Mangalore known as Mangaluru, is the chief port city of the Indian state of Karnataka. It is located about 352 km west of the state capital, between the Arabian Sea and the Western Ghats mountain range, it is the second major city in Karnataka state in all aspects after the capital city Bangalore. It is the only city in Karnataka to have all modes of transport — Air, Road and Sea along with 5 other major cities in India, it is known as the Gateway of Karnataka. It is the largest city in the Tulu Nadu region of Karnataka. Mangalore is the second best business destination in Karnataka after 13th best in India; the population of the urban agglomeration was 623,841, according to the provisional results of the 2011 national census of India. Mangalore developed as a port in the Arabian Sea during ancient times and became a major port of India; this port handles 75 per cent of India's cashew exports. The port is used as a staging point for sea traffic along the Malabar Coast; this coastal city was ruled by several major powers, including the Kadambas, Vijayanagar Empire, Keladi Nayaks and the Portuguese.
The city was a source of contention between the British and the Mysore rulers, Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan. Annexed by the British in 1799, Mangalore remained part of the Madras Presidency until India's independence in 1947; the city was unified with the state of Mysore in 1956. Mangalore is the largest city and administrative headquarters of the Dakshina Kannada district, is one of the most multicultural non-metro cities of India, it is the largest city in the Coastal and Malnad regions of Karnataka, besides being a commercial, industrial and healthcare hub on the West Coast of India. This port city has the second largest airport in Karnataka. Mangalore city urban agglomeration extends from Ullal in the south to Surathkal in the north, covering a distance of over 30 km; the city has extended in the eastward direction up to Padil. The city's landscape is characterised by rolling hills, coconut palms, freshwater streams and hard red-clay tiled-roof buildings; this coastal city has many skyscrapers of 40 plus floors.
India's first and only 3D Planetarium is situated in the port city of Mangalore. Mangalore is included in the Smart Cities Mission list and one among the 100 smart cities to be developed in India; the city has an average elevation of 22 m above mean sea level. Mangalore has a tropical monsoon climate, is under the influence of the Southwest monsoon. Mangalore was named after the deity Mangaladevi, the presiding deity of the Mangaladevi temple or a synonym of Tara Bhagvati of the Vajrayana Buddhist sect. According to local legend, a princess from Malabar named Parimala or Premaladevi renounced her kingdom and became a disciple of Matsyendranath, the founder of the Nath tradition. Having converted Premaladevi to the Nath sect, Matsyendranath renamed her Mangaladevi, she arrived in the area with Matsyendranath, but had to settle near Bolar in Mangalore as she fell ill on the way. She died, the Mangaladevi temple was consecrated in her honour at Bolar by the local people after her death; the city got its name from the temple.
One of the earliest references to the city's name was made in 715 CE by the Pandyan King Chettian, who called the city Mangalapuram. The city and the coastal region was a part of the Pandyan Kingdom. According to K. V. Ramesh, President of the Place Names Society of India, Mangaluru was first heard in 1345 CE during the Vijayanagar rule. Many shilashasanas of Vijayanagar period refer the city as Mangalapura. Before that, during the Alupa dynasty period, it was referred to as Mangalapura; the city is well known as Mangaluru in a reference to Mangaladevi. During the British rule from 1799, stuck as the official appellation. However, according to historian George M. Moraes, the word "Mangalore" is the Portuguese corruption of Mangaluru; the name of this town appears in maps as early as the 1652 Sanson Map of India. Mangalore's diverse communities have different names for the city in their languages. In Tulu, the primary spoken language, the city is called Kudla, meaning "junction", since the city is situated at the confluence of the Netravati and Gurupura rivers.
