The Herald Sun is a morning newspaper based in Melbourne, published by The Herald and Weekly Times, a subsidiary of News Corp Australia, itself a subsidiary of News Corp. The Herald Sun serves Victoria and shares many articles with other News Corporation daily newspapers those from Australia, it is available for purchase in Tasmania, the Australian Capital Territory and border regions of South Australia and southern New South Wales such as the Riverina and NSW South Coast, is available digitally through its website and apps. In 2017, the paper had a daily circulation of 350,000 from Monday to Friday; the Herald Sun newspaper is the product of a merger in 1990 of two newspapers owned by The Herald and Weekly Times Limited: the morning tabloid paper The Sun News-Pictorial and the afternoon broadsheet paper The Herald. It was first published on 8 October 1990 as the Herald-Sun; the hyphen in its title was dropped after 1 May 1993 as part of an effort to drop the overt reminder of the paper's two predecessors that the hyphen implied and by the fact that by 1993 most of the columns and features inherited from The Herald and The Sun News-Pictorial had either been discontinued or subsumed in new sections.
The Herald was founded on 3 January 1840 by George Cavenagh as the Port Phillip Herald. In 1849, it became The Melbourne Morning Herald. At the beginning of 1855, it became The Melbourne Herald before settling on The Herald from 8 September 1855 - the name it would hold for the next 135 years. From 1869, it was an evening newspaper. Colonel William Thomas Reay was sometime literary editor and associate editor, before becoming managing editor in 1904; when The Argus newspaper closed in 1957, The Herald and Weekly Times bought out and continued various Argus media assets. In 1986, The Herald's Saturday edition - The Weekend Herald - which had adopted a tabloid format, in order to distinguish it from the Monday to Friday editions' broadsheet format - was closed; the Sun News-Pictorial was founded on 11 September 1922, bought by The Herald and Weekly Times in 1925. In its prime, The Herald had a circulation of 600,000, but by the time of its 150th anniversary in 1990, with the impact of evening television news and a higher proportion of people using cars to get home from work rather than public transport, The Herald's circulation had fallen below 200,000.
This was much less than that of the morning Sun. With the only alternative option being to close The Herald, The Herald and Weekly Times decided to merge the two newspapers, so after one hundred and fifty years, ten months and two days of publication, The Herald was published for the last time as a separate newspaper on 5 October 1990; the next day, The Sun News-Pictorial published its last edition. The Sunday editions of the two newspapers, The Sunday Herald and The Sunday Sun, were merged to form the Sunday Herald Sun; the resulting newspaper had both the style of The Sun News-Pictorial. Bruce Baskett, the last Editor of The Herald, was the first Editor of the Herald Sun. After a progressive decline in circulation the afternoon edition was cancelled, the last edition being published on 21 December 2001; the News Corp Australia-produced mX had filled part of that gap, being distributed of an afternoon from stands throughout the Melbourne CBD until 12 June 2015, though not available outside that area.
Recent editors include Simon Pristel, Phil Gardner and Bruce Guthrie. The Herald Sun is the highest-circulating daily newspaper in Australia, with a weekday circulation of 350 thousand and claimed readership of 1.26 million. According to third-party web analytics providers Alexa and SimilarWeb, Herald Sun's website is the 74th and 125th most visited in Australia as of August 2015. SimilarWeb rates the site as the 15th most visited news website in Australia, attracting 6.6 million visitors per month. Over the years, the Herald Sun has had a range of magazines and memorabilia that could be obtained by either getting it out of the newspaper, or using a token from the newspaper to collect or purchase the item. Items that have been a part of this scheme include: William Ellis Green official VFL/AFL Premiership posters The 2000 Olympic Torch Relay Pin, collection includes 15 place pins and one State Pin of Victoria Australian Football League trading cards – every year, near the start of the AFL season The Simpsons pins Socceroos medallions Celebrate 50 Years of TV – in conjunction with Nine Network The Ashes series pins Family Encyclopedia CD-ROM Collection – in conjunction with publishing company Dorling Kindersley The Greatest – a 14-part magazine series Amazing Pictures – a 4-part magazine series Discovery Atlas DVD Collection Harry Potter The Ultimate Collection Shortly before the 2004 election, the Herald Sun published an article entitled "Greens back illegal drugs" written by Gerard McManus which made a number of claims about the Australian Greens based on their harm minimisation and decriminalisation policies posted on their website at the time.
