 1733, where he served as a musician at the court of Prince-Archbishop-Elector of Cologne Clemens August of Bavaria, rising to the post of Kapellmeister in 1761. Johann van Beethoven showed musical talent, joined the court as a singer, in 1764. In addition to singing, he played the violin and zither, played and taught keyboard instruments of the day, including the harpsichord and the clavichord.
He met his future wife, Maria Magdalena Keverich, on a trip to Ehrenbreitstein. She was the daughter of the head chef to Johann IX Philipp von Walderdorff, Archbishop-Elector of Trier, whose court was there, she had family connections in the court orchestra at Bonn. Keverich was widowed at the age of nineteen, she and Johann were married on 12 November 1767 in the Catholic Church of Bonn. They had seven children, three of whom lived into adulthood: Ludwig Maria van Beethoven Ludwig van Beethoven Kaspar Anton Karl van Beethoven Nikolaus Johann van Beethoven Anna Maria Franziska van Beethoven Franz Georg van Beethoven Maria Margarete Josepha van Beethoven Johann realized Ludwig's talent and became his first teacher, he was, however, an abusive father according to a number of witnesses. "There were few days when was not beaten in order to compel him to set himself at the piano," related one childhood friend of Ludwig. A court councillor reported that Johann locked Ludwig in a cellar. Whenever Ludwig played poorly, Johann would exclaim.
Johann was an alcoholic, a situation that worsened when Maria died in 1787, after which time the family was dependent on young Ludwig for support. In 1789 the 18-year-old Ludwig obtained an order resulting in one half of Johann's pay being turned over to him for support of the family. Johann died in 1792, his employer the Elector wrote sardonically to a friend, "The revenues from the liquor excise have suffered a loss in the death of Beethoven." Johann van Beethoven was only one half Flemish. Most of his most recent family came from the German-speaking Rhineland region and the Electorate of the Palatinate of the Holy Roman Empire; the Nazis were interested in Ludwig van Beethoven's family background: "After making sure that Beethoven had no suspicious racial or national tinge of the non-Germanic in his background, the masters of the Nazi propaganda and cultural machinery promoted his works as the essence of Germanic and Aryan strength". Johann's famous son Ludwig van Beethoven had no children and was never married, but his second son, did have children.
However, none of Karl's living descendants now bears the name of Beethoven, the last to do so, Karl Julius Maria van Beethoven, having died without a son in 1917. MacArdle, Donald W; the Family van Beethoven. The Musical Quarterly 35:528–550. "The'Van' of Beethoven" by Herbert Antcliffe in The Musical Times, Vol. 77, No. 1117, pp. 254–255 – Article explains how "A certain Ludwig van Beethoven was born at Mechelen as the son of Michiel and the grandson of Cornelius and of Catherina Leempoels..."