In historical legal systems, an outlaw is declared as outside the protection of the law. In pre-modern societies, the criminal is withdrawn all legal protection, so that anyone is empowered to persecute or kill them. Outlawry was thus one of the harshest penalties in the legal system. In early Germanic law, the death penalty is conspicuously absent, outlawing is the most extreme punishment amounting to a death sentence in practice; the concept is known from Roman law, as the status of homo sacer, persisted throughout the Middle Ages. In the common law of England, a "Writ of Outlawry" made the pronouncement Caput lupinum with respect to its subject, using "head" to refer to the entire person and equating that person with a wolf in the eyes of the law: not only was the subject deprived of all legal rights of the law being outside the "law", but others could kill him on sight as if he were a wolf or other wild animal. Women were declared "waived" rather than outlawed but it was the same punishment.
Among other forms of exile, Roman law included the penalty of interdicere aquae et ignis. People so penalized were required to forfeit their property. If they returned, they were outlaws. Interdicere aquae et ignis was traditionally imposed by the tribune of the plebs, is attested to have been in use during the First Punic War of the third century BC by Cato the Elder, it was also applied by many other officials, such as the Senate and Julius Caesar as a general and provincial governor during the Gallic Wars. It fell out of use during the early Empire. See: Homo sacer. In English common law, an outlaw was a person who had defied the laws of the realm, by such acts as ignoring a summons to court, or fleeing instead of appearing to plead when charged with a crime; the term outlawry referred to the formal procedure of declaring someone an outlaw, i.e. putting him outside the sphere of legal protection. In the common law of England, a judgment of outlawry was one of the harshest penalties in the legal system, since the outlaw could not use the legal system for protection, e.g. from mob justice.
To be declared an outlaw was to suffer a form of civil or social death. The outlaw was debarred from all civilized society. No one was allowed to give him food, shelter, or any other sort of support – to do so was to commit the crime of aiding and abetting, to be in danger of the ban oneself. A more recent concept of "wanted dead or alive" is similar, but implies that a trial is desired, whereas outlawry precludes a trial. An outlaw might be killed with impunity. A man who slew a thief was expected to declare the fact without delay, otherwise the dead man's kindred might clear his name by their oath and require the slayer to pay weregild as for a true man. By the rules of common law, a criminal outlaw did not need to be guilty of the crime for which he was an outlaw. If a man was accused of a treason or felony but failed to appear in court to defend himself, he was deemed to be convicted of the said offence. If he was accused of a misdemeanour he was guilty of a serious contempt of court, itself a capital crime.
In the context of criminal law, outlawry faded out, not so much by legal changes as by the greater population density of the country, which made it harder for wanted fugitives to evade capture. It was obsolete by the time the offence was abolished in 1938. Outlawry was, however, a living practice as of 1855: in 1841, a William John Bankes a MP on several times 1810...1835, was outlawed by due process of law for absenting himself from trial for indecent exposure, died in 1855 in Venice as an outlaw. There was a doctrine of civil outlawry. Civil outlawry did not carry the sentence of capital punishment, it was however imposed on defendants who fled or evaded justice when sued for civil actions like debts or torts. The punishments for civil outlawry were harsh, including confiscation of chattels left behind by the outlaw. In the civil context, outlawry became obsolescent in civil procedure by reforms that no longer required summoned defendants to appear and plead. Still, the possibility of being declared an outlaw for derelictions of civil duty continued to exist in English law until 1879 and, in Scots law until the late 1940s.
