A tahōtō is a form of Japanese pagoda found at Esoteric Shingon and Tendai school Buddhist temples. It is unique among pagodas because it has an number of stories, its name alludes to Tahō Nyorai, who appears seated in a many-jewelled pagoda in the eleventh chapter of the Lotus Sutra. With square lower and cylindrical upper parts, a mokoshi'skirt roof', a pyramidal roof, a finial, the tahōtō or the larger daitō was one of the seven halls of a Shingon temple. After the Heian period the construction of pagodas in general declined, new tahōtō became rare. Six examples, of which that at Ishiyama-dera is the earliest, have been designated National Treasures. There are no examples in China, whether architectural or pictoral, of anything that resembles the tahōtō, although there is a Song dynasty textual reference to a'tahōtō with an encircling chamber'; the hōtō or treasure pagoda is the ancestor of the tahōtō and dates to the introduction to Japan of Shingon and Tendai Buddhism in the ninth century.
No wooden hōtō has survived, albeit modern copies do exist, stone, bronze, or iron specimen are always miniatures comprising a foundation stone, barrel-shaped body, pyramid roof, a finial. While the tahōtō is 3x3 ken, a larger 5x5 ken version exists, known as daitō or'large pagoda'; this is the only type of tahōtō to retain the original structure with a row of pillars or a wall separating the corridor from the core of the structure, abolished in smaller pagodas. Daitō used to be common but, of all those built, only a few are still extant. One is at Wakayama prefecture's Negoro-ji, another at Kongōbu-ji, again in Wakayama, another at Kirihata-dera, Tokushima prefecture, another at Narita-san in Chiba. Kūkai himself, founder of the Shingon school, built the celebrated daitō for Kongōbu-ji on Kōyasan; the specimen found at Negoro-ji is 30.85 meters tall and a National Treasure. Japanese pagodas have an odd number of stories. While the tahōto may appear to be twin-storied, complete with balustrade, the upper part is inaccessible with no usable space.
The lower roof, known as a mokoshi, provides the appearance of an additional storey. Raised over the kamebara or'tortoise mound', the ground floor has a square plan, 3x3 ken across, with a circular core. Inside, a room is marked out by the shitenbashira or'four pillars of heaven', a reference to the Four Heavenly Kings; the main objects of worship are enshrined within. Above is a second'tortoise mound', in a residual reference to the stupa. Since exposed plaster weathers a natural solution was to provide it with a roof, the mokoshi. Above again is a short, cylindrical section and a pyramidal roof, supported on four-stepped brackets. Like all Japanese pagodas, the tahōtō is topped by a vertical shaft known as the sōrin; this comprises the base or'dew basin'. The finial's division in sections has a symbolic meaning and its structure as a whole itself represents a pagoda. A number of smaller versions of the tahōtō are known, of stone, iron, or wood, similar to the hōtō. A number of mandala show the Iron Stupa in southern India, where the patriarch Nāgārjuna received the Esoteric scriptures, as a single-storey pagoda with a cylindrical body, a pyramidal roof, a spire.