In Konkani, Mangalore is referred to as Kodiyal, while in Malayalam, Mangalore is called Mangalapuram and the Beary name for the city is Maikala. Mangalore's historical importance is highlighted by the many references to the city by foreign travellers. During the first century CE, Pliny the Elder, a Roman historian, made references to a place called Nitrias, as a undesirable place for disembarkation, on account of the pirates which frequent its vicinity, while Greek historian Ptolemy in the second century CE referred to a place called Nitra. Ptolemy's and Pliny the Elder's references were made to the Netravati River, which flows through Mangalore. Cosmas Indicopleustes, a Greek monk, in his 6th century work Christian Topography mentions Malabar as the chief seat of the pepper trade, Mangarouth as one of the five pepper marts which exported pepper. Mangalore is the heart of a distinct multilinguistic—cultural region: South Canara, the homeland of the Tulu-speaking people. In the third century BCE, the town formed part of the Maurya Empire, ruled by the Buddhist emperor, Ashoka of Magadha.
From the third century CE to sixth century CE, the Kadamba dynasty, whose capital was based in Banavasi in North Canara, ruled over the entire Canara region as independent rulers. From the middle of the seventh century to the end of the 14th century, the South Canara region was
T. M. A. Pai
Dr. Tonse Madhav Ananth Pai, abbreviated: T. M. A. Pai, was an Indian doctor, educationist and philanthropist, most well known for building the university town of Manipal, India, he was first to start a self-financing medical college offering MBBS in India. Pai established the Kasturba Medical College, Manipal in 1953 and Manipal Institute of Technology in 1957, followed by a string of other education institutions including Kasturba Medical College, Manipal College of Dental Sciences and Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences. He, along with his brother Upendra Pai established Syndicate Bank in Udupi, which has its headquarters now in Manipal and Bangalore, he was responsible for its popular Pigmy Deposit Scheme. Dr. T M A Pai was conferred the Padma Shri by the Government of India in 1972, he was awarded the degree of D. Litt. by the Karnataka University in 1973 and the Andhra University in 1975. The Government of India brought out a stamp commemorating Pai on 9 October 1999. Pai has been recognized by Ripley's Believe It or Not as the person who has established the most number of educational institutions in his lifetime
Ramdas Madhav Pai is the current Chancellor of Manipal University. He serves as chairman of the Manipal Education and Medical Group. Pai graduated with his MBBS from Karnatak University in 1958, he graduated from Temple University with his Master of Health Administration. In 1961 he returned to Manipal to become the administrator of Kasturba Hospital, the teaching hospital of KMC. After the death of his father T. M. A. Pai in 1979 he became the head of the group took over as chancellor in due course Chancellor of Manipal University and the Chairman of the Manipal Education and Medical Group, he is the Pro-Chancellor of Sikkim Manipal University and president of T. A. Pai Management Institute and Registrar of the Academy of General Education, Manipal, his efforts led to Manipal University getting the status of a deemed university granted by the University Grants Commission in 1993. Manipial Education and Medical Group under his watch has led to exponential growth, he has served as a member of the Executive Council of Assam University, the academic senate of Mangalore University, the National Assessment and Accreditation Council.
In 2000, he was nominated by the Union Minister of Human Resource Development to a special six-member advisory committee to the Department of Higher Education. In 2001, Pai set up the Manipal Foundation to run the university's philanthropic efforts, his son is healthcare Barron Dr. Ranjan Pai. Pai's contributions to education have been recognised internationally, he has received a number of awards and honours in recognition of his contribution to education, healthcare and community service. In 2011, he received the Padma Bhushan from the President of India Pratibha Patil for his outstanding contribution in the field of education and healthcare He received the "Udupi Rathna in 2005 from the Udupi Utsav Committee and honoured by the Government of Karnataka in 2006 in celebration of the Suvarna Karnataka Year'Kanara Ratna Award' by Kanara College Society, Kumta in Feb 2008 He received an Honorary Doctorate by the Milwaukee School of Engineering in 1996 and Andrews University in 1998 and serves as honorary Professor of International Health at the University of Minnesota Medical School since 1999.
