Imperial Crown Style
The Imperial Crown Style of Japanese architecture developed during the Japanese Empire in the early twentieth century. The style is identified by Japanese-style roofing on top of Neoclassical styled buildings. Outside of the Japanese mainland, Imperial Crown Style architecture included regional architectural elelements. Before the end of World War II, the style was referred to as Emperor's Crown Amalgamate Style, sometimes Emperor's Crown Style. Starting in Japan in the 1930s, this Western and Japanese eclectic architectural style was promoted by Itō Chūta, Sano Toshikata, Takeda Goichi. Itō, Takeda had been appointed as judges for architectural design competitions, held a preferences for Japonesque aesthetics to be incorporated into the design guidelines, chose designs where a Japanese styled roof was integrated into a Western style reinforced concrete building; the prototype for the style was developed by architect Shimoda Kikutaro for the Imperial Diet Building in 1920, reached its peak in the 1930s until the end of World War II.
The style ran contrary to modernism and placed an emphasis on including traditional Japanese architectural elements, in a distinct expression of Japanese Western Eclectic Architecture. During the 1920s and 1930s the last buildings with architectural designs drawing from artistic historicism were constructed; this was due to a decline in the strict adherence to the design rules that defined classic historicism in architecture, gave way to an eclectic architectural style which included aspects of Frank Lloyd Wright and Expressionist architecture. This was a compromise made to combine multiple styles into the classical or simplified classical architectural design in a single building. In Japan, buildings which incorporated Japanese styled components were popularised in the late 1920s Construction during this period included. In 1919 an architectural design competition was held for the design of the Imperial Diet Building, with all the winning entries being renaissance designs. Shimoda Kikutaro raised objections to these designs, by moving two petitions through the Imperial Diet.
Shimoda presented a design with a Japanese-styled roof set atop of the body of the building, naming this Emperor's Crown Amalgamate Style, distributed pamphlets about this cause, but was rejected by the architectural industry. From 1906 to 1922 both Frank Lloyd Wright and Shimoda Kikutaro, active together in Chicago, submitted separate design proposals for the rebuilding of the Imperial Hotel, Tokyo. Shimoda had submitted a proposal for a Japanese style roof set on a low profile masonry building before Wright had become involved in the project. Wright did not sign a memorandum with the Imperial Household for the project until March 1916, not without protest from Kikutaro, who claimed that his design had been appropriated by Lloyd. Architectural design competitions were held for the Kanagawa Prefectural office in 1920, for the Nagoya Prefectural office in 1930, both winning entries had Japanese style roofs. Neither of these competitions had entry conditions which required Japonesque architectural designs, however as the Kanagawa Prefectural office was located in Yokohama there was a known association with Western foreigners, Nagoya Prefectural office was in close proximity to Nagoya Castle, so a Japanese styling was included in the designs.
Following this, the competition entry guidelines for the Japan Life Building, Dairei Memorial Kyōto Museum of Art, Military Hall, had provisions for Japonesque architectural designs. The proportion of winning designs from entries with Japanese style roofs increased; the Japan International Architecture Association opposed the entry guidelines and solicited architects to boycott the competition. On one side Kunio Maekawa and Chikatada Kurata, despite knowing that they would be defeated, submitted modernist-style plans, they had not ignored the competition guidelines, but as in Japanese traditional building construction involved crafting timbers in a particular way – crafting reinforced concrete as if it was timber for a particular design purpose – this was interpreted as being Japanese. Kunio Maekawa's entry was supported by the youngest judge Kishida Hideta, but his decision was overturned by Chūta Itō, the proposal was not successful. Despite this, Kunio Maekawa gained sympathy for his stance of promoting modernism, became a hero to his professional peers.
To the architects of the 1930s these Japanese styled roofs set on Japonesque buildings, appeared to be a revival of the Emperor's Crown Amalgamate Style and therefore used the term Emperor's Crown Style. To Chūta Itō, the modification of
Sumiyoshi-zukuri is an ancient Shinto shrine architectural style which takes its name from Sumiyoshi Taisha's honden in Ōsaka. As in the case of the taisha-zukuri and shinmei-zukuri styles, its birth predates the arrival in Japan of Buddhism. Ancient shrines were constructed according to the style of storehouses; the buildings had gabled roofs, raised floors, plank walls, were thatched with reed or covered with hinoki cypress bark. Such early shrines did not include a space for worship. Three important forms of ancient shrine architectural styles exist: taisha-zukuri, shinmei-zukuri and sumiyoshi-zukuri They are exemplified by Izumo Taisha, Nishina Shinmei Shrine and Sumiyoshi Taisha and date to before 552. According to the tradition of Shikinen sengū-sai, the buildings or shrines were faithfully rebuilt at regular intervals adhering to the original design. In this manner, ancient styles have been replicated through the centuries to the present day; the honden on the grounds at Sumiyoshi Taisha has been designated as a national treasure on the grounds that it is the oldest example of this style of architecture.