The forms used in the tahōtō, namely the square, triangle, semi-circle, circle, may represent the Five Elements or the Five Virtues. The egg-shaped stupa mound or aṇḍa may represent Mount Sumeru, with the finial as the axis of the world; the tahōtō served not as a reliquary tower but as an icon hall. Tō List of National Treasures of Japan Pagoda Stupa
Hiyoshi-zukuri or hie-zukuri called shōtei-zukuri / shōtai-zukuri or sannō-zukuri is a rare Shinto shrine architectural style presently found in only three instances, all at Hiyoshi Taisha in Ōtsu, hence the name. They are the Sessha Usa Jingū Honden, it is characterized by a hip-and gable roof with verandas called hisashi on the sides. It has a hirairi structure, that is, the building has its main entrance on the side which runs parallel to the roof's ridge; the building is composed of a 3x2 ken core called moya surrounded on three sides by a 1-ken wide hisashi, totaling 5x3 ken. The three-sided hisashi is typical of this style; the gabled roof extends in small porticos on the two gabled sides. The roof on the back has a characteristic shape
A Shinto shrine is a structure whose main purpose is to house one or more kami. Its most important building is used for the safekeeping of sacred objects, not for worship. Although only one word is used in English, in Japanese Shinto shrines may carry any one of many different, non-equivalent names like gongen, -gū, jingū, mori, myōjin, -sha, ubusuna or yashiro. Structurally, a Shinto shrine is characterized by the presence of a honden or sanctuary, where the kami is enshrined; the honden may however be absent, as for example when the shrine stands on a sacred mountain to which it is dedicated, and, worshiped directly. The honden may be missing when there are nearby altar-like structures called himorogi or objects believed capable of attracting spirits called yorishiro that can serve as a direct bond to a kami. There may be a haiden and other structures as well. However, a shrine's most important building is used for the safekeeping of sacred objects rather than for worship. Miniature shrines can be found on roadsides.
Large shrines sometimes have on their precincts miniature shrines. The portable shrines which are carried on poles during festivals enshrine kami and are therefore true shrines. In 927 CE, the Engi-shiki was promulgated; this work listed all of the 2,861 Shinto shrines existing at the time, the 3,131 official-recognized and enshrined Kami. That number has grown and exceeded this figure through the following generations. In Agency for Cultural Affairs in Japan placed the number of shrines at 79,467 affiliated with the Association of Shinto Shrines; some shrines, such as the Yasukuni Shrine are independent of any outside authority. The number of Shinto shrines in Japan is estimated to be around 100,000; this figure may, or may not, include private shrines in homes and owned by small groups, abandoned or derelict shrines, roadside Hokora. etc. Ancestors are kami to be worshiped. Yayoi-period village councils sought the advice of ancestors and other kami, developed instruments to evoke them. Yoshishiro means "approach substitute" and were conceived to attract the kami to allow them physical space, thus making kami accessible to human beings.
Village-council sessions were held in quiet spots in the mountains or in forests near great trees or other natural objects that served as yorishiro. These sacred places and their yorishiro evolved into today's shrines, whose origins can be still seen in the Japanese words for "mountain" and "forest", which can mean "shrine". Many shrines have on their grounds one of the original great yorishiro: a big tree, surrounded by a sacred rope called shimenawa; the first buildings at places dedicated to worship were huts built to house some yorishiro. A trace of this origin can be found in the term hokura, "deity storehouse", which evolved into hokora, is considered to be one of the first words for shrine. True shrines arose with the beginning of agriculture, when the need arose to attract kami to ensure good harvests; these were, just temporary structures built for a particular purpose, a tradition of which traces can be found in some rituals. Hints of the first shrines can still be found there. Ōmiwa Shrine in Nara, for example, contains no sacred images or objects because it is believed to serve the mountain on which it stands.
Those images or objects are therefore unnecessary. For the same reason, it has a worship hall but no place to house the kami. Archeology confirms that, during the Yayoi period, the most common shintai in the earliest shrines were nearby mountain peaks that supplied stream water to the plains where people lived. Besides the mentioned Ōmiwa Shrine, another important example is Mount Nantai, a phallus-shaped mountain in Nikko which constitutes Futarasan Shrine's shintai; the name Nantai means "man's body". The mountain not only provides water to the rice paddies below but has the shape of the phallic stone rods found in pre-agricultural Jōmon sites. In 905 CE, Emperor Daigo ordered a compilation of Shinto rules. Previous attempts at codification are known to have taken place, neither the Konin nor the Jogan Gishiki survive. Under the direction of Fujiwara no Tokihira, the project stalled at his death in April 909. Fujiwara no Tadahira, his brother, took charge and in 912 CE and in 927 CE the Engi-shiki was promulgated in fifty volumes.