The Faculty of General Dental Practitioners of the Royal College of Surgeons of England bestowed him with fellowship in 2004. In 1993, he accepted the Dr. B. C. Roy Award for his community health efforts from the President of India Shankar Dayal Sharma in 1993 and received the Phillips Medal of Ohio University in recognition of public service He was presented the Key to the City of Loma Linda, California in 1982 and 1991 Intellectuals Honor – The Great Son of the Soil award by All India Conference of Intellectuals in 1997 Award of Philanthropy by Bunts' Sangha, Bombay in 1992.'Konkani Prathibha' award by Konkani Bhasha Prachar Sabha, Cochin in 1994 Award by World Konkani Convention in 1995 Lions Millennium Award 2001 conferred by Lions District 324-D4 Deccan Herald Avenues HR Excellence Lifetime Achievement Award in February 2005'MMA-KVK Outstanding Manager Award-2005' by Mangalore Management Association in December 2005'life time achievement award 2018' by the federation of Indian Chambers of commerce and industry.
Golden Peacock Lifetime Achievement Award for the Year 2011 SkillTree Education Evangelist of India-2013 Manipal University Manipal Foundation Dr Ramdas Pai: Man Behind the Metamorphosis of Modern Manipal
Dundee is Scotland's fourth-largest city and the 51st-most-populous built-up area in the United Kingdom. The mid-year population estimate for 2016 was 148,270, giving Dundee a population density of 2,478/km2 or 6,420/sq mi, the second-highest in Scotland, it lies within the eastern central Lowlands on the north bank of the Firth of Tay, which feeds into the North Sea. Under the name of Dundee City, it forms one of the 32 council areas used for local government in Scotland. Part of Angus, the city developed into a burgh in the late 12th century and established itself as an important east coast trading port. Rapid expansion was brought on by the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century when Dundee was the centre of the global jute industry. This, along with its other major industries gave Dundee its epithet as the city of "jute and journalism". Today, Dundee is promoted as "One City, Many Discoveries" in honour of Dundee's history of scientific activities and of the RRS Discovery, Robert Falcon Scott's Antarctic exploration vessel, built in Dundee and is now berthed at Discovery Point.
Biomedical and technological industries have arrived since the 1980s, the city now accounts for 10% of the United Kingdom's digital-entertainment industry. Dundee has two universities -- the University of the Abertay University. In 2014 Dundee was recognised by the United Nations as the UK's first UNESCO City of Design for its diverse contributions to fields including medical research and video games. A unique feature of Dundee is that its two professional football clubs, Dundee F. C. and Dundee United, have stadiums all but adjacent to each other. With the decline of traditional industry, the city has adopted a plan to regenerate and reinvent itself as a cultural centre. In pursuit of this, a £1 billion master plan to regenerate and to reconnect the Waterfront to the city centre started in 2001 and is expected to be completed within a 30-year period; the V&A Dundee – the first branch of the V&A to operate outside of London – is the main centre piece of the waterfront project. In recent years, Dundee's international profile has risen.
GQ magazine named Dundee the'Coolest Little City In Britain' in 2015 and The Wall Street Journal ranked Dundee at number 5 on its'Worldwide Hot Destinations' list for 2018. The name "Dundee" is made up of two parts: meaning fort. While earlier evidence for human occupation is abundant, Dundee's success and growth as a seaport town arguably came as a result of William the Lion's charter, granting Dundee to his younger brother, David in the late 12th century; the situation of the town and its promotion by Earl David as a trading centre led to a period of prosperity and growth. The earldom was passed down amongst whom was John Balliol; the town became a Royal Burgh on John's coronation as king in 1292. The town and its castle were occupied by English forces for several years during the First War of Independence and recaptured by Robert the Bruce in early 1312; the original Burghal charters were lost during the occupation and subsequently renewed by Bruce in 1327. The burgh suffered during the conflict known as the Rough Wooing of 1543 to 1550, was occupied by the English forces of Andrew Dudley from 1547.