Since failure to find the defendant and serve process is interpreted in favour of the plaintiff, harsh penalties for mere nonappearance no longer apply. Outlawry existed in other ancient legal codes, such as the ancient Norse and Icelandic legal code. In early modern times, the term Vogelfrei and its cognates came to be used in Germany, the Low Countries and Scandinavia, referring to a person stripped of his civil rights being "free" for the taking like a bird. In Germany and Slavic countries in 15th–19th centuries groups of outlaws composed from former prisoners, soldiers etc. became an important social phenomenon. They lived from robbery and their activity was supported by local inhabitants from lower classes; the best known are Juraj Jánošík and Jakub Surovec in Slovakia, Oleksa Dovbush in Ukraine, Rózsa Sándor in Hungary and Hans Kohlhase in Germany etc. The concept of outlawry was rein
Promiscuity is the practice of having sex with different partners or being indiscriminate in the choice of sexual partners. The term can carry a moral judgment if the social ideal for sexual activity is monogamous relationships. A common example of behavior viewed as promiscuous by many cultures is the one-night stand, its frequency is used by researchers as a marker for promiscuity. What sexual behavior is considered promiscuous varies between cultures, as does the prevalence of promiscuity. Different standards are applied to different genders and civil statutes. Feminists have traditionally argued a significant double standard exists between how men and women are judged for promiscuity. Stereotypes of the promiscuous woman have tended to be negative, such as "the slut" or "the harlot", while male stereotypes have been more varied, some expressing approval, such as "the stud" or "the player", while others imply societal deviance, such as "the womanizer" or "the philanderer". A scientific study published in 2005 found that promiscuous men and women are both prone to derogatory judgment.
Promiscuity is common in many animal species. Some species have promiscuous mating systems, ranging from polyandry and polygyny to mating systems with no stable relationships where mating between two individuals is a one-time event. Many species still mate with other individuals outside the pair. In biology, incidents of promiscuity in species that form pair bonds are called extra-pair copulations. Assessing people's sexual behavior is difficult, since strong social and personal motivations occur, depending on social sanctions and taboos, for either minimizing or exaggerating reported sexual activity. American experiments in 1978 and 1982 found the great majority of men were willing to have sex with women they did not know, of average attractiveness, who propositioned them. No woman, by contrast, agreed to such propositions from men of average attractiveness. While men were in general comfortable with the requests, regardless of their willingness, women responded with shock and disgust; the number of sexual partners people have had in their lifetimes varies within a population.
A 2007 nationwide survey in the United States found the median number of female sexual partners reported by men was seven and the median number of male partners reported by women was four. The men exaggerated their reported number of partners, women reported a number lower than the actual number, or a minority of women had a sufficiently larger number than most other women to create a mean higher than the median, or all of the above. About 29% of men and 9% of women reported to have had more than 15 sexual partners in their lifetimes. Studies of the spread of sexually transmitted diseases demonstrate a small percentage of the studied population has more partners than the average man or woman, a smaller number of people have fewer than the statistical average. An important question in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections is whether or not these groups copulate at random with sexual partners from throughout a population or within their social groups. A 2006 systematic review analyzing data from 59 countries worldwide found no association between regional sexual behavior tendencies, such as number of sexual partners, sexual-health status.
Much more predictive of sexual-health status are socioeconomic factors like mobility. Other studies have suggested that people with multiple casual sex partners are more to be diagnosed with sexually transmitted infections. Severe and impulsive promiscuity, along with a compulsive urge to engage in illicit sex with attached individuals is a common symptom of borderline personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder and antisocial personality disorder but some promiscuous individuals do not have these disorders. In 2008, a U. S. university study of international promiscuity found that Finns have had the largest number of sex partners in the industrialized world, British people have the largest number among big western industrial nations. The study measured one-night stands, attitudes to casual sex, number of sexual partners. A 2014 nationwide survey in the United Kingdom named Liverpool the country's most promiscuous city. Britain's position on the international index "may be linked to increasing social acceptance of promiscuity among women as well as men".
Britain's ranking was "ascribed to factors such as the decline of religious scruples about extramarital sex, the growth of equal pay and equal rights for women and a sexualised popular culture". The top-10-ranking OECD nations with a population over 10 million on the study's promiscuity index, in descending order, were the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, the Czech Republic, the United States, Turkey and Canada. A nonscientific survey conducted in 2007 by condom-maker Durex measured promiscuity by a total number of sexual partners; the survey found Austrian men had the highest number of sex partners of males globally with 29.3 sexual partners on average. New Zealand women had the highest number of sex partners for females in the world with an average of 20.4 sexual partners. In all of the countries surveyed, except New Zealand, men reported more sexual partners than women; the data can differ quite drastically between studies due to the small number of people that participate. A study funded by Durex, published in 2009 shows in all counties surveyed, except New Zealand, men reported fewer sexual partners than women.