This, the first formal codification of Shinto rites and Norito to survive, became the basis for all subsequent Shinto liturgical practice and efforts. In addition to the first ten volumes of this fifty volume work, sections in subsequent volumes addressing the Ministry of Ceremonies and the Ministry of the Imperial Household regulated Shinto worship and contained liturgical rites and regulation. Felicia Gressitt Brock published a two-volume annotated English language translation of the first ten volumes with an introduction entitled Engi-shiki; the arrival of Buddhism changed the situation, introducing to Japan the concept of the permanent shrine. A great number of Buddhist temples were built next to existing shrines in mixed complexes called jingū-ji (神宮寺, lit. shri
Zenshūyo is a Japanese Buddhist architectural style derived from Chinese Song Dynasty architecture. Named after the Zen sect of Buddhism which brought it to Japan, it emerged in the late 12th or early 13th century. Together with Wayō and Daibutsuyō, it is one of the three most significant styles developed by Japanese Buddhism on the basis of Chinese models; until World War II, this style was called karayō but, like the Daibutsuyō style, it was re-christened by Ōta Hirotarō, a 20th-century scholar. Its most typical features are a more or less linear layout of the garan, paneled doors hanging from hinges, intercolumnar tokyō, cusped windows, tail rafters, ornaments called kibana, decorative pent roofs. Kōzan-ji's butsuden in Shimonoseki, Zenpuku-in's shaka-dō in Kainan and Anraku-ji's pagoda in Ueda, all dating to the Kamakura period, are considered the three most important Zenshūyō buildings. Kōzan-ji's butsuden is the oldest extant building in the Zenshūyō style in Japan. At the end of the 12th century, more or less while in Nara Chōgen was rebuilding Tōdai-ji, in the process was creating the architectural style that would be called Daibutsuyō, two monks were introducing Zen to Japan.
First was Eisai. Having the support of shōgun Minamoto no Yoriie, he was able to found temples in both Kamakura and Kyoto. A little Dōgen introduced the Sōtō school to Japan. Unlike Eisai, he declined the support of Kamakura's regent Hōjō Tokiyori and open his head temple, Eihei-ji, within the forests of today's Fukui prefecture; the success of the Zen sects, which were embraced by the warrior caste, meant that they were able to introduce to the country a new architectural style, like the Daibutsuyō derived from Song Dynasty architecture, but different in spirit. After arriving in Japan the style started to evolve in response to local tastes. Among its innovations is the roof, covered in wood shingles rather than tiles, as in China. Zen temple buildings have a so-called "hidden roof" structure, consisting in two roofs, the true one and a second underneath it; the second, false roof hides the first, making it possible to obtain sloping roofs and shallow eaves. The invention of the hidden roof in the 10th century allowed the inclination of the roof's underside to be different from that of the exterior, thus making Japanese temples feel different from their Chinese counterparts.
The Zen sect was successful, therefore imitated. Many of its innovations were therefore adopted by other Buddhist schools. Zenshūyō's characteristics are decorative pent roofs and pronouncedly curved main roofs, cusped windows, earthen floors and paneled doors. Wood structures are light, design light and orderly. All buildings have either stone or earthen floors. Other important characteristics are: More or less fixed garan composition and layoutZen's discipline is strict and its rules many and complex; as a consequence, the Zen garan has a typical elongated and bilaterally symmetrical layout where each building's shape, position and use are predetermined. To the contrary, older schools like Tendai and Shingon use more irregular building dispositions which take into account terrain characteristics; the typical Zen garan, of which Kenchō-ji's is a good example, begins with a gate followed by another, larger one, the main hall, the lecture hall, the chief abbot's residence all aligned more or less on a north to south axis, with the bath house and the sūtra repository to its east, the monks' hall to its west.
