Roland Bernard "Bunny" Berigan was an American jazz trumpeter and bandleader who rose to fame during the swing era, but whose career and influence were shortened by alcoholism and ended with his early death at age 33 from cirrhosis. Although he composed some jazz instrumentals such as "Chicken and Waffles" and "Blues", Berigan was best known for his virtuoso jazz trumpeting, his 1937 classic recording "I Can't Get Started" was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 1975. Berigan was born in Hilbert, the son of William Patrick Berigan and Mary Catherine Schlitzberg, raised in Fox Lake. Having learned the violin and trumpet, Berigan played in local orchestras by his mid-teens, he attended the University of Wisconsin, teaching trumpet and playing in dance bands after school hours before joining the Hal Kemp orchestra in 1930. His first recorded trumpet solos were with the orchestra, which toured England and a few other European countries that year, he appeared as featured soloist with bands fronted by Rudy Vallee, Tommy Dorsey, Abe Lyman, Paul Whiteman and Benny Goodman.
Shortly after the Kemp orchestra returned to the U. S. in late 1930, like fellow trumpeter Manny Klein, the Dorsey Brothers and Artie Shaw, became a sought-after studio musician in New York. Fred Rich, Freddy Martin and Ben Selvin sought his services for record dates, he joined the staff of CBS radio network musicians in early 1931. Berigan recorded his first vocal, "with Rich that year. From late 1932 through early 1934, Berigan was a member of Paul Whiteman's orchestra, before playing with Abe Lyman's band in 1934, he returned to freelancing in the New York recording studios and working on staff at CBS radio in 1934. He recorded as a sideman on hundreds of commercial records, most notably with the Dorsey Brothers and on Glenn Miller's earliest recording as a leader in 1935, playing on "Solo Hop". At the same time, Berigan joined Benny Goodman's Swing band. Jazz talent scout and producer John H. Hammond, who became Goodman's brother-in-law wrote that he helped persuade Gene Krupa to re-join Goodman, with whom he had had an earlier falling-out, by mentioning that Berigan, whom Krupa admired, was committed to the new ensemble.
With Berigan and Krupa both on board, the Goodman band made the tour that ended at the Palomar Ballroom in Los Angeles, the performance credited with the launch of the swing era. Berigan recorded a number of solos while with Goodman, including "King Porter Stomp", "Sometimes I'm Happy", "Blue Skies". Berigan left Goodman to return again to freelancing as a radio musician in Manhattan. During this time, he began to record under his own name, he continued to back singers such as Bing Crosby, Mildred Bailey, Billie Holiday, he spend some time with Tommy Dorsey's orchestra in late 1936 and early 1937, working as a jazz soloist on Dorsey's radio program and on several records. His solo on the Dorsey hit recording "Marie" became one of his signature performances. In 1937, Berigan assembled a band to record and tour under his name, picking the then-little known Ira Gershwin–Vernon Duke composition "I Can't Get Started" as his theme song, he made three attempts to organize a band of his own, his last try meeting success, playing trumpet in nearly every number while directing the band.
Berigan's trumpet work and vocal made his recorded performance of it for Victor the biggest hit of his career. Berigan modeled his trumpet style in part on Louis Armstrong's, he acknowledged Armstrong as his idol. Still, his trumpet sound and jazz ideas were unique, earning Armstrong's praise both before and after Berigan's death. Berigan led his own band full-time from early 1937 until June 1942, with a six-month hiatus in 1940 as a sideman in Tommy Dorsey's band. A series of misfortunes and Berigan's alcoholism worked against his financial success as a bandleader. Berigan began an affair with singer Lee Wiley in 1936, which lasted into 1940; the stresses of bandleading drove Berigan to drink more heavily. Among the players who worked in the Berigan band were: drummers Buddy Rich, Dave Tough, George Wettling, Johnny Blowers and Jack Sperling. Berigan was featured on CBS Radio's Saturday Night Swing Club broadcasts from 1936 into 1937; this network radio show helped further popularize jazz. For the balance of the 1930s, he sometimes appeared on this program as a guest.