The Greens complained to the Australian Press Council. The text of their adjudication reads: In the context of an approaching election, the potential damage was considerable; the actual electoral impact cannot be known but readers were misled. The claims made in the original article were inaccurate and breached the Council's guiding principles of checking the accuracy of what is reported, taking prompt measures to counter the effects of harmfully inaccurate reporting, ensuring that the facts are not distorted, being fair and balanced in reports on matters o
An ocular prosthesis, artificial eye or glass eye is a type of craniofacial prosthesis that replaces an absent natural eye following an enucleation, evisceration, or orbital exenteration. The prosthesis fits under the eyelids. Though referred to as a glass eye, the ocular prosthesis takes the shape of a convex shell and is made of medical grade plastic acrylic. A few ocular prostheses today are made of cryolite glass. A variant of the ocular prosthesis is a thin hard shell known as a scleral shell which can be worn over a damaged or eviscerated eye. Makers of ocular prosthetics are known as ocularists. An ocular prosthesis does not provide vision. Someone with an ocular prosthesis is blind on the affected side and has monocular vision; the earliest known evidence of the use of ocular prosthesis is that of a woman found in Shahr-I Sokhta, Iran dating back to 2900–2800 BCE. It has a diameter of just over 2.5 cm. It consists of light material bitumen paste; the surface of the artificial eye is covered with a thin layer of gold, engraved with a central circle and gold lines patterned like sun rays.
On both sides of the eye are drilled tiny holes, through which a golden thread could hold the eyeball in place. Since microscopic research has shown that the eye socket showed clear imprints of the golden thread, the eyeball must have been worn during her lifetime. In addition to this, an early Hebrew text references a woman who wore an artificial eye made of gold. Roman and Egyptian priests are known to have produced artificial eyes as early as the fifth century BCE constructed from painted clay attached to cloth and worn outside the socket; the first in-socket artificial eyes were made of gold with colored enamel evolving into the use of glass by the Venetians in the part of the sixteenth century. These were crude and fragile and the production methodology remained known only to Venetians until the end of the 18th century, when Parisians took over as the center for artificial eye-making, but the center shifted again, this time to Germany because of their superior glass blowing techniques. Shortly following the introduction of the art of glass eye-making to the United States, German goods became unavailable because of World War II.
As a result, the US instead made artificial eyes from acrylic plastic. Production of modern ocular prosthetics has expanded from using glass into many different types of materials. In the United States, most custom ocular prostheses are fabricated using PMMA, or acrylic. In some countries, Germany prostheses are still most made from glass. Ocularist surgeons have always worked together to make artificial eyes look more realistic. For decades, all efforts and investments to improve the appearance of artificial eyes have been dampened by the immobility of the pupil. One solution to this problem has been demonstrated in a device based on an LCD which simulates the pupil size as a function of the ambient light. There are many different types of implants, classification ranging from shape, stock vs custom, porous vs nonporous, specific chemical make-up, the presence of a peg or motility post; the most basic simplification can be to divide implant types into two main groups: non-integrated and integrated.
Though there is evidence that ocular implants have been around for thousands of years modern nonintegrated spherical intraconal implants came into existence around 1976. Nonintegrated implants contain no unique apparatus for attachments to the extraocular muscles and do not allow in-growth of organic tissue into their inorganic substance; such implants have no direct attachment to the ocular prosthesis. These implants are covered with a material that permits fixation of the extraocular recti muscles, such as donor sclera or polyester gauze which improves implant motility, but does not allow for direct mechanical coupling between the implant and the artificial eye. Non-integrated implants include the acrylic and silicone spheres. Polymethyl methacrylate Polymethyl methacrylate is a transparent thermoplastic available for use as ocular prosthesis, replacement intraocular lenses when the original lens has been removed in the treatment of cataracts and has been used as hard contact lenses. PMMA has a good degree of compatibility with human tissue, much more so than glass.