The four identical honden buildings that compose it are 4 ken wide and 2 ken deep and have an entrance under one of the gables (a characteristic called tsumairi-zukuri. The roof is simple, doesn't curve upwards at the eaves and is decorated with purely ornamental poles called chigi and katsuogi; the building is surrounded by a fence called mizugaki, in its turn surrounded by another called tamagaki. There is no veranda, a short stairway leads to the door; the interior is divided in two sections, one at the front and one at the back with a single entrance at the front. The structure is simple, but brightly colored: supporting pillars are painted in vermilion and walls in white; this style is supposed to have its origin in old palace architecture Another example of this style is Sumiyoshi Jinja, part of the Sumiyoshi Sanjin complex in Fukuoka Prefecture. JAANUS, Shinmei-zukuri accessed on December 1, 2009 History and Typology of Shrine Architecture, Encyclopedia of Shinto accessed on November 29, 2009 Kishida, Hideto.
Japanese Architecture. READ BOOKS. ISBN 1-4437-7281-X. Retrieved 2009-11-11. Young, David; the art of Japanese architecture. Architecture and Interior Design. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0-8048-3838-0. Retrieved 2009-11-11
A chashitsu in Japanese tradition is an architectural space designed to be used for tea ceremony gatheringsThe architectural style that developed for chashitsu is referred to as the sukiya style, the term sukiya may be used as a synonym for chashitsu. Related Japanese terms are chaseki, broadly meaning "place for tea", implying any sort of space where people are seated to participate in tea ceremony, chabana, "tea flowers", the style of flower arrangement associated with the tea ceremony. Typical features of chashitsu are shōji windows and sliding doors made of wooden lattice covered in a translucent Japanese paper; the ideal floor size of a chashitsu is 4.5 tatami mats. In Japanese, free-standing structures designed for exclusive tea ceremony use, as well as individual rooms intended for tea ceremony, are both referred to as chashitsu; the term may be used to indicate the tea room itself where the guests are received, or that room and its attached facilities extending to the roji garden path leading to it.
In English, a distinction is made between free-standing structures for tea, referred to as tea houses, rooms used for tea ceremony incorporated within other structures. Tea houses are small, simple wooden buildings, they are located in the grounds of private homes. Other common sites are the grounds of temples and parks; the smallest tea house will have two rooms: the main room where the host and guests gather and tea is served, a mizuya, where the host prepares the sweets and equipment. The entire structure may have a total floor area of only three tatami mats. Large tea houses may have several tea rooms of different sizes. Tea rooms are purpose-built spaces for holding tea gatherings, they may be located within larger tea houses, or within private homes or other structures not intended for tea ceremony. A tea room may have a floor area as small as 1.75 tatami mats. A tea room will contain a tokonoma and a sunken hearth for preparing tea in the winter; the term chashitsu came into use after the start of the Edo period.
In earlier times, various terms were used for spaces used for tea ceremony, such as chanoyu zashiki, sukiya such as chanoyu), kakoi. According to Japanese historian Moriya Takeshi in his article "The Mountain Dwelling Within the City", the ideal of wabi-style tea ceremony had its roots in the urban society of the Muromachi period, took form in the tea houses that townspeople built at their residences and which affected the appearance of thatched huts in mountain villages. Before this, tea ceremony was enjoyed in rooms built in the shoin-zukuri architectural style, a style employed in tea rooms built today. Tea houses first appeared in the Sengoku period, a time in which the central government had no practical power, the country was in chaos, wars and uprisings were commonplace. Seeking to reclaim Japan, samurai were busy acquiring and defending territories, promoting trade and overseeing the output of farms and mines as de facto rulers, many of the poor were eager to seek the salvation of the afterlife as taught by Buddhism.