Berigan's business troubles drove him to declare bankruptcy in 1939, shortly after to join Tommy Dorsey as a featured jazz soloist. By September 1940, Berigan led a new small group, but soon reorganized a touring big band. Berigan led moderately successful big bands from the fall of 1940 into early 1942, was on the comeback trail when his health declined alarmingly. On April 20, 1942, while on tour, Berigan was hospitalized with pneumonia in Allegheny General Hospital Pittsburgh, until May 8, his doctors discovered that cirrhosis had damaged his liver. He was advised to stop playing the trumpet for an undetermined length of time. Berigan did not do either, he returned to his band on tour and played for a few weeks before he returned to the Van Cortlandt Hotel where he made his home in New York City and suffered a massive hemorrhage on May 31, 1942. He died
WJSV is a student-run radio station in Morristown, New Jersey. WJSV is owned by the Morris School District. WJSV, first bought by the Morris School District in 1971 broadcasts Monday through Friday from 7:30 am to 8:30 pm while school is in session. WJSV's main transmitter is located at Mountain Way School in New Jersey; the station is run by members and an executive staff composed of students. The executive staff is an emulation of the above the line positions at a commercial radio station, including Program Director, Music Director, News Director, Station Manager; the station is supervised only by two staff members, one being the Station Advisor Michael Butler. Before the station was bought by the Morris School District, Morristown High School had had a TV station, which upon purchasing WJSV, was renamed JSV-TV. For many years it was used for a weekly show named Colonial Corner. However, in the 2013–2014 school year, Colonial Corner moved to an online-only format, with episodes hosted on YouTube.
WJSV came on the air in 1926 as WTRC in Brooklyn, New York was moved to Arlington, the following year and became WJSV in 1928. CBS bought the station from the previous owner in 1931 moved the station to Washington, D. C. although the transmitter site remained in Virginia. CBS made WJSV its affiliate in the nation's capital. Among the more famous events involving WJSV was the recording of its entire broadcast day on September 21, 1939; the recording includes many famous radio programs of the time, local programs featuring Arthur Godfrey and John Charles Daly before their national successes, a Cleveland Indians–Washington Senators baseball game, a speech by President Franklin Roosevelt. The recording still exists today. A sampling of the material broadcast that day was featured on the 70th anniversary of the event on National Public Radio's All Things Considered of September 21, 2009 there is a copy of the entire broadcast on the Internet Archive web page. WJSV changed its call letters to WTOP in 1943.
Query the FCC's FM station database for WJSV Radio-Locator information on WJSV Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for WJSV Complete Broadcast Day - WJSV 9/21/39.
Strand Theatre (Brooklyn)
The Strand Theatre, sometimes known as the 1918 Strand Theatre, at 647 Fulton Street and Rockwell Place, adjacent to Brooklyn Academy of Music's Harvey Theatre, was a vaudeville house, home to BRIC and UrbanGlass following a two-year renovation from 2011 to 2013. The theatre was built for vaudeville with a maximum capacity of nearly 4,000 by architect Thomas W. Lamb and hosted talent including Houdini. Following the demise of vaudeville, it was converted into a movie theater. From 1920 to 1927 the theatre was managed by Edward L. Hyman, a popular exhibitionist that attracted audiences with his elaborate musical productions; the theater was affiliated with Warner Brothers in the 1940s prior to its sale to Fabian Theaters in 1948. In 1953 it became, it spent time as a bowling alley and a print shop. Subsequent to that, it was gutted internally and converted into a glass factory when the city took it over due to tax foreclosure, which it remained until early in the 20th century when UrbanGlass moved in the late 1980s and BRIC followed suit in 1993.