Although various materials have been used to make nonintegrated implants in the past, polymethyl methacrylate is one of the implants of choice. The porous nature of integrated implants allows fibrovascular ingrowth throughout the implant and thus insertion of pegs or posts; because direct mechanical coupling is thought to improve artificial eye motility, attempts have been made to develop so-called ‘integrated implants’ that are directly connected to the artificial eye. Implants that directly attached to the prosthesis were unsuccessful because of chronic inflammation or infection arising from the exposed nonporous implant material; this led to the development of quasi-integrated implants with a specially designed anterior surface that better transferred implant motility to the artificial eye through the closed conjunctiva and Tenon’s capsule. In 1985, the problems associated with integrated implants were thought to be solved with the introduction of spherical implants made of porous calcium hydroxyapatite.
This material allows for fibrovascular ingrowth within several months. Porous enucleation implants curr
The Sydney Morning Herald
The Sydney Morning Herald is a daily compact newspaper owned by Nine in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Founded in 1831 as the Sydney Herald, the SMH is the oldest continuously published newspaper in Australia and a national online news brand; the print version of the newspaper is published six days a week. The Sydney Morning Herald includes a variety including the magazines Good Weekend. There are a variety of lift-outs, some of them co-branded with online classified advertising sites: The Guide on Monday Good Food and Domain on Tuesday Money on Wednesday Drive, Shortlist on Friday News Review, Domain, Drive and MyCareer on SaturdayAs of February 2016, average week-day print circulation of the paper was 104,000; the editor is Lisa Davies. Former editors include Darren Goodsir, Judith Whelan, Sean Aylmer, Peter Fray, Meryl Constance, Amanda Wilson, William Curnow, Andrew Garran, Frederick William Ward, Charles Brunsdon Fletcher, Colin Bingham, Max Prisk, John Alexander, Paul McGeough, Alan Revell and Alan Oakley.
The February 2016 average circulation of the paper was 104,000. In December 2013, the Audit Bureau of Circulations's audit on newspaper circulation states a monthly average of 132,000 copies were sold, Monday to Friday, 228,000 copies on Saturday, both having declined 16% in 12 months. According to Roy Morgan Research Readership Surveys, in the twelve months to March 2011, the paper was read 766,000 times on Monday to Friday, read 1,014,000 times on Saturdays; the newspaper's website smh.com.au was rated by third-party web analytics providers Alexa and SimilarWeb as the 17th and 32nd most visited website in Australia as of July 2015. SimilarWeb rates the site as the fifth most visited news website in Australia and as the 42nd newspaper's website globally, attracting more than 15 million visitors per month, it is available nationally except in the Northern Territory. Limited copies of the newspaper are available at newsagents in New Zealand and at the High Commission of Australia, London. In 1831 three employees of the now-defunct Sydney Gazette, Ward Stephens, Frederick Stokes and William McGarvie, founded The Sydney Herald.
In 1931 a Centenary Supplement was published. The original four-page weekly had a print run of 750. In 1840, the newspaper began to publish daily. In 1841, an Englishman named John Fairfax purchased the operation, renaming it The Sydney Morning Herald the following year. Fairfax, whose family were to control the newspaper for 150 years, based his editorial policies "upon principles of candour and honour. We have no wish to mislead. During the decade 1890, Donald Murray worked there; the SMH was late to the trend of printing news rather than just advertising on the front page, doing so from 15 April 1944. Of the country's metropolitan dailies, only The West Australian was in making the switch. In 1949, the newspaper launched The Sunday Herald. Four years this was merged with the newly acquired Sun newspaper to create The Sun-Herald, which continues to this day. In 1995, the company launched the newspaper's web edition smh.com.au. The site has since grown to include interactive and multimedia features beyond the content in the print edition.
