Methodism known as the Methodist movement, is a group of related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley. George Whitefield and John's brother Charles Wesley were significant early leaders in the movement, it originated as a revival movement within the 18th-century Church of England and became a separate denomination after Wesley's death. The movement spread throughout the British Empire, the United States, beyond because of vigorous missionary work, today claiming 80 million adherents worldwide. Wesley's theology focused on the effect of faith on the character of a Christian. Distinguishing Methodist doctrines include the new birth, an assurance of salvation, imparted righteousness, the possibility of perfection in love, the works of piety, the primacy of Scripture. Most Methodists teach that Jesus Christ, the Son of God, died for all of humanity and that salvation is available for all; this teaching rejects the Calvinist position that God has pre-ordained the salvation of a select group of people.
However and several other early leaders of the movement were considered Calvinistic Methodists and held to the Calvinist position. Methodism emphasises charity and support for the sick, the poor, the afflicted through the works of mercy; these ideals are put into practice by the establishment of hospitals, soup kitchens, schools to follow Christ's command to spread the gospel and serve all people. The movement has a wide variety of forms of worship, ranging from high church to low church in liturgical usage. Denominations that descend from the British Methodist tradition are less ritualistic, while American Methodism is more so, the United Methodist Church in particular. Methodism is known for its rich musical tradition, Charles Wesley was instrumental in writing much of the hymnody of the Methodist Church. Early Methodists were drawn from all levels of society, including the aristocracy, but the Methodist preachers took the message to labourers and criminals who tended to be left outside organised religion at that time.
In Britain, the Methodist Church had a major effect in the early decades of the developing working class. In the United States, it became the religion of many slaves who formed black churches in the Methodist tradition; the Methodist revival began with a group of men, including John Wesley and his younger brother Charles, as a movement within the Church of England in the 18th century. The Wesley brothers founded the "Holy Club" at the University of Oxford, where John was a fellow and a lecturer at Lincoln College; the club met weekly and they systematically set about living a holy life. They were accustomed to receiving Communion every week, fasting abstaining from most forms of amusement and luxury and visited the sick and the poor, as well as prisoners; the fellowship were branded as "Methodist" by their fellow students because of the way they used "rule" and "method" to go about their religious affairs. John, leader of the club, took the attempted mockery and turned it into a title of honour.
In 1735, at the invitation of the founder of the Georgia Colony, General James Oglethorpe, both John and Charles Wesley set out for America to be ministers to the colonists and missionaries to the Native Americans. Unsuccessful in their work, the brothers returned to England conscious of their lack of genuine Christian faith, they looked for help to other members of the Moravian Church. At a Moravian service in Aldersgate on 24 May 1738, John experienced what has come to be called his evangelical conversion, when he felt his "heart strangely warmed", he records in his journal: "I felt I did trust in Christ alone, for salvation. Charles had reported a similar experience a few days previously. Considered a pivotal moment, Daniel L. Burnett writes: "The significance of Wesley's Aldersgate Experience is monumental … Without it the names of Wesley and Methodism would be nothing more than obscure footnotes in the pages of church history."The Wesley brothers began to preach salvation by faith to individuals and groups, in houses, in religious societies, in the few churches which had not closed their doors to evangelical preachers.
John Wesley came under the influence of the Dutch theologian Jacobus Arminius. Arminius had rejected the Calvinist teaching that God had pre-ordained an elect number of people to eternal bliss while others perished eternally. Conversely, George Whitefield, Howell Harris, Selina Hastings, Countess of Huntingdon were notable for being Calvinistic Methodists. George Whitefield, returning from his own mission in Georgia, joined the Wesley brothers in what was to become a national crusade. Whitefield, a fellow student of the Wesleys at Oxford, became well known for his unorthodox, itinerant ministry, in which he was dedicated to open-air preaching—reaching crowds of thousands. A key step in the development of John Wesley's ministry was, like Whitefield, to preach in fields and churchyards to those who did not attend parish church services. Accordingly, many Methodist converts were those disconnected from the Church of England. Faced with growing evangelistic and pastoral responsibilities and Whitefield appointed lay preachers and leaders.