When a printing company that operated on the first floor left in the mid 1990s, UrbanGlass and BRIC began discussions of renovating the space. Media related to Strand Theatre at Wikimedia Commons Brooklyn Strand Theatre and Majestic Theatre circa 1941. Online at the New York Public Library, image ID: 706529f. Three movie titles can be seen: The Nurse's Secret, Roar of the Press, Caught in the Draft, all from 1941, according to the Internet Movie Database website
Flushing is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Queens in the United States. While much of the neighborhood is residential, Downtown Flushing, centered on the northern end of Main Street in Queens, is a large commercial and retail area and is the fourth largest central business district in New York City. Flushing's diversity is reflected by the numerous ethnic groups that reside there, including people of Asian, Middle Eastern and African-American ancestry, it is part of New York's Sixth Congressional District, located within Queens County. Flushing is served by five railroad stations on the Long Island Rail Road Port Washington Branch, as well as the New York City Subway's IRT Flushing Line, which has its terminus at Main Street; the intersection of Main Street and Roosevelt Avenue is the third busiest intersection in New York City, behind Times and Herald Squares. The neighborhood of Flushing is part of Queens Community Board 7 and the broader district of Flushing in Queens County.
The broader area is bounded by Flushing Meadows–Corona Park to the west, Kissena Boulevard to the east, the Long Island Expressway to the south, Willets Point Boulevard to the north. Flushing was inhabited by the Matinecoc Indians prior to colonialization and European settlement. On October 10, 1645, Flushing was established on the eastern bank of Flushing Creek under charter of the Dutch West India Company and was part of the New Netherland colony; the settlement was named after the city of Vlissingen, in the southwestern Netherlands, the main port of the company. However, by 1657, the residents called the place "Vlishing." "Flushing", the British name for Vlissingen, was used. Despite being a Dutch colony, many of the early inhabitants were British; the original name is derived from the Dutch word "fles" which means "bottle". Unlike all other towns in the region, the charter of Flushing allowed residents freedom of religion as practiced in Holland "without the disturbance of any magistrate or ecclesiastical minister."
However, in 1656, New Amsterdam Director-General Peter Stuyvesant issued an edict prohibiting the harboring of Quakers. On December 27, 1657, the inhabitants of Flushing approved a protest known as The Flushing Remonstrance; this petition contained religious arguments mentioning freedom for "Jews and Egyptians," but ended with a forceful declaration that any infringement of the town charter would not be tolerated. Subsequently, a farmer named John Bowne held Quaker meetings in his home and was arrested for this and deported to Holland, he persuaded the Dutch West India Company to allow Quakers and others to worship freely. As such, Flushing is claimed to be a birthplace of religious freedom in the New World. Landmarks remaining from the Dutch period in Flushing include the John Bowne House on Bowne Street and the Old Quaker Meeting House on Northern Boulevard; the Remonstrance was signed at a house on the site of the former State Armory, now a police facility, on the south side Northern Boulevard between Linden Place and Union Street.
In 1664, the English took control of New Amsterdam, ending Dutch control of the colony, renamed it the Province of New York. When Queens County was established in 1683, the "Town of Flushing" was one of the original five towns which the county comprised. Many historical references to Flushing are to this town, bounded from Newtown on the west by Flushing Creek, from Jamaica on the south by the watershed, from Hempstead on the east by what became the Nassau County line; the town was dissolved in 1898 when Queens became a borough of New York City, the term "Flushing" today refers to a much smaller area, for example the former Village of Flushing. Flushing was a seat of power as the Province of New York up to the American Revolution was led by Governor Cadwallader Colden, based at his Spring Hill estate. Flushing was the site of the first commercial tree nurseries in North America, the most prominent being the Prince and Parsons nurseries. A 14-acre tract of Parsons's exotic specimens was preserved on the north side of Kissena Park.
The nurseries are commemorated in the names of west-east avenues that intersect Kissena Boulevard. Flushing supplied trees to the Greensward Project, now known as Central Park in Manhattan. Well into the 20th century, Flushing contained many horticultural greenhouses. During the American Revolution, along with most settlements in present-day Queens County, favored the British and quartered British troops, though one battalion of Scottish Highlanders is known to have been stationed at Flushing during the war. Following the Battle of Long Island, Nathan Hale, an officer in the Continental Army, was apprehended near Flushing Bay while on what was an intelligence gathering mission and was hanged; the 1785 Kingsland Homestead the residence of a wealthy Quaker merchant, now serves as the home of the Queens Historical Society. During the 19th century, as New York City continued to grow in population and economic vitality, so did Flushing, its proximity to Manhattan was critical in its transformation into a fashionable residential area.