Tea houses were built by Zen monks or by daimyōs, merchants who practiced tea ceremony. They sought tranquility -- central tenets of Zen philosophy; the acknowledgment of simplicity and plainness, a central motivation of the tea house, continued to remain as a distinct Japanese tradition in the periods. The Golden Tea Room was a portable gilded chashitsu constructed during the 16th century Azuchi–Momoyama period for the Japanese regent Lord Toyotomi Hideyoshi's tea ceremonies; the original room is lost. The Golden Tea Room was constructed to impress guests with the power of the regent; this was in contrast to the rustic aesthetics codified under his tea master Sen no Rikyū, although it is speculated that Rikyū might have helped in the design. The room's opulence was unusual and may have been against wabi-sabi norms. At the same time, the simplicity of the overall design with its clean lines could be seen as within the canon; the extent of teamaster Rikyū's involvement in the design of the room is not known, however he was in attendance on a number of occasions when tea was being served to guests in the room.
The ideal free-standing tea house is surrounded by a small garden having a path leading to the tea room. This garden is called roji. Along the path is a waiting bench for a privy. There is a stone water-basin near the tea house, where the guests rinse their hands and mouths before entering the tea room through a small, square door called nijiriguchi, or "crawling-in entrance", which requires bending low to pass t
The shōrō, shurō or kanetsuki-dō is the bell tower of a Buddhist temple in Japan, housing the temple's bonshō. It can be found at some Shinto shrines which used to be shrines, as for example Nikkō Tōshō-gū. Two main types exist, the older hakamagoshi, which has walls, the more recent fukihanachi or fukinuki, which does not. During the Nara period after the arrival of Buddhism in Japan bell towers were 3 x 2 bay, 2 storied buildings. A typical temple garan had two, one to the left and one to the right of the kyōzō, the sūtra repository. An extant example of this style is Hōryū-ji's Sai-in Shōrō in Nara. During the following Heian period was developed a new style called hakamagoshi which consisted of a 2 storied, hourglass-shaped building with the bell hanging from the second story; the earliest extant example is Hōryū-ji's Tō-in Shōrō. During the 13th century the fukihanachi type was created at Tōdai-ji by making all structural parts visible; the bell tower in this case consists of a 1-ken wide, 1-ken high structure with no walls and having the bell at its center.
Sometimes the four pillars have an inward inclination called uchikorobi. After the Nara period, in which temple layout was rigidly prescribed after the Chinese fashion, the position of the bell tower stopped being prescribed and began to change temple by temple. Roofs are either gabled or hip-and-gable
Daibutsuyō is a Japanese religious architectural style which emerged in the late 12th or early 13th century. Together with Wayō and Zenshūyō, it is one of the three most significant styles developed by Japanese Buddhism on the basis of Chinese models. Called tenjikuyō, because it had nothing to do with India it was rechristened by scholar Ōta Hirotarō during the 20th century, the new term stuck. Ōta derived the name from Chōgen's work Tōdai-ji's Daibutsuden. Soon abandoned after its creator's death because it didn't harmonize with Japanese tastes, it nonetheless influenced other building styles with its rational solutions; the combination of wayō and daibutsuyō in particular became so frequent that sometimes it is classed separately by scholars under the name Shin-wayō. This grandiose and monumental style is the antithesis of the traditional wayō style; the Nandaimon at Tōdai-ji and the Amida-dō at Jōdo-ji in Ono are its best extant examples. The style was introduced by priest Chōgen, who in 1180 directed the reconstruction of Tōdai-ji, destroyed during the Genpei war.
Chōgen had just come back from the last of his three travels to China and therefore chose as a basis for the work Song Dynasty architecture. He was supported in his innovative work by first shōgun Minamoto no Yoritomo. Of his work at the temple only three structures remain, the mentioned Nandaimon, which remains the best Daibutsuyō example, the Kaizandō and the Hokkedō; the gate's most characteristic features are the six-tier bracket groups projecting directly out of the columns and connected to each other by ties as long as the facade. During the Edo period the temple's Main Hall, the Daibutsuden, was rebuilt in the style, to which it would give its name. Chōgen built other buildings in this style near and around Nara, of which the Amida-dō at Jōdo-ji in Ono is a good extant example; the style declined after its creator's death because it did not agree with Japanese tastes. Structural elements are treated as design elements, the building's deliberate roughness is supposed to be part of its beauty, but the concept was too alien to Chōgen's contemporaries, was rejected.
The Daibutsuyō style was short-lived but innovative, many of the ideas it introduced were adopted by other styles as well. In particular, during the Muromachi period the traditional Wayō style was so influenced that the mix of the two is sometimes called Shin-wayō. Thick woodwork and imposing general look Use of penetrating tie beamsDuring the Heian period temples were built using only non-penetrating tie beams made to fit around columns and pillars and nailed; the daibutsuyō style and the zenshūyō style replaced them with penetrating tie-beams, which pierced the column, were therefore much more effective against earthquakes. The nageshi was however retained as a purely decorative element. Thick, visible structural elements with decorative functionAs mentioned, many structural elements are left uncovered and have a decorative function. For example, the roof's supporting members are not covered by a ceiling and are therefore visible from within the temple; the Nandaimon's stabilizing bracket ties which run the entire width of the gate are fully visible.