Around the same time, the organisation moved from Jones Street to new offices at Darling Park and built a new printing press at Chullora, in the city's west. The SMH has since moved with other Sydney Fairfax divisions to a building at Darling Island. In May 2007, Fairfax Media announced it would be moving from a broadsheet format to the smaller compact or tabloid-size, in the footsteps of The Times, for both The Sydney Morning Herald and The Age. Fairfax Media dumped these plans in the year. However, in June 2012, Fairfax Media again announced it planned to shift both broadsheet newspapers to tabloid size, in March 2013. Fairfax announced it would cut staff across the entire group by 1,900 over three years and erect paywalls around the papers' websites; the subscription type is to be a freemium model, limiting readers to a number of free stories per month, with a payment required for further access. The announcement was part of an overall "digital first" strategy of digital or on-line content over printed delivery, to "increase sharing of editorial content", to assist the management's wish for "full integration of its online and mobile platforms".
In July 2013 it was announced that the SMH's news director, Darren Goodsir, would become Editor-in-Chief, replacing Sean Aylmer. On 22 February 2014, the final Saturday edition was produced in broadsheet format with this too converted to compact format on 1 March 2014, ahead of the decommissioning of the printing plant at Chullora in June 2014. According to Irial Glynn, the newspaper's editorial stance is centrist, it is seen as the most centrist among the three major Australian non-tabloids. In 2004, the newspaper's editorial page stated: "market libertarianism and social liberalism" were the two "broad themes" that guided the Herald's editorial stance. During the 1999 referendum on whether Australia should become a republic, the Herald supported a "yes" vote; the newspaper did not endorse the Labor Party for federal office in the first six decades of Federation, but did endorse the party in 1961, 1984, 1987. During the 2004 Australian federal election, the Herald annou
Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress
The Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress is an award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. It is given in honor of an actress who has delivered an outstanding performance in a supporting role while working within the film industry; the award was traditionally presented by the previous year's Best Supporting Actor winner. At the 9th Academy Awards ceremony held in 1937, Gale Sondergaard was the first winner of this award for her role in Anthony Adverse. Winners in both supporting acting categories were awarded plaques instead of statuettes. Beginning with the 16th ceremony held in 1944, winners received full-sized statuettes. Nominees are determined by single transferable vote within the actors branch of AMPAS. Since its inception, the award has been given to 81 actresses. Dianne Wiest and Shelley Winters have received the most awards in this category with two awards each. Despite winning no awards, Thelma Ritter was nominated on six occasions, more than any other actress.
As of the 2019 ceremony, Regina King is the most recent winner in this category for her role as Sharon Rivers in If Beale Street Could Talk. In the following table, the years are listed as per Academy convention, correspond to the year of film release in Los Angeles County. All Academy Award acting nominees BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Supporting Role Independent Spirit Award for Best Supporting Female Critics' Choice Movie Award for Best Supporting Actress Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actress – Motion Picture Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Female Actor in a Supporting Role Crouse, Richard. Reel Winners: Movie Award Trivia. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-1-55002-574-3. Kinn, Gail. Inside Oscar: The Unofficial History of the Academy Awards. New York, United States: Ballantine Books. ISBN 978-0-34540-053-6. OCLC 779680732. Oscars.org Oscar.com The Academy Awards Database
Animal Kingdom (film)
Animal Kingdom is a 2010 Australian crime drama film written and directed by David Michôd, starring Ben Mendelsohn, Joel Edgerton, Guy Pearce, James Frecheville, Luke Ford, Jacki Weaver, Sullivan Stapleton. Michôd's script was inspired by events which involved the Pettingill criminal family of Melbourne, Victoria. In 1991, two brothers Trevor Pettingill and Victor Peirce were acquitted in the 1988 shooting murder of two Victorian police officers. Animal Kingdom was critically acclaimed, it received 36 awards and 39 nominations, Jacki Weaver received multiple awards for her performance, as well as an Academy Award nomination for Best Supporting Actress. After his mother overdoses, 17-year-old Joshua "J" Cody asks his estranged grandmother, Janine "Smurf" Cody, for help, she invites him to move in with her. Smurf is the affectionate matriarch of a Melbourne crime family, her home is being watched by cops who are looking for the oldest son, Andrew "Pope" Cody, in hiding. The volatile middle brother, deals drugs enough to have bought the house for his mother.