Williamsport is a city in, the county seat of, Lycoming County, United States. In 2017, the population was estimated at 28,462, it is the principal city of the Williamsport, Pennsylvania Metropolitan Statistical Area, which has a population of about 114,000. The city is the cultural and commercial center of Central Pennsylvania, it is 131 miles from Philadelphia, 166 miles from Pittsburgh and 85 miles from state capital Harrisburg. The city is renowned for arts scene and food. Williamsport was settled by Americans late in the 18th century, the town began to prosper due to its lumber industry. By the early 20th century, the town reached the height of its prosperity and the population has since declined by about a third from its peak of around 45,000 in 1950. Williamsport is the birthplace of Little League Baseball. South Williamsport, a town nearby, is the headquarters of Little League Baseball and annually hosts the Little League World Series in late summer. Colonial settlement in what is today Williamsport dates back to 1786 but the area was inhabited by the Iroquois.
Williamsport was incorporated as a borough on March 1, 1806, as a city on January 15, 1866. In the late 19th century, Williamsport was known as "The Lumber Capital of the World" because of its thriving lumber industry; the city is the original home of Little League Baseball, founded in 1939 as a three-team league. Following World War II the city's population and economic prosperity have declined. In 1763 the Battle of Muncy Hills took place during the French and Indian War, it was a clash between the Native Americans and colonists seeking homestead sites in Native American territory. In 1768, at the Treaty of Fort Stanwix, the British purchased the land that became Lycoming County from the Iroquois Nation who controlled the lands. In 1786 the first house was built in Williamsport. James Russell built his inn on what is now the northeast corner of East Third and Mulberry Streets in downtown. On April 13, 1795 Lycoming County was formed from Northumberland County, it encompassed all the lands of Northumberland County situated west of Muncy Hills and was a domain of 12,500 square miles, comprising most of north central Pennsylvania.
In 1796 the first recorded childbirth in Williamsport was James Russell the son of Mr. and Mrs. William Russell and grandson of James Russell of the Russell Inn and the first school was built as a one-room log addition to the building that would become the first Lycoming County Courthouse. In 1798 the first brick house in Williamsport was erected on Front Street, between Market and Mulberry, by Andrew Tulloh, a lawyer; the bricks were made on the banks of Grafius Run. In 1799, a post office opened at the corner of Third and State Streets in what is now downtown, the following year, a jail was constructed at the northeast corner of William and Third Streets; the post office was converted to a saloon,In 1801 the town's first store was opened by William Winter on Third Street. In 1831 Jacob L. Mussina established the Repasz Band, the oldest brass band in America still in existence. On Oct. 15 1834 The West Branch Canal opened and the first boat to pass through the canal en route to Jersey Shore was that of George Aughenbaugh.
The first freight carried into town was iron for the foundry of John B. Hall; the same year the enactment of the common school law by Pennsylvania Legislature led to public education here. In May 1835, the first public schools opened in Williamsport and the town's first bank, the West Branch National Bank; the Underground Railroad, used by enslaved African-Americans to obtain their freedom in the 30 years before the Civil War included routes from states in the South, which supported slavery, to "free" states in the North and Canada. From 1830 until 1865, the underground railroad, a system of safe houses and routes for slaves escaping to freedom, operated in Lycoming County. Based on the oral history of Mamie Sweeting Diggs, fourth generation descent and great-granddaughter, was a river raftsman on the Susquehanna river who had migrated from Oswego, New York, he lived on the Muncy Indian Reservation. During his trips transporting logs to Maryland, he brought escaped slaves back on foot from Baltimore, over Bald Eagle Mountain and hid them at his home and in the caves on Freedom Road.
Mamie's grandfather, helped his father, Daniel Hughes, hide escaped slaves in the caves behind their home on Freedom Road. They fed them, nursed the sick back to health and delivered them safely to the next "station", The Apker House in Trout Run; the Apker House was the home of Robert Fairies and president of the Williamsport-Elmira Railroad. The railroad ran through his property where escaped slaves were hidden in the barn and house and loaded into railway baggage cars for the trip to Elmira, NY, the next "station."Mamie's grandfather, Robert passed the stories to his children, including Mamie's mother, Marion. Marion tended the family homestead, maintained Freedom Road Cemetery and passed Daniel's stories down to her children. In 1849 the Market Street Bridge was built over the West Branch Susquehanna River, it was opened as a toll bridge to cover the state's costs of $23,797. In 1854 a brewery opened; the brewery was sold to Henry Flock in 1865. This brewery was run by the Flock family until the 1940s.