Structural elements are much thicker than in Zen buildings. SashihijikiThe sashihijiki is a bracket arm inserted directly into a pillar instead of resting onto a supporting block on top of a pillar, as was normal in the preceding wayō style. At Tōdai-ji, both the Nandaimon and the Daibutsuden have six sashihijiki one on top of the other.. ŌgidarukiAnother detail unique to this style are the ōgidaruki. The rafters supporting each roof corner spread in a fan-like pattern. KibanaThe tips of each protruding beam ends in a nose-like structure called kibana. Japanese Buddhist architecture - Heian period Wayō Setchūyō Zenshūyō Fletcher, Sir Banister. Sir Banister Fletcher's a history of architecture. Architectural Press. ISBN 0-7506-2267-9. Retrieved 2009-11-11. "JAANUS". Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System. Nishi, Kazuo. What is Japanese architecture?. Kodansha International. ISBN 4-7700-1992-0. Retrieved 2009-11-11. Young, David. Introduction to Japanese architecture. Periplus Asian architecture. Tuttle Publishing.
ISBN 0-7946-0100-6. Retrieved 2010-01-11
A rafter is one of a series of sloped structural members that extend from the ridge or hip to the wall plate, downslope perimeter or eave, that are designed to support the roof deck and its associated loads. A pair of rafters is called a couple. In home construction, rafters are made of wood. Exposed rafters are a feature of some traditional roof styles. In recent buildings there is a preference for trussed rafters on the grounds of cost, economy of materials, off-site manufacture, ease of construction, as well as design considerations including span limitations and roof loads. There are many names for rafters depending on shape, or size; the earliest surviving roofs in Europe are of common rafters on a tie beam, this assembly is technically called a "closed couple". Principal rafters and common rafters were mixed, called a major/minor or primary/secondary roof system. Many rafters, including hip rafters taper in height 1/5 to 1/6 of their width, the larger end at the foot. Architect George Woodward discusses the purpose of this in 1860: "The same amount of strength can be had with a less amount of lumber.
There is an additional labor in sawing such rafters, as well as a different calculation to be made in using up a log to the best advantage. It is necessary always to order this special bill of rafters direct from the mill, the result will be that the extra cost will, nine times out of ten, overbalance the amount saved." John Muller discusses a one-sixth taper for rafters. Pieces added at the feet to create an overhang or change the roof pitch are called a sprocket or coyau in French. (The projecting piece on the gable of a building forming an overhang is called a lookout. A rafter can be reinforced with a strut, principal purlin, collar beam, or an auxiliary rafter. Rafter types include: Principal rafter: A larger rafter. Land directly on a tie beam; the purpose of having a larger rafter is to carry a purlin which supports the rafters in each bay. Sometimes the top cord of a truss looks like a principal rafter. Principal rafters are sometimes called "principals". Common rafter: being smaller than a principal rafter.
A "principal/common rafter roof" or "double roof" has both principals and commons.. Auxiliary rafter: A secondary rafter below and supporting a principal rafter. A rare type of rafter. Compass rafter: A rafter curved or bowed on the top or both the top and bottom surfaces. Curb rafter: The upper rafters in a curb roof. Hip rafter: The rafter in the corners of a hip roof; the foot of a hip rafter lands on a dragon beam. King rafter: the longest rafter on the side of a hip roof in line with the ridge. Valley rafter: A rafter forming a valley. Intermediate rafter: "one between principal or common rafters to strengthen a given place". Jack rafter, cripple rafter, cripple-jack rafter: A shortened rafter such as landing on a hip rafter or interrupted by a dormer. Arched rafter: Of segmental form in an arched roof. Knee rafter: A rafter with a bend a few feet from the foot used to gain attic space like adding a kneewall. Rare in America. Barge rafter: The outermost rafter on a gable end, sometimes forming a roof overhang.