The youngest brother, follows the lead of his siblings, while family friend "Baz" leads the gang, which specializes in armed robbery. Craig takes J along to meet with a crooked cop from the drug squad, who tells Craig that renegade cops on the armed robbery squad are on the look out for all of them. Baz goes to meet Pope at a shopping centre, where they discuss quitting crime and going straight; as Baz gets in his car to leave, police approach and shoot him dead. Angry and distraught and Craig want revenge, ask J to steal a Commodore and bring it to Darren's place; the car is planted in the middle of a night-time street as a lure. Two policemen are soon drawn to the scene, where they shot dead by Pope and Craig; the next day, Darren and J are taken in for questioning, where J meets Detective Senior Sergeant Nathan Leckie, who leads the armed robbery squad. Leckie, one of the few non-corrupt police officers, recognises J's predicament and begins to lean on him; the three are released from custody, but J returns with his girlfriend Nicky to her parents' home.
Craig, who has avoided being picked up by the police, Pope and Smurf meet at a diner, where they recognize J as the weak link. When told by Smurf to give himself up for questioning, Craig panics and meets a friend in rural Bendigo. Craig learns that the house is being monitored, as the police arrive he tries to flee through a field but is gunned down. Pope and Darren take J to meet their solicitor Ezra. Ezra coaches J to not tell the police anything and pressures him to break up with Nicky, which J does. Leckie takes J into custody again, where he proposes that J be moved to witness protection, but J turns down the offer. Meanwhile, unsure what to do, shows up at Smurf's home, where Pope gives her heroin, questions her smothers her to death to silence her; when J returns to Smurf's house the next morning he discovers Nicky's bracelet outside the house. He calls Nicky's phone, realising something is not right, flees to Nicky's parents' house. Pope gets Nicky's address from Darren and arrives in time to intercept J. J flees on foot and is taken into a safe house.
With Craig and Baz dead and Darren imprisoned, J the star witness for the prosecution, Smurf decides, "J needs to go". Smurf persuades the corrupt cop to help her. Police from the drug squad raid the safe house. J jumps a fence and returns to Smurf's house, saying he wishes to help free Pope and Darren from jail. To do this, the family's barrister coaches J's answers. After his day in court, Leckie sees J before his departure from the safe hotel and asks him if he has found his place in the world. Pope and Smurf celebrate with champagne while being interviewed after their controversial acquittal. Smurf sees Leckie in the supermarket and taunts him. Again, J returns to Smurf's home asking to stay, before going to his room. Pope is cut off when J shoots him in the head. In the final scene, J embraces a now speechless Smurf; the film is loosely inspired by the real life Pettingill family and by the Walsh Street police shootings that occurred in Melbourne in 1988. Director David Michôd was interested in the underworld in Melbourne and wrote a script titled J in December 2000.
Working at Screen NSW Script Development, fellow producer Liz Watts saw potential in the script. Watts said, "It needed more structure, which he kind of agreed with, it was important to me that he recognize that there was still work to be done on it." Michôd did a number of draft scripts gaining feedback from many different people in the film industry. Liz Watts became a producer on the film with a budget of A$5 million from Screen Australia, Film Victoria, Screen NSW and Showtime Australia; the final version of Animal Kingdom did not contain any of the dialogue featured in Michôd's script for J. Animal Kingdom was filmed in the Melbourne metropolitan area; the outside funeral scene was filmed in Victoria. The film's original score was composed by Antony Partos with additional music composed by Sam Petty and David McCormack, it was released on 16 August 2010. Animal Kingdom premiered at the 26th Sundance Film Festival on 22 January 2010, it opened in Australia on 3 June 2010. Internationally, the film has been sold to t
Illegal drug trade
The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global black market dedicated to the cultivation, manufacture and sale of drugs that are subject to drug prohibition laws. Most jurisdictions prohibit trade, except under license, of many types of drugs through the use of drug prohibition laws; the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime's World Drug Report 2005 estimates the size of the global illicit drug market at US$321.6 billion in 2003 alone. With a world GDP of US$36 trillion in the same year, the illegal drug trade may be estimated as nearly 1% of total global trade. Consumption of illegal drugs is widespread globally and remains difficult for local authorities to thwart its popularity. Chinese authorities issued edicts against opium smoking in 1729, 1796 and 1800; the West prohibited addictive drugs throughout the late early 20th centuries. In the early 19th century, an illegal drug trade in China emerged; as a result, by 1838 the number of Chinese opium-addicts had grown to between four and twelve million.