In 1548, unable to defend the town against an advancing Scottish force, Dudley ordered that the town be burnt to the ground. In 1645, during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, Dundee was again besieged, this time by the Royalist Marquess of Montrose; the town was destroyed by Parliamentarian forces led by George Monck in 1651. The town played a pivotal role in the establishment of the Jacobite cause when John Graham of Claverhouse, 1st Viscount Dundee raised the Stuart standard on the Dundee Law in 1689; the town was held by the Jacobites in the 1715–16 rising, on 6 January 1716 the Jacobite claimant to the throne, James VIII and III, made a public entry into the town. Many in Scotland, including many in Dundee, regarded him as the rightful king. A notable resident of Dundee was Adam Duncan, 1st Viscount Duncan of Baron of Lundie, he was born in the son of Alexander Duncan of Lundie, Provost of Dundee. Adam was educated in Dundee and joined the Royal Navy on board the sloop Trial, he in October 1797 defeated the Dutch fleet off Camperdown.
This was seen as one of the most significant actions in naval history. The economy of mediaeval Dundee centred on the export of raw wool, with the production of finished textiles being a reaction to recession in the 15th century. Two government Acts in the mid 18th century had a profound effect on Dundee's industrial success: the textile industry was revolutionised by the introduction of large four-storey mills, stimulated in part by the 1742 Bounty Act which provided a government-funded subsidy on Osnaburg linen produced for export. Expansion of the whaling industry was triggered by the second Bounty Act, introduced in 1750 to increase Britain's maritime and naval skill base. Dundee, Scotland more saw rapid population increase at end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century, with the city's population increasing from 12,400 in 1751 to 30,500 in 1821; the phasing out of the linen export bounty between 1825 and 1832 stimulated demand for cheaper textiles for cheaper, tough fabrics. The discovery that the dry fibres of jute could be lubricated with whale oil (of which Dundee had a surfeit, following the opening of its gasworks
The Week (Indian magazine)
The Week is an Indian news magazine founded in the year 1982 and is published by The Malayala Manorama Co. Ltd; the magazine is published from Kochi and is printed in Delhi, Mumbai and Kottayam. According to the Audit Bureau of Circulations, it is the largest circulated English news magazine in India; the Week was launched by The Malayala Manorama Co. Ltd in December, 1982, has had two chief editors, before the designation was discontinued. K. M. Mathew, the founder chief editor, remained in office until 25 December 1988. Popularly known as Mathukuttychayan, he was chairman of the Press Trust of India, president of the Indian Newspaper Society and chairman of the Audit Bureau of Circulations, he died on 1 August 2010. The obit which appeared in The Times of India said, "The acclaimed English news magazine-The Week-was his brainchild." K. M. Mathew's eldest son, Mammen Mathew, took over on 1 January 1989, continued until 9 December 2007, he is chief editor of the Malayala Manorama daily, the group's flagship publication.
The Week does not have a chief editor. K. M. Mathew's second son, Philip Mathew, managing editor since 1 January 1989, is the highest-ranked editor. Philip Mathew, the first publisher of the magazine, held the post until December 1988. Jacob Mathew: 1 January 1989 till date. K. M. Mathew's third son, he is president of WAN-IFRA, he is the first Indian to hold the post. The magazine has had two editors. V. K. B. Nair: 26 December 1982 to 3 June 1984. T. V. R. Shenoy: 10 June 1984 to 11 December 1988; the editor-in-charge is responsible for selection of news under The Press and Registration of Books Act, 1867. The present editor-in-charge, T R Gopaalakrishnan, took over on 18 December 1988; the magazine was designed in-house, was periodically redesigned. A major content overhaul was led by Peter Lim and former editor-in-chief of The Straits Times/Singapore Press Holdings, he authored the book Chronicle of Singapore: Fifty Years of Headline News. The two major redesigns were led by: Peter Ong on 8 November 1998.