The Flock's business survived Prohibition by converting to a dairy. In 1875, the first tower clock in the United States to sound the Cambridge Quarters was installed at Trinity Episcopal Chur
When the Saints Go Marching In
"When the Saints Go Marching In" referred to as "The Saints", is a Black spiritual. Though it originated as a Christian hymn, it is played by jazz bands; this song was famously recorded on May 1938, by Louis Armstrong and his orchestra. The song is sometimes confused with a titled composition "When the Saints Are Marching In" from 1896 by Katharine Purvis and James Milton Black; the origins of this song are unclear. It evolved in the early 1900s from a number of titled gospel songs, including "When the Saints Are Marching In" and "When the Saints March In for Crowning"; the first known recorded version was in 1923 by the Paramount Jubilee Singers on Paramount 12073. Although the title given on the label is "When All the Saints Come Marching In", the group sings the modern lyrics beginning with "When the saints go marching in". No author is shown on the label. Several other gospel versions were recorded in the 1920s, with varying titles but using the same lyrics, including versions by The Four Harmony Kings, Elkins-Payne Jubilee Singers, Wheat Street Female Quartet, Bo Weavil Jackson, Deaconess Alexander, Rev. E. D. Campbell, Robert Hicks, Blind Willie Davis, the Pace Jubilee Singers.
The earliest versions were slow and stately, but as time passed the recordings became more rhythmic, including a distinctly uptempo version by the Sanctified Singers on British Parlophone in 1931. Though the song had folk roots, a number of composers claimed copyright in it in years, including Luther G. Presley and Virgil Oliver Stamps, R. E. Winsett, Frank and Jim McCravy. Although the song is still heard as a slow spiritual number, since the mid-20th century it has been more performed as a "hot" number; the tune is associated with the city of New Orleans. A jazz standard, it has been recorded by a great many pop artists. Both vocal and instrumental renditions of the song abound. Louis Armstrong was one of the first to make the tune into a nationally known pop melody in the late 1930s. Armstrong wrote that his sister told him she thought the secular performance style of the traditional church tune was inappropriate and irreligious. Armstrong was in a New Orleans tradition of turning church numbers into brass dance.
As with many numbers with long traditional folk use, there is no one "official" version of the song or its lyrics. This extends so far as confusion as to its name, with it being mistakenly called "When the Saints Come Marching In"; as for the lyrics themselves, their simplicity makes it easy to generate new verses. Since the first and second lines of a verse are the same, the third and fourth are standard throughout, the creation of one suitable line in iambic tetrameter generates an entire verse, it is impossible to list every version of the song, but a common standard version runs: Oh, when the saints go marching in Oh, when the saints go marching in Oh Lord I want to be in that number When the saints go marching inOh, when the drums begin to bang Oh, when the drums begin to bang Oh Lord I want to be in that number When the saints go marching inOh, when the stars fall from the sky Oh, when the stars fall from the sky Oh Lord I want to be in that number When the saints go marching inOh, when the moon turns red with blood Oh, when the moon turns red with blood Oh Lord I want to be in that number When the saints go marching inOh, when the trumpet sounds its call Oh, when the trumpet sounds its call Oh Lord I want to be in that number When the saints go marching inOh, when the horsemen begin to ride Oh, when the horsemen begin to ride Oh Lord I want to be in that number When the saints go marching inOh, when the fire begins to blaze Oh, when the fire begins to blaze Oh Lord I want to be in that number When the saints go marching inOh, brother Charles you are my friend Oh, brother Charles you are my friend Yea, you gonna be in that number When the saints go marching in.
Oh, when the saints go marching in Oh, when the saints go marching in Oh Lord I want to be in that number When the saints go marching in. The first two words of the common third verse line are sung as either "Oh how", "Oh, Lord" or "Lord, Lord" as cue notes to the simple melody at each 3rd line. Arrangements vary considerably; the simplest is just an endless repetition of the chorus. Verses may be alternated with choruses, or put in the third of 4 repetitions to create an AABA form with the verse as the bridge. One common verse in "hot" New Orleans versions runs like thus: I used to have a playmate Who would walk and talk with me But since she got religion She has turned her back on me; some traditional arrangements have ensemble rather than individual vocals. It is common as an audience sing-along number. Versions using call and response are heard, e.g.: Call: Oh when the Saints Response: Oh when the Saints! The response verses can echo the same melody or form a counterpoint melody syncopated opposite the rhythm of the main verses, a solo singer might sing another counterpoint melody as a 3rd part in more complex arrangements.