In this case, New Zealand women were the only country to report a lower average number of partners than men. One review found the people from developed Western countries had more sex partners tha
State Library of New South Wales
The State Library of New South Wales, part of, known as the Mitchell Library, is a large heritage-listed special collections and research library open to the public. It is the oldest library in Australia, being the first established in New South Wales in 1826; the library is located on the corner of Macquarie Street and Shakespeare Place, in the Sydney central business district adjacent to the Domain and the Royal Botanic Gardens, in the City of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The library is a member of the State Libraries Australasia consortium; the State Library of New South Wales building was designed by Walter Liberty Vernon, assisted by H. C. L. Anderson and was built from 1905 to 1910, with further additions by Howie Bros in 1939; the property was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999. The first library collections were part of the Australian Subscription Library, started by a group of wealthy Sydney citizens in 1826, it was purchased for £5,100 by the New South Wales Government in 1869 and became the Sydney Free Public Library.
In 1895 it was renamed the Public Library of New South Wales until its most recent name change in 1975, when it became the State Library of New South Wales. The Australian Subscription Library was established in 1826 at a meeting at the Sydney Hotel chaired by barrister John Mackaness. Library membership was subject to committee approval. Dr James Mitchell, father of David Scott Mitchell, was a committee member from 1832 to 1853 and Vice President from 1856 to 1869. In December 1827 operations began in rented premises in Pitt Street and in the two years following, the Library led a peripatetic existence having been located a few years in George Street, Bridge Street, Macquarie Street and Macquarie Place; the library had financial problems and required more space to house its growing collections but negotiations in 1838 to construct a new library building broke down over member unwillingness to broaden access to the library. For the members negotiations with the government were more successful and construction of a new library building began in 1843.
The foundation stone for this new building, on the corner of Bent and Macquarie Streets, was laid by Alexander Macleay and the library was opened in 1845. Financial difficulties continued, by 1869 the subscription library was in serious debt; the New South Wales Government was persuaded to buy it for £5,100. In September 1869, the Sydney Free Public Library opened its doors with a stock of 20,000 volumes. Over 60,000 people visited the library in its first year of operation as the Free Public Library. Robert Cooper Walker was appointed Principal Librarian. He, in collaboration with the Trustees, worked to expand the educational role of the library both through collection expansion and the production of printed catalogues of the library's collection; the library expanded its operations, opening a lending branch in 1877. This lending branch was handed to the Sydney Municipal Council in 1909 and became the City of Sydney Library. Another of Walker's initiatives was to establish services across the state, with loans to organisations including the Wollongong School of Arts and the Mechanics' Institute at Plattsburg and services for regional libraries from 1883.
The library's collection continued causing continual storage and overcrowding problems. Australiana was a collecting focus for the library and David Scott Mitchell's collecting activities came to the attention of Henry Charles Lennox Anderson, Principal Librarian from 1893–1906. Anderson's stated aim of making the library'a National, not a Municipal, Library' led him to collect Australiana material. However, Mitchell's efforts to collect as many books and manuscripts relating to Australia, the Pacific, the East Indies and Antarctica from 1886 onwards, created competition for these materials. Anderson realised that the library did not have the budget or contacts to compete with Mitchell, attempted to build a working relationship with Mitchell. In 1898, Mitchell announced his intention to leave his collection to the people of New South Wales, subject to conditions including that the collection would be known as "the Mitchell Library". Although his offer was accepted, construction of a new building to house the collection was delayed for several years.
Construction commenced in one year before Mitchell's death. Following Anderson's resignation in 1907, Frank Murcott Bladen was appointed Principal Librarian. In 1909, Hugh Wright was appointed to the newly created position of Mitchell Librarian. Nita Kibble was another early member of the library staff; the Mitchell Library opened on 8 March 1910. The public library remained in the Bent Street building. Mitchell had not kept a catalogue of his collection, as a result, cataloguing was an early priority for librarians in the Mitchell Library. A research department was established as part of the public library in the 1920s under the direction of Nita Kibble, while Ida Leeson as Head of Acquisitions researched gaps in the library's collections. Kibble's research department was used as a mod
Dan Kelly (bushranger)
Daniel Kelly was an Australian bushranger and outlaw. The son of an Irish convict, he was the younger brother of the bushranger Ned Kelly. Dan and Ned killed three policemen at Stringybark Creek in northeast Victoria, near the present-day town of Tolmie, Victoria. With two friends, Joe Byrne and Steve Hart, the brothers formed the Kelly Gang, they robbed banks, took over whole towns, kept the people in Victoria and New South Wales frightened. For two years the Victorian police searched for them, locked up their friends and families, but could not find them. Dan Kelly died during the infamous siege of Glenrowan. More books have been written about the Kelly Gang than any other subject in Australian history; the Kelly Gang were the subject of the world's first full-length feature film, The Story of the Kelly Gang, made in 1906. Dan Kelly's father, John Kelly married an Irish woman, Ellen Quinn, in Melbourne in 1850, they had seven children: Annie, Edward "Ned", James, Dan and Grace. In 1864, Dan Kelly's family moved north to a farm at Avenel.