The Chinese government responded by enforcing a ban on the import of opium. The United Kingdom forced China to allow British merchants to sell Indian-grown opium. Trading in opium was lucrative, smoking opium had become common in the 19th century, so British merchants increased trade with the Chinese; the Second Opium War broke out in 1856. After the two Opium Wars, the British Crown, via the treaties of Nanking, Tianjin, obligated the Chinese government to pay large sums of money for opium they had seized and destroyed, which were referred to as "reparations". In 1868, as a result of the increased use of opium, the UK restricted the sale of opium in Britain by implementing the 1868 Pharmacy Act. In the United States, control of opium remained under the control of individual US states until the introduction of the Harrison Act in 1914, after 12 international powers signed the International Opium Convention in 1912. Between 1920 and 1933 the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution banned alcohol in the United States.
Prohibition proved impossible to enforce and resulted in the rise of organized crime, including the modern American Mafia, which identified enormous business opportunities in the manufacturing and sale of illicit liquor. The beginning of the 21st century saw drug use increase in North America and Europe, with a increased demand for marijuana and cocaine; as a result, international organized crime syndicates such as the Sinaloa Cartel and'Ndrangheta have increased cooperation among each other in order to facilitate trans-Atlantic drug-trafficking. Use of another illicit drug, has increased in Europe. Drug trafficking is regarded by lawmakers as a serious offense around the world. Penalties depend on the type of drug, the quantity trafficked, where the drugs are sold and how they are distributed. If the drugs are sold to underage people the penalties for trafficking may be harsher than in other circumstances. Drug smuggling carries severe penalties in many countries. Sentencing may include lengthy periods of incarceration and the death penalty.
In December 2005, Van Tuong Nguyen, a 25-year-old Australian drug smuggler, was hanged in Singapore after being convicted in March 2004. In 2010, two people were sentenced to death in Malaysia for trafficking 1 kilogram of cannabis into the country. Execution is used as a deterrent, many have called upon much more effective measures to be taken by countries to tackle drug trafficking; the countries of drug production and transit are some of the most affected by the drug trade, though countries receiving the illegally imported substances are adversely affected. For example, Ecuador has absorbed up to 300,000 refugees from Colombia who are running from guerrillas and drug lords. While some applied for asylum, others are still illegal immigrants; the drugs that pass from Colombia through Ecuador to other parts of South America create economic and social problems. Honduras, through which an estimated 79% of cocaine passes on its way to the United States, has the highest murder rate in the world. According to the International Crisis Group, the most violent regions in Central America along the Guatemala–Honduras border, are correlated with an abundance of drug trafficking activity.
In many countries worldwide, the illegal drug trade is thought to be directly linked to violent crimes such as murder. This is true in all developing countries, such as Honduras, but is an issue for many developed countries worldwide. In the late 1990s in the United States the Federal Bureau of Investigation estimated that 5% of murders were drug-related. In Colombia, Drug violence can be caused by factors such as, the economy, poor governments, no authority within the law enforcement. After a crackdown by US and Mexican authorities in the first decade of the 21st century as part of tightened border security in the wake of the September 11 attacks, border violence inside Mexico surged; the Mexican government estimates. A report by the UK government's Drug Strategy Unit, leaked to the press, stated that due to the expensive price of addictive drugs heroin and coc
Matriarchy is a social system in which females hold the primary power positions in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property at the specific exclusion of males — at least to a large degree. While those definitions apply in general English, definitions specific to the disciplines of anthropology and feminism differ in some respects. Most anthropologists hold that there are no known anthropological societies that are unambiguously matriarchal, but some authors believe exceptions may exist or may have. Matriarchies may be confused with matrilineal and matrifocal societies. A few people consider any non-patriarchal system to be matriarchal, thus including genderally equalitarian systems, but most academics exclude them from matriarchies defined. In 19th-century Western scholarship, the hypothesis of matriarchy representing an early prehistoric, stage of human development gained popularity. Possibilities of so-called primitive societies were cited and the hypothesis survived into the 20th century, including in the context of second-wave feminism.