The song is apocalyptic, taking much of its imagery from the Book of Revelation, but excluding its more horrific depictions of the Last Judgment. The verses about the Sun and Moon refer to Lunar eclipses; as the hymn expresses the wish to go to Heaven, picturing the saints going in, it is appropriate for funerals. First recorded by the Paramount Jubilee Singers on Paramo
Methodist Episcopal Church
The Methodist Episcopal Church was the oldest and largest Methodist denomination in the United States from its founding in 1784 until 1939. It was the first religious denomination in the US to organize itself on a national basis. In 1939, the MEC reunited with two breakaway Methodist denominations to form the Methodist Church. In 1968, the Methodist Church merged with the Evangelical United Brethren Church to form the United Methodist Church; the MEC's origins lie in the First Great Awakening when Methodism emerged as an evangelical revival movement within the Church of England that stressed the necessity of being born again and the possibility of attaining Christian perfection. By the 1760s, Methodism had spread to the Thirteen Colonies, Methodist societies were formed under the oversight of John Wesley; as in England, American Methodists remained affiliated with the Church of England, but this state of affairs became untenable after the American Revolution. In response, Wesley ordained the first Methodist elders for America in 1784.
Under the leadership of its first bishops, Thomas Coke and Francis Asbury, the Methodist Episcopal Church adopted episcopal polity and an itinerant model of ministry that saw circuit riders provide for the religious needs of a widespread and mobile population. Early Methodism was countercultural in that it was anti-elitist and anti-slavery, appealing to African Americans and women. While critics derided Methodists as fanatics, the Methodist Episcopal Church continued to grow during the Second Great Awakening in which Methodist revivalism and camp meetings left its imprint on American culture. In the early 19th century, the MEC became the largest and most influential religious denomination in the United States. With growth came greater institutionalization and respectability, this led some within the church to complain that Methodism was losing its vitality and commitment to Wesleyan teachings, such as the belief in Christian perfection and opposition to slavery; as Methodism took hold in the Southern United States, church leaders became less willing to condemn the practice of slavery or to grant African American preachers and congregations the same privileges as their white counterparts.
A number of black churches were formed as African Americans withdrew from the MEC, including the African Methodist Episcopal Church and the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church. By the 1830s, however, a renewed abolitionist movement within the MEC made keeping a neutral position on slavery impossible; the church divided along regional lines in 1844 when pro-slavery Methodists in the South formed their own Methodist Episcopal Church, South. Around the same time, the holiness movement took shape as a renewal movement within the MEC focused on the experience of Christian perfection, but it led a number of splinter groups to break away from the church. Due to large-scale immigration of Catholics, the Catholic Church displaced the MEC as the largest US denomination by the end of the 19th century; the Methodist Episcopal Church originated from the spread of Methodism outside of England to the Thirteen Colonies in the 1760s. Earlier, Methodism had grown out of the ministry of John Wesley, a priest in the Church of England who preached an evangelical message centered on justification by faith, the possibility of having assurance of salvation, the doctrine of Christian perfection.
Wesley was loyal to the Anglican Church, he organized his followers into parachurch societies and classes with the goal of promoting spiritual revival within the Church of England. Members of Methodist societies were expected to attend and receive Holy Communion in their local parish church, but Wesley recruited and supervised lay preachers for itinerant or traveling ministry. Around fifteen or twenty societies formed a circuit. Anywhere from two to four itinerant preachers would be assigned to a circuit on a yearly basis to preach and supervise the societies within their circuit. One itinerant preacher in each circuit would be made the "assistant", he would direct the activities of the other itinerant preachers in the circuit, who were called "helpers". Wesley gave out preaching assignments at an annual conference. In 1769, Wesley sent itinerants Robert Williams, Richard Boardman, Joseph Pilmore to oversee Methodists in America after learning that societies had been organized there as early as 1766 by Philip Embury, Robert Strawbridge, Thomas Webb.
In 1773, Wesley appointed Thomas Rankin general assistant, placing him in charge of all the Methodist preachers and societies in America. On July 4, 1773, Rankin presided over the first annual conference on American soil at Philadelphia. At that time there were 1,160 Methodists in America led by ten lay preachers. Itinerant Methodist preachers would become known as circuit riders. Methodist societies in America operated within the Church of England. There were several Anglican priests who supported the work of the Methodists, attending Methodist meetings and administering the sacraments to Methodists; these included Charles Pettigrew of North Carolina, Samuel Magaw of Dover and Philadelphia, Uzel Ogden of New Jersey. Anglican clergyman Devereux Jarratt was a active supporter, founding Methodist societies in Virginia and North Carolina; the American Revolution left America's Anglican Church in disarray. Due to the scarcity of Anglican ministers, Methodists in the United States were unable to receive the sacraments of baptism and Holy Communion.
On September 1, 1784, Wesley responded to this situation by ordaining two Methodists a