Red Kelly was sent to jail for six months. Dan was in trouble with the police when he was five years old because they believed he had stolen a horse. Dan's father died in 1866, in 1867, his mother, Ellen Kelly, moved the family to a small farm near Greta in north east Victoria. Ellen Kelly's two sisters and Jane Lloyd, were living at Greta, her two brothers and James Quinn, had moved to the area in 1864; the Quinn family were well known to the police. Dan Kelly was again in trouble with the law, he and his brother Jim, aged 12, were arrested by Constable Flood for riding a horse that did not belong to them. Jim had taken the horse to ride home on. Flood did not believe them, the boys were forced to spend two nights in a prison cell, it transpired that the farmer had given them permission to borrow the horse. In 1875, like many other young men in north east Victoria, Dan Kelly and his cousins, the Lloyds, went to New South Wales to look for seasonal farm work in the Riverina area and on the Monaro High Plains.
His group of friends were known as "the Greta mob". They went out together to hotels and horse races. By 1876, they were well known for their visits to nearby towns such as Wangaratta and Benalla. On one visit to Benalla in 1876, Dan was arrested for stealing a saddle; the police let. Dan and his cousins got into trouble with the police in October 1877, they had gone to a shop to pick up food and other supplies. When the owner refused to open the shop, Dan Kelly broke down the door, they were charged with violent assault, damage to property, breaking into houses and stealing things worth £113. The boys went into hiding, the police spent three weeks looking for them. Constable Alexander Fitzpatrick told Ned Kelly to get them to give themselves up. In court, the police were not able to prove most of the charges, but Dan went to prison for one month for damaging property worth £10. On 15 April 1878, Constable Fitzpatrick, went to the Kelly's house to arrest Dan Kelly for stealing horses. Dan had been seen in Chiltern riding a stolen horse.
What happened at the house is now called the "Fitzpatrick incident". There was a fight with Fitzpatrick, he said the Kelly family had tried to kill him. Dan and Ned went into the bush to hide. Ellen Kelly was sent to gaol for three years for attempted murder. Maggie's husband, William Skillion, a neighbour, William Williamson, were sent to gaol for six years. Ned and Dan Kelly went into the bush to a place in the Wombat Ranges. Dan Kelly had built small huts some time earlier on Bullock Creek, where he had cleared an area of about 20 acres to keep horses, he had built a small still for making alcohol. The brothers spent their time searching for gold in the creek. During the months they were hiding at Bullock Creek, they were visited by their friends including Steve Hart, Joe Byrne, Aaron Sherritt and the Lloyds; the police took the charge of attempted murder seriously. A reward of £100 was offered for the capture of the two Kelly boys; the police thought. In October 1878, they sent two search groups out to find them.
One group travelled south from Greta, the other started from Mansfield and travelled north. The Mansfield group was led with three policemen, they set up a camp at an abandoned diggings at Stringybark Creek in a thick forest area. Kennedy and Scanlan went searching for the Kellys, while McIntyre remained at the camp; the Kellys were living in a hut close by at Bullock Creek. They discovered the police camp, they decided to take their guns and horses. Ned and Dan, friends Joe Byrne and Steve Hart, went to the police camp and told them to surrender. Constable McIntyre put his arms up. Ned Kelly shot him dead; when the other two police came back to camp, McIntyre told them to surrender. Scanlan was trying to dismount when he saw the attackers and tried to swing his rifle around but Ned shot him dead. Kennedy ran shooting from tree to tree with Ned chasing him. During the shooting, Kennedy was wounded. Ned shot him in the chest, he lined him up and shot him through the chest at point blank range. McIntyre was able to escape during the confusion.