Dr Mario Garcia on 20 February 2005. Based in Sydney, Ong was Picture & Graphics Editor of The Straits Times, he is principal consultant at Checkout Australia, was regional director for the Society of News Design. Garcia owns Garcia Media. Both of them helped redesign the Malayala Manorama. In the early years, cartoonist Mario Miranda designed many covers for The Week, he had a regular pocket cartoon in the magazine. The Week does not have published stylebook, but follows the down style for capitalisation, its dateline carries the pull date, not the date of issue. The Week has these regular guest columns: General's Jottings by General Bikram Singh DeTour by Shobhaa De. Forthwrite by Meenakshi Lekhi. Art to Heart, an art and culture column, by Amjad Ali Khan and Sanjana Kapoor. Last Word by Shashi Tharoor, Saurav Ganguly, Sanjaya Baru, Mallika Sarabhai, Nandita Das and and Binayak Sen. Schizo-Nation by Anuja Chauhan. Strange Encounters by Jerry Pinto. Chef's Choice by Hemant Oberoi. Sound Bite by Anita Pratap.
Sen-sibility by Geeti Sen. Mystic Eye by Jaggi Vasudev. Mindscape by Vandana Kohli. In addition to the guests, there are two staff columns. Power Point by K. S. Sachidananda Murthy, resident editor in New Delhi. PMO Beat by chief of bureau, New Delhi. Former columnists of the magazine include Priyanka Chopra, Khushwant Singh, P. C. Alexander, R. N. Malhotra, former foreign secretary A. P. Venkateswaran, Harsha Bhogle, NDTV 24x7 managing editor Sreenivasan Jain, Manjula Padmanabhan, Santosh Desai and Antara Dev Sen, among others. Two supplements go free with The Week: Health, a fortnightly on fitness; the Wallet, a monthly guide to personal finance and investment. The standalone magazines are: The Man: The Man, a monthly lifestyle magazine for men WatchTime India: A quarterly magazine on luxury watches Smartlife: A monthly magazine on wellness and lifestyle Livingetc is a monthly magazine on home and interiors The Week was the title sponsor, of the inaugural Hay Festival in India. Held in Thiruvananthapuram, from 12 to 14 November 2010, the festival was held at Kanakakunnu Palace, the former summer retreat of the Travancore royal family.
Writers and speakers for the event included Mani Shankar Aiyar, Rosie Boycott, Gillian Clarke, William Dalrymple, Tishani Doshi, Sonia Faleiro, Sebastian Faulks, Nik Gowing, Manu Joseph, N. S. Madhavan, Jaishree Misra, Vivek Narayanan, Michelle Paver, Basharat Peer, Hannah Rothschild, K. Satchidanandan, Marcus du Sautoy, Simon Schama, Vikram Seth, C. P. Surendran, Miguel Syjuco, Shashi Tharoor, Amrita Tripathi, Pavan Varma and Paul Zacharia; the event closed with a concert by Bob Geldof. In 2001, Special Cover Designer Ajay Pingle entered the Limca Book of Records for designing the most number of covers for an Indian newsmagazine. 2009 – Brother Christudas, for Little Flower Leprosy Welfare Association 2010 – Satinath Sarangi, for voicing Bhopal disaster victims 2011 – Ajeet Singh, for Guria 2018 – Nilesh Desai, Lighting up the Darkness 2017 - Dr. Ramesh Awasthi and Dr. Manisha Gupte The Week
Minneapolis is the county seat of Hennepin County and the larger of the Twin Cities, the 16th-largest metropolitan area in the United States. As of 2017, Minneapolis is the largest city in the state of Minnesota and 45th-largest in the United States, with an estimated population of 422,331; the Twin Cities metropolitan area consists of Minneapolis, its neighbor Saint Paul, suburbs which altogether contain about 3.6 million people, is the third-largest economic center in the Midwest. Minneapolis lies on both banks of the Mississippi River, just north of the river's confluence with the Minnesota River, adjoins Saint Paul, the state's capital; the city is abundantly rich in water, with 13 lakes, the Mississippi River and waterfalls. It was once a hub for timber; the city and surrounding region is the primary business center between Seattle. In 2011, Minneapolis proper was home to the fifth-highest number of Fortune 500 headquarters in the United States; as an integral link to the global economy, Minneapolis is categorized as a global city.