Butt rafter: A smaller rafter interrupted by and joined to a butt purlin. Common rafters are supported by a principal purlin, if present. A "binding rafter" is not a rafter but an obsolete name for a support. Part of a cruck frame may function as a rafter but they are called a cruck blade. Rafters are made of Pine or Cedar. For longer span rafters, building materials manufacturers have created LVL rafters that can be 2–5 times longer than typical wood rafter. In US, most wood rafters have maximum length of 20 feet. If a longer rafter is needed, LVL is the ideal combination alternative. Birdsmouth joint chantlate Fascia Joist knee wall Lookout Purlin rafter angle square Soffit Truss Timber framing timber roof truss wind brace
Nara is the capital city of Nara Prefecture located in the Kansai region of Japan. The city occupies the northern part of Nara Prefecture. Eight temples and ruins in Nara remain: Tōdai-ji, Saidai-ji, Kōfuku-ji, Kasuga Shrine, Gangō-ji, Yakushi-ji, Tōshōdai-ji, the Heijō Palace, together with Kasugayama Primeval Forest, collectively form "Historic Monuments of Ancient Nara", a UNESCO World Heritage Site. During 710 CE - 784 CE, Nara was the capital of Japan, the Emperor lived there before moving the capital to Kyoto. By the Heian period, a variety of different characters had been used to represent the name Nara: 乃楽, 乃羅, 平, 平城, 名良, 奈良, 奈羅, 常, 那良, 那楽, 那羅, 楢, 諾良, 諾楽, 寧, 寧楽 and 儺羅. A number of theories for the origin of the name Nara have been proposed, some of the better-known ones are listed here; the second theory in the list, by notable folklorist Kunio Yanagita, is most accepted at present. The Nihon Shoki suggests. According to this account, in September in the tenth year of Emperor Sujin, "leading selected soldiers went forward, climbed Nara-yama and put them in order.
Now the imperial forces flattened trees and plants. Therefore the mountain is called Nara-yama." Though the narrative itself is regarded as a folk etymology and few researchers regard it as historical, this is the oldest surviving suggestion, is linguistically similar to the following theory by Yanagita. "Flat land" theory: In his 1936 study of placenames, the author Kunio Yanagita states that "the topographical feature of an area of gentle gradient on the side of a mountain, called taira in eastern Japan and hae in the south of Kyushu, is called naru in the Chūgoku region and Shikoku. This word gives rise to the verb narasu, adverb narashi, adjective narushi." This is supported by entries in a dialect dictionary for nouns referring to flat areas: naru and naro. Yanagita further comments that the way in which the fact that so many of these placenames are written using the character 平, or other characters in which it is an element, demonstrates the validity of this theory. Citing a 1795 document, Inaba-shi from the province of Inaba, the eastern part of modern Tottori, as indicating the reading naruji for the word 平地, Yanagita suggests that naruji would have been used as a common noun there until the modern period.
Of course, the fact that "Nara" was written 平 or 平城 as above is further support for this theory. The idea that Nara is derived from 楢 nara is the next most common opinion; this idea was suggested by Yoshida Togo. This noun for the plant can be seen as early as in Man ` Harima-no-kuni Fudoki; the latter book states the place name Narahara in Harima derives from this nara tree, which might support Yoshida's theory. Note that the name of the nearby city of Kashihara contains a semantically similar morpheme. Nara could be a loan word from Korean nara; this idea was put forward by a linguist Matsuoka Shizuo. Not much about the Old Korean language is known today, the first written attestation of a word ancestral to Modern Korean nara is as late as the 15th century, such as in Yongbieocheonga, Wolinseokbo, or Beophwagyeongeonhae, there is no evidence that proves the word existed as far back as the 7th century; these 15th-century books used narah, an old form of nara in Korean, its older form might be reconstructed *narak.
American linguist Christopher I. Beckwith infers the Korean narak derives from the late Middle Old Chinese 壌, from early *narak, has no connection with Goguryoic and Japanese na. Kusuhara et al. points out this hypothesis cannot account for the fact there are lots of places named Nara and Naro besides this Nara. There is the idea. In some Tungusic languages such as Orok, na means land or the like; some have speculated about a connection between these Tungusic words and Old Japanese nawi, an archaic and somewhat obscure word that appears in the verb phrases nawi furu and nawi yoru. The "Flat land" theory is adopted by Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, various dictionaries for place names, history books on Nara and the like today, it is regarded as the most likely. By decree of an edict on March 11, 708 AD, Empress Genmei ordered the court to relocate to the new capital, Nara. Once known as Heijō or Heijō-kyō, the city was established as Japan’s first permanent capital in 710 CE. Heijō, as the ‘penultimate court’, was abandoned by the order of Emperor Kammu in 784 CE in favor of the temporary site of Nagaoka, Kyoto which retained the status of capital for 1,100 years, until the Meiji Emperor made the final move to Edo