It was reporte
ABC News and Current Affairs
ABC News and Current Affairs is the division of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation that controls content classified as news, public affairs and business and finance. However, the other divisions of the ABC produce a range of programming within these genres. All such content is covered here. ABC News ABC News channel ABC News at Noon News Breakfast The World Weekend Breakfast 7.30 Australian Story Foreign Correspondent Four Corners Insiders Capital Hill Media Watch Offsiders Q&A The Drum The Business Landline Australia Wide Asia Pacific Focus It was hosted by Helen Vatsikopoulos. ABC News for Australia Network Newsline Behind the News News On 3 AM PM The World Today Correspondents Report 360 Awaye! Australia Talks Artworks Background Briefing Big Ideas Breakfast EdPod ForaRadio Future Tense The Health Report The Law Report Late Night Live The National Interest Saturday Extra The Science Show StarStuff Health Minutes 24 hrs dans le Pacifique Asia Pacific Asia Pacific Business Asia Review Bay Vut Tin tức Connect Asia Correspondent's Notebook Innovations Pacific Beat Other programs in Mandarin, Tok Pisin and French.
Hack triple j news triple j music news Sunday Night Safran National Rural News The Country Hour Bush Telegraph Country Breakfast Rural Reporte] The Resources Beat Nightlife Overnights Speaking Out Sunday Nights Sunday Profile Various local programs The ABC produces many current affairs programmes, including 7.30. These programmes use resources or reports from one another. For instance, an Asia-Pacific-based report from the week's Foreign Correspondent will be edited for use during that same week's Asia-Pacific Focus programme; the ABC's Current Affairs department has won a number of awards over the years. Official website ABC News and Current Affairs programs ABC Bureaux and Foreign Correspondents 50 Years of ABC TV News and Current Affairs
Beveridge is a town in Victoria, located along the Hume Highway, 42 kilometres north of Melbourne in the Shire of Mitchell. An eastern rural portion of the locality is within the City of Whittlesea in Greater Melbourne. At the 2016 Census, Beveridge had a population of 2,330. Beveridge was named after Scottish sheep farmer Andrew Beveridge who built the Hunters' Tryste Inn in 1845; the Inn still serves as a hotel, as well as general store. Beveridge Post Office opened on 1 January 1865. Near Beveridge is Mount Fraser, an eroded extinct volcanic cone, it is a large scoria volcano with two craters. The north side of the hill is quite steep and reaches a height of 125 metres above the surrounding basalt plain. From this location the explorers Hume and Hovell first saw Port Phillip on 14 December 1824. A quarry now supplies most of Melbourne's scoria. A copy of the original Eureka flag flies atop this hill every year to commemorate Ned Kelly; the town is principally known as the birthplace of bushranger Ned Kelly and his home for the first nine years of his life.
Ned's birth was not recorded. Ned was born in December 1854 at Beveridge on the 17-hectare Kelly farm near the Big Hill. John'Red' Kelly sold his farm for £80 and headed further north up the Old Sydney Road to Avenel in 1863 where they rented 16 ha the banks of the Hughes Creek, it is said that on the train heading south to Melbourne after his capture at Glenrowan in 1880, as he approached Beveridge Station he pointed to the left and said, "See that little hill over there, that's where I drew my first breath". Denheld argues that historians have mistakenly taken Kelly's words to have been spoken one month on a train heading north to Beechworth for his preliminary trial, have therefore looked to the other side of the railway line for the hill, concluding that this hill is Big Hill. At Beveridge a cottage where the Kelly family lived for a short time is still standing today, located on Kelly Street, it is recorded. His brother Dan was born in the house; the house was added to the Victorian Register of Historic Buildings in September, 1992.
Its design shows the Irish heritage of its builder. The Primary School is a bluestone building where the Kelly family once went to church and Ned went to school. Located on a hillside, this Gothic-style building was built between 1857 and 1862 as both a Catholic church and a school; the sacristy and chancel were added in 1877. Shire of Kilmore - the former local government area of which Beveridge was a part Bill Denheld'Where was Ned Kelly Born?'