On April 15, 1837, the Village of Flushing was incorporated within the Town of Flushing. The official seal was the words, "Village of Flushing", surrounded by nondescript flowers. No other emblem or flag is known to have been used; the Village of Flushing included the neighborhoods of Flushing Highlands, Bowne Park, Murray Hill and Flushing Park. By the mid-1860s, Queens County had 30,429 residents; the Village of Co
Golden Age of Radio
The old-time radio era, sometimes referred to as the Golden Age of Radio, was an era of radio programming in the United States during which radio was the dominant electronic home entertainment medium. It began with the birth of commercial radio broadcasting in the early 1920s and lasted through the 1940s, when television superseded radio as the medium of choice for scripted programming and dramatic shows. Radio was the first broadcast medium, people tuned-in to their favorite radio programs, families gathered to listen to the home radio in the evening. According to a 1947 C. E. Hooper survey, 82 out of 100 Americans were found to be radio listeners. A variety of new entertainment formats and genres were created for the new medium, many of which migrated to television: radio plays, mystery serials, soap operas, quiz shows, talent shows and evening variety hours, situation comedies, play-by-play sports, children's shows, cooking shows, more. Since this golden era, American commercial radio programming has shifted to narrower formats of news, talk and music.
Religious broadcasters, listener-supported public radio and college stations provide their own distinctive formats. The broadcasts of live drama, comedy and news that characterize the Golden Age of Radio had a precedent in the Théâtrophone, commercially introduced in Paris in 1890 and available as late as 1932, it allowed subscribers to eavesdrop on live stage performances and hear news reports by means of a network of telephone lines. The development of radio eliminated the wires and subscription charges from this concept; the earliest radio was continuous wave, which means that the information-transmitting capability of the radio signal was the same as a telegraph: the signal is on, or it is off. Knowledge of Morse code is required; this type of radio was used by military, transport and news services. There was no home usage save hobbyists. On Christmas Eve 1906, Reginald Fessenden is said to have broadcast the first radio program, consisting of some violin playing and passages from the Bible.
While Fessenden's role as an inventor and early radio experimenter is not in dispute, several contemporary radio researchers have questioned whether the Christmas Eve broadcast took place, or whether the date was in fact several weeks earlier. The first apparent published reference to the event was made in 1928 by H. P. Davis, Vice President of Westinghouse, in a lecture given at Harvard University. In 1932 Fessenden cited the Christmas Eve 1906 broadcast event in a letter he wrote to Vice President S. M. Kinter of Westinghouse. Fessenden's wife Helen recounts the broadcast in her book Fessenden: Builder of Tomorrows, eight years after Fessenden's death; the issue of whether the 1906 Fessenden broadcast happened is discussed in Donna Halper's article "In Search of the Truth About Fessenden" and in James O'Neal's essays. An annotated argument supporting Fessenden as the world's first radio broadcaster was offered in 2006 by Dr. John S. Belrose, Radioscientist Emeritus at the Communications Research Centre Canada, in his essay "Fessenden's 1906 Christmas Eve broadcast."It was not until after the Titanic catastrophe in 1912 that radio for mass communication came into vogue, inspired first by the work of amateur radio operators.
Radio was important during World War I as it was vital for air and naval operations. World War I brought about major developments in radio, superseding the Morse code of the wireless telegraph with the vocal communication of the wireless telephone, through advancements in vacuum tube technology and the introduction of the transceiver. After the war, numerous radio stations were born in the United States and set the standard for radio programs; the first radio news program was broadcast on August 1920 on the station 8MK in Detroit. This was followed in 1920 with the first commercial radio station in the United States, KDKA, being established in Pittsburgh; the first regular entertainment programs were broadcast in 1922, on March 10, Variety carried the front-page headline: "Radio Sweeping Country: 1,000,000 Sets in Use." A highlight of this time was the first Rose Bowl being broadcast on January 1, 1923 on the Los Angeles station KHJ. Several radio networks broadcast in the United States, their distribution made the golden age of radio possible.