Use of penetrating tie beamsDuring the Heian period temples were built using only non-penetrating tie beams made to fit around columns and pillars nailed. The daibutsuyō style and the zenshūyō style replaced them with penetrating tie-beams, which pierced the column, were therefore much more effective against earthquakes; the nageshi was however retained as a purely decorative element. Tokyō between postsWhile other styles put roof-supporting brackets only above columns, Zen temples have them between columns. TōrihijikiEach bracket step has its own tōrihijiki or tōshihijiki, a long horizontal beam parallel to the wall and inserted into the bracket step, it strengthens the structure while at the same time supporting the roof rafters. OdarukiA tokyō's third step is supported by a so-called tail rafter, a cantilever set between the second and the third step; the name refers to its typical shape, similar to a tail protruding from the bracket. KibanaAnother Zenshūyō feature is the kobushibana or kibana, a nose-like decoration with a spiraling motif carved on a rafter after the last protruding bracket.
Fan-shaped roof raftersRoof rafters radiate outwards from a single central point. Paneled doorsDoors called sankarado are made of separate panels and do not slide, but are fixed to the tie beams by heavy hinges called waraza. Above the door's panels runs a transom. Sōmon and sanmonThe entrance to a Zen temple is straddled by two symbolic gates, the sōmon and the more important sanmon. MokoshiTypical of the style is the main hall, which has just one story but seems to have two because of the presence of a roofed corridor called mokoshi. Having the width of one bay, it makes the three-bay, one-story building look like a two-storey, five-bay building. Cusped windowsZen temple
Taisha-zukuri or Ōyashiro-zukuri is the oldest Shinto shrine architectural style. Named after Izumo Taisha's honden, like Ise Grand Shrine's shinmei-zukuri style it features a bark roof decorated with poles called chigi and katsuogi, plus archaic features like gable-end pillars and a single central pillar; the honden's floor is raised above the ground through the use of stilts. Like the shinmei-zukuri and sumiyoshi-zukuri styles, it predates the arrival in Japan of Buddhism. Ancient shrines were constructed according to the style of storehouses; the buildings had gabled roofs, raised floors, plank walls, were thatched with reed or covered with hinoki cypress bark. Such early shrines did not include a space for worship. Three important forms of ancient shrine architectural styles exist: taisha-zukuri, shinmei-zukuri and sumiyoshi-zukuri, they are exemplified by Izumo Taisha, Nishina Shinmei Shrine and Sumiyoshi Taisha and date to before 552. According to the tradition of Shikinen sengū-sai, the buildings or shrines were faithfully rebuilt at regular intervals adhering to the original design.
In this manner, ancient styles have been replicated through the centuries to the present day. Izumo Taisha's honden over time has gone through profound changes that have decreased its size and changed its structure. In its present form, it is a gabled building 2x2 ken in size, with an entrance on the gabled end (a characteristic called tsumairi-zukuri. Like Ise Grand Shrine's, it has purely ornamental poles called chigi and katsuogi on a cypress bark-covered roof, plus archaic features like gable-end pillars and a single central pillar; this pillar has a diameter of 10.9 cm, has no obvious structural role and is believed to have had a purely religious significance. The external stairway is covered by an independent bark-covered roof; the honden's interior is a square divided into four identical sections, each covered by 15 tatami. The floor plan has therefore the shape of the Chinese character for rice field, an element which suggests a possible connection with harvest propitiation rites; because its floor is raised above the ground, the honden is believed to have its origin in raised-floor granaries like those found in Toro, Shizuoka prefecture.
The oldest extant example of taisha-zukuri is the honden at Kamosu Shrine in Matsue, Shimane prefecture, built in 1582 and now declared a National Treasure. Smaller than Izumo Taisha's, it nonetheless has thick supporting pillars, it is deeper, has a higher floor, differs from Izumo Taisha's. It represents an older style of construction. History and Typology of Shrine Architecture, Encyclopedia of Shinto accessed on November 29, 2009 Fujita Masaya, Koga Shūsaku, ed.. Nihon Kenchiku-shi. Shōwa-dō. ISBN 4-8122-9805-9. Kishida, Hideto. Japanese Architecture. READ BOOKS. ISBN 1-4437-7281-X. Retrieved 2009-11-11. Young, David; the art of Japanese architecture. Architecture and Interior Design. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0-8048-3838-0. Retrieved 2009-11-11
Minka are vernacular houses constructed in any one of several traditional Japanese building styles. In the context of the four divisions of society, minka were the dwellings of farmers and merchants; this connotation no longer exists in the modern Japanese language, any traditional Japanese-style residence of an appropriate age could be referred to as minka. Minka are characterised by their roof structure and their roof shape. Minka developed through history with distinctive styles emerging in the Edo period; the term minka means "houses of the people". It covers houses that accommodated a wide variety of people from farmers to village headmen and low level samurai. Minka come in a wide range of styles and sizes as a result of differing geographic and climatic conditions as well as the lifestyle of the inhabitants, they fall into one of four classifications: farmhouses nōka town houses machiya, fishermen's dwellings gyoka and mountain dwellings sanka. Unlike other forms of Japanese architecture, it is the structure rather than the plan, of primary importance to the minka.