Minneapolis has one of the largest LGBT populations in the U. S. proportional to its overall population. Noted for its strong music and performing arts scenes, Minneapolis is home to both the award-winning Guthrie Theater and the historic First Avenue nightclub. Reflecting the region's status as an epicenter of folk and alternative rock music, the city served as the launching pad for several of the 20th century's most influential musicians, including Bob Dylan and Prince. Minneapolis has become noted for its underground and independent hip-hop and rap scenes, producing artists such as Brother Ali and Dessa; the name Minneapolis is attributed to Charles Hoag, the city's first schoolmaster, who combined mni, a Dakota Sioux word for water, polis, the Greek word for city. Descendants of first peoples, Dakota Sioux were the region's sole residents when French explorers arrived in 1680. For a time, amicable relations were based on fur trading. More European-American settlers arrived, competing for game and other resources with the Native Americans.
After the Revolutionary War, Great Britain granted the land east of the Mississippi to the United States. In the early 19th century, the United States acquired land to the west from France in the Louisiana Purchase. Fort Snelling, just south of present-day Minneapolis, was built in 1819 by the United States Army, it attracted traders and merchants, spurring growth in the area. The United States government pressed the Mdewakanton band of the Dakota to sell their land, allowing people arriving from the East to settle there. Preoccupied with the Civil War, the United States government reneged on its promises of cash payments to the Dakota, resulting in hunger, the Dakota War of 1862, internment and hardship; the Minnesota Territorial Legislature authorized Minneapolis as a town in 1856, on the Mississippi's west bank. Minneapolis incorporated as a city in 1867, the year rail service began between Minneapolis and Chicago, it joined with the east-bank city of St. Anthony in 1872. Minneapolis developed around Saint Anthony Falls, the highest waterfall on the Mississippi River and a source of power for its early industry.
Forests in northern Minnesota were a valuable resource for the lumber industry, which operated seventeen sawmills on power from the waterfall. By 1871, the west river bank had twenty-three businesses, including flour mills, woolen mills, iron works, a railroad machine shop, mills for cotton, paper and planing wood. Due to the occupational hazards of milling, six local sources of artificial limbs were competing in the prosthetics business by the 1890s; the farmers of the Great Plains grew grain, shipped by rail to the city's 34 flour mills. Millers have used hydropower elsewhere since the 1st century B. C. but the results in Minneapolis between 1880 and 1930 were so remarkable the city has been described as "the greatest direct-drive waterpower center the world has seen." A father of modern milling in America and founder of what became General Mills, Cadwallader C. Washburn converted his business from gristmills to revolutionary technology, including "gradual reduction" processing by steel and porcelain roller mills capable of producing premium-quality pure white flour quickly.
Some ideas were developed by William Dixon Gray and some acquired through industrial espionage from Hungary by William de la Barre. Charles A. Pillsbury and the C. A. Pillsbury Company across the river were a step behind, hiring Washburn employees to use the new methods; the hard red spring wheat that grows in Minnesota became valuable, Minnesota "patent" flour was recognized at the time as the best in the world. Not until did consumers discover the value in the bran that "... Minneapolis flour millers dumped" into the Mississippi. After 1883, a Minneapolis miller started a new industry when he began to sell bran byproduct as animal feed. Millers cultivated relationships with academic scientists at the University of Minnesota; those scientists backed them politically on many issues, such as in the early 20th century when health advocates in the nascent field of nutrition criticized the flour "bleaching" process. At peak production, a single mill at Washburn-Crosby made enough flour for 12 million loaves of bread each day.