Ned Kelly (2003 film)
Ned Kelly is a 2003 Australian historical drama film based on Robert Drewe's 1991 novel Our Sunshine. Directed by Gregor Jordan, the film's adapted screenplay was written by John Michael McDonagh; the film dramatises the life of Ned Kelly, a legendary bushranger and outlaw, active in Victoria, the colony of his birth. In the film, his brother Dan, two other associates—Steve Hart and Joe Byrne—form a gang of Irish Australians in response to Irish and English tensions that arose in 19th century Australia. Heath Ledger stars with Orlando Bloom, Naomi Watts and Geoffrey Rush. After saving a young boy from drowning and being awarded a "hero sash" when he was himself 10-year-old, Ned Kelly grows up in the British colony of Victoria where he was born; the son of a Catholic Irish settler, he lives with his widowed mother Ellen, his younger brother Dan, her two younger sisters Kate and Grace. Ned's best friend Joe and Dan's best friend Steve are often at the house. One day in 1871, when he's 17-year-old, he sees a white mare grazing alone in the outback.
He rides it into town to impress a local girl named Jane, only to be arrested and subsequently imprisoned for stealing the horse though it had been stolen by an acquaintance of his, Wild Wright. He is released and comes home three years and starts helping his family with their small horse-breeding farm located near Beechworth, he takes vengeance on Wild Wright by beating him in a prizefight, befriends Julia Cook, the beautiful wife of an English land owner who lives nearby. One night at a bar, a local constable named. Ned intervenes and hostilities erupt with his fellow officers. To get back at Ned, they take the Kellys' horses, but with the help of his brother and their friends, Ned steals them back; some nights while Ned and Julia are consummating their blossoming passion in the Cooks' stables, Fitzpatrick shows up at the Kelly farm and asks to see Kate. A fight ensues and Fitzpatrick is wounded, falsely reports that it's Ned Kelly who shot him. In retaliation, the police arrest Ned's mother.
Ned asks Julia to testify he was with her the night Fitzpatrick was at the Kelly's farm, but she would be disgraced by the public acknowledgement of their affair and her husband would take her kids away. Ned, Dan and Steve become outlaws on the run, they meet a patrol in the bushland and kill three officers in a shootout, despite Ned's efforts to have nobody get hurt. During the following months the "Kelly Gang" avoids capture, living in the outback without food. In one occasion, Julia gives them shelter at her farm. A large bounty is placed on their heads, a decree is passed that allows anybody to shoot them on sight without consequences, they rob two English banks and burn the mortgage documents with which the British Crown is starving the selectors. They give the money from their robberies to poor families in need, soon become acclaimed as folk heroes by the Victorian population as much as the British media depict them as violent criminals. To solve a situation in danger of escalating into widespread revolt, the Colonial Government sends in stern Superintendent Francis Hare, who arrests many sympathizers including Joe's childhood friend Aaron.
Being promised they won't harm Joe, but only the Kellys, Aaron accepts to work as an informant. During a quick visit back into Beechworth, Joe learns Aaron has been seen talking with cops, so the gang decided to feed him false information about their next heist, to test his loyalty; when they see a large group of constables heading to the bank Aaron was told about, they know Aaron betrayed them, Joe kills him at his house. Ned devises a plan to foil Superintendent Hare; the gangs lures him in by taking over the town of Glenrowan. They gather everybody the townspeople, most of which are friendly to their causes, at the Glenrowan Inn, to better protect them in the upcoming fight. In the meantime, they sabotage the railroad tracks leading into town, to derail the train on which Hare and his army of constables are traveling. They've built metal helmets and plates of body armour to survive bullets, they count on the derailment to kill most of them constables capture Hare and exchange him for Ned and Dan's mother.
An escaped hostage stops the train in time to avoid the incident. Hundreds of officers lay siege to the inn late at night. Determined to go out in a blaze of glory, the Kelly Gang emerge from the inn and begin shooting, protected by their amour, but are forced inside again; the police once again raid the inn. To buy the time needed for the townspeople to flee from the back, Ned exits and charges forward alone. Near dawn, Joe dies inside the inn. Dan and Steve, down to their last bullets and knowing, commit suicide. Ned regains consciousness and though gravely injured, continues to fire at the police, he is is shot to the ground and taken down. Ned is loaded onto the train to face justice. In the end with a petition over 32,000 signatures strong asking for a pardon, Kelly is hanged at Old Melbourne Gaol on 11 November 1880. In total, the film grossed $5,040,860 internationally, $86,959 in the United