This hypothesis was criticized by some authors such as Cynthia Eller in The Myth of Matriarchal Prehistory and remains as a unsolved question to this day. Some older myths describe matriarchies. Several modern feminists have advocated for matriarchy now or in the future and it has appeared in feminist literature. In several theologies, matriarchy has been portrayed as negative. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, matriarchy is a "form of social organization in which the mother or oldest female is the head of the family, descent and relationship are reckoned through the female line. A popular definition, according to James Peoples and Garrick Bailey, is "female dominance". Within the academic discipline of cultural anthropology, according to the OED, matriarchy is a "culture or community in which such a system prevails" or a "family, organization, etc. dominated by a woman or women." In general anthropology, according to William A. Haviland, matriarchy is "rule by women". A matriarchy is a society in which females mothers, have the central roles of political leadership, moral authority, control of property, but does not include a society, led by a female for nonmatriarchal reasons or an occupation in which females predominate without reference to matriarchy, such as prostitution or women's auxiliaries of organizations run by men.
According to Lawrence A. Kuzner in 1997, A. R. Radcliffe-Brown argued in 1924 that the definitions of matriarchy and patriarchy had "logical and empirical failings.... were too vague to be scientifically useful". Most academics exclude egalitarian nonpatriarchal systems from matriarchies more defined. According to Heide Göttner-Abendroth, a reluctance to accept the existence of matriarchies might be based on a specific culturally biased notion of how to define matriarchy: because in a patriarchy men rule over women, a matriarchy has been conceptualized as women ruling over men, while she believed that matriarchies are egalitarian; the word matriarchy, for a society politically led by females mothers, who control property, is interpreted to mean the genderal opposite of patriarchy, but it is not an opposite. According to Peoples and Bailey, the view of anthropologist Peggy Reeves Sanday is that matriarchies are not a mirror form of patriarchies but rather that a matriarchy "emphasizes maternal meanings where'maternal symbols are linked to social practices influencing the lives of both sexes and where women play a central role in these practices'".
Journalist Margot Adler wrote, "literally... means government by mothers, or more broadly and power in the hands of women." Barbara Love and Elizabeth Shanklin wrote, "by'matriarchy,' we mean a non-alienated society: a society in which women, those who produce the next generation, define motherhood, determine the conditions of motherhood, determine the environment in which the next generation is reared." According to Cynthia Eller, "'matriarchy' can be thought of... as a shorthand description for any society in which women's power is equal or superior to men's and in which the culture centers around values and life events described as'feminine.'" Eller wrote that the idea of matriarchy rests on two pillars and modern social criticism. The notion of matriarchy was meant to describe something like a utopia placed in the past in order to legitimate contemporary social criticism. With respect to a prehistoric matriarchal Golden Age, according to Barbara Epstein, "matriarchy... means a social system organized around matriliny and goddess worship in which women have positions of power."
According to Adler, in the Marxist tradition, it refers to a pre-class society "where women and men share in production and power."According to Adler, "a number of feminists note that few definitions of the word, despite its literal meaning, include any concept of power, they suggest that centuries of oppression have made it impossible for women to conceive of themselves with such power."Matriarchy has been presented as negative, in contrast to patriarchy as natural and inevitable for society, thus that matriarchy is hopeless. Love and Shanklin wrote: When we hear the word "matriarchy", we are conditioned to a number of responses: that matriarchy refers to the past and that matriarchies have never existed.