Further, by 1895, through the efforts of silent partner William Hood Dunwoody, Washburn-Crosby exported four
A chancellor is a leader of a college or university either the executive or ceremonial head of the university or of a university campus within a university system. In most Commonwealth and former Commonwealth nations, the chancellor is a ceremonial non-resident head of the university. In such institutions, the chief executive of a university is the vice-chancellor, who may carry an additional title, such as "president & vice-chancellor"; the chancellor may serve as chairman of the governing body. In many countries, the administrative and educational head of the university is known as the president, principal or rector. In the United States, the head of a university is most a university president. In U. S. university systems that have more than one affiliated university or campus, the executive head of a specific campus may have the title of chancellor and report to the overall system's president, or vice versa. In both Australia and New Zealand, a chancellor is the chairman of a university's governing body.
The chancellor is assisted by a deputy chancellor. The chancellor and deputy chancellor are drawn from the senior ranks of business or the judiciary; some universities have a visitor, senior to the chancellor. University disputes can be appealed from the governing board to the visitor, but nowadays, such appeals are prohibited by legislation, the position has only ceremonial functions; the vice-chancellor serves as the chief executive of the university. Macquarie University in Sydney is a noteworthy anomaly as it once had the unique position of Emeritus Deputy Chancellor, a post created for John Lincoln upon his retirement from his long-held post of deputy chancellor in 2000; the position was not an honorary title, as it retained for Lincoln a place in the University Council until his death in 2011. Canadian universities and British universities in Scotland have a titular chancellor similar to those in England and Wales, with day-to-day operations handled by a principal. In Scotland, for example, the chancellor of the University of Edinburgh is Anne, Princess Royal, whilst the current chancellor of the University of Aberdeen is Camilla, Duchess of Rothesay.
In Canada, the vice-chancellor carries the joint title of "president and vice-chancellor" or "rector and vice-chancellor." Scottish principals carry the title of "principal and vice-chancellor." In Scotland, the title and post of rector is reserved to the third ranked official of university governance. The position exists in common throughout the five ancient universities of Scotland with rectorships in existence at the universities of St Andrews, Aberdeen and Dundee, considered to have ancient status as a result of its early connections to the University of St Andrews; the position of Lord Rector was given legal standing by virtue of the Universities Act 1889. Rectors appoint a rector's assessor a deputy or stand-in, who may carry out their functions when they are absent from the university; the Rector chairs meetings of the university court, the governing body of the university, is elected by the matriculated student body at regular intervals. An exception exists at Edinburgh, where the Rector is elected by staff.
In Finland, if the university has a chancellor, he is the leading official in the university. The duties of the chancellor are to promote sciences and to look after the best interests of the university; as the rector of the university remains the de facto administrative leader and chief executive official, the role of the chancellor is more of a social and historical nature. However some administrative duties still belong to the chancellor's jurisdiction despite their arguably ceremonial nature. Examples of these include the appointment of new docents; the chancellor of University of Helsinki has the notable right to be present and to speak in the plenary meetings of the Council of State when matters regarding the university are discussed. Despite his role as the chancellor of only one university, he is regarded as the political representative of Finland's entire university institution when he exercises his rights in the Council of State. In the history of Finland the office of the chancellor dates all the way back to the Swedish Empire, the Russian Empire.
The chancellor's duty was to function as the official representative of the monarch in the autonomous university. The number of chancellors in Finnish universities has declined over the years, in vast majority of Finnish universities the highest official is the rector; the remaining universities with chancellors are University of Åbo Akademi University. In France, chancellor is one of the titles of the rector, a senior civil servant of the Ministry of Education serving as manager of a regional educational district. In his capacity as chancellor, the rector awards academic degrees to the university's gradua