Minka are divided up with primary posts that form the basic framework and bear the structural load of the building. Despite the wide variety of minka, there are eight basic forms. The'inverted U' consists of two vertical posts fixed at the top with a horizontal beam; the beam can be fixed to the top of the post either by resting upon it or via a mortise and tenon joint. This latter method is found in minka on the island of Shikoku. The'ladder' has post and beam units connected with larger beams including beams that are closer to the foundation level; this form of structure originated in townhouses of the Edo period. The system allows the irregular placement of posts and, allows flexibility in the plan. With the'umbrella' style, four beams radiate out from a central post; these posts sit at the centre of the square rather than the corners. Minka of this type are found in Shiga Prefecture. The'cross' has two beams at right angles to one another with the posts in the centre of the sides, it is used for small minka that have no other posts erected in the space or for large minka in the earth-floored area.
The style is most found in Shiga and Fukui prefectures.'Parallel crosses' are found in Shizuoka Prefecture and cover an area 5 metres by 10 metres. This system doubles up the ` cross' structure with eight posts; the ` box' structure connects four or more beam units to create a box-like structure. It can be found in Toyama and Ishikawa prefectures. The'interconnected box' can be found in Kyoto and Osaka.'Rising beams' is a form that enables better use of the second storey. It uses beams that rise from the posts to a secondary ridge, below the one formed by the rafters. Thatched roof farmhouses based upon the'rising beam' structure can be further classified into four major types; the yojiro-gumi and the wagoya are rare. The latter of these, the wagoya, is popular for machiya houses. Far more common are the odachi types; the odachi style has rafters and short vertical posts to support the ridge. These posts would have extended to the ground resulting in a row of posts extending down the centre of the house and dividing it.
Although these could be accommodated in the layout of the main house, they were impractical in the earth-floored entrance area—so they were omitted and a special beam structure used instead. This style was in wide use until the Edo period; the sasu style is a simpler triangular shape with a pair of rafters joined at the top to support the ridge pole. The ends of these rafters were sharpened to fit into mortice holes at either end of crossbeam; as this system does not rely on central posts it leaves a more unobstructed plan than the odachi style. There were two main methods for setting out the floor plan of the minka; the kyoma method uses a standard size of tatami mat, whereas the inakama method is based upon column spacing. The kyoma method works well for minka without central columns as the mats and the sliding partitions can be based on a standard size, it was used in minka in eastern Japan. The method has its disadvantages if used with posts because variations in post width can make the prefabrication of the sliding partitions difficult.
The inakama method is based upon the distance between centre of one post and centre of the post adjacent to it and it was used on the eastern side of Japan. The size and decoration of a minka was dependent upon its location and social status of its owner. Minka were influenced by local building techniques and were built with materials that were abundant in the immediate locality. For example, minka in Shizuoka used abundant bamboo for roofs, eaves and floors; when miscanthus reeds were difficult to obtain for thatched roofs, shingles were used instead. Climate had a bearing on construction: In Kyoto in the late Heian and Muromachi periods, roofs were clad in thin wooden shingles so owners would put stones on top to prevent the shingles from flying away in the wind; the social status of the minka owner was indicated by the complexity of the building. For thatched roof minka the nu