The networks declined in the early 1960s. As of November 14, 2013, Mutual, ABC and NBC's radio assets now reside with Cumulus Media's Westwood One division through numerous mergers and acquisitions since the mid-1980s, with ABC maintaining a limited radio ownership presence. CBS's radio license assets were folded into Entercom in 2017, with CBS shareholders acquiring a stake in that company as part of the reorganization. NBC, CBS and ABC now produce content for radio through their television divisions; the major networks were: National Broadcasting Company. Mutual was run as a cooperative in which the flagship stations owned the network, not the other way ar
CBS is an American English language commercial broadcast television and radio network, a flagship property of CBS Corporation. The company is headquartered at the CBS Building in New York City with major production facilities and operations in New York City and Los Angeles. CBS is sometimes referred to as the Eye Network, in reference to the company's iconic symbol, in use since 1951, it has been called the "Tiffany Network", alluding to the perceived high quality of CBS programming during the tenure of William S. Paley, it can refer to some of CBS's first demonstrations of color television, which were held in a former Tiffany & Co. building in New York City in 1950. The network has its origins in United Independent Broadcasters Inc. a collection of 16 radio stations, purchased by Paley in 1928 and renamed the Columbia Broadcasting System. Under Paley's guidance, CBS would first become one of the largest radio networks in the United States, one of the Big Three American broadcast television networks.
In 1974, CBS dropped its former full name and became known as CBS, Inc. The Westinghouse Electric Corporation acquired the network in 1995, renamed its corporate entity to the current CBS Broadcasting, Inc. in 1997, adopted the name of the company it had acquired to become CBS Corporation. In 2000, CBS came under the control of Viacom, formed as a spin-off of CBS in 1971. In late 2005, Viacom split itself into two separate companies and re-established CBS Corporation – through the spin-off of its broadcast television and select cable television and non-broadcasting assets – with the CBS television network at its core. CBS Corporation is controlled by Sumner Redstone through National Amusements, which controls the current Viacom. CBS operated the CBS Radio network until 2017, when it merged its radio division with Entercom. Prior to CBS Radio provided news and features content for its portfolio owned-and-operated radio stations in large and mid-sized markets, affiliated radio stations in various other markets.
While CBS Corporation owns a 72% stake in Entercom, it no longer owns or operates any radio stations directly, though CBS still provides radio news broadcasts to its radio affiliates and the new owners of its former radio stations. The television network has more than 240 owned-and-operated and affiliated television stations throughout the United States; the company ranked 197th on the 2018 Fortune 500 of the largest United States corporations by revenue. The origins of CBS date back to January 27, 1927, with the creation of the "United Independent Broadcasters" network in Chicago by New York City talent-agent Arthur Judson; the fledgling network soon needed additional investors though, the Columbia Phonograph Company, manufacturers of Columbia Records, rescued it in April 1927. Columbia Phonographic went on the air on September 18, 1927, with a presentation by the Howard L. Barlow Orchestra from flagship station WOR in Newark, New Jersey, fifteen affiliates. Operational costs were steep the payments to AT&T for use of its land lines, by the end of 1927, Columbia Phonograph wanted out.
In early 1928 Judson sold the network to brothers Isaac and Leon Levy, owners of the network's Philadelphia affiliate WCAU, their partner Jerome Louchheim. None of the three were interested in assuming day-to-day management of the network, so they installed wealthy 26-year-old William S. Paley, son of a Philadelphia cigar family and in-law of the Levys, as president. With the record company out of the picture, Paley streamlined the corporate name to "Columbia Broadcasting System", he believed in the power of radio advertising since his family's "La Palina" cigars had doubled their sales after young William convinced his elders to advertise on radio. By September 1928, Paley bought out the Louchhheim share of CBS and became its majority owner with 51% of the business. During Louchheim's brief regime, Columbia paid $410,000 to A. H. Grebe's Atlantic Broadcasting Company for a small Brooklyn station, WABC, which would become the network's flagship station. WABC was upgraded, the signal relocated to 860 kHz.
The physical plant was relocated – to Steinway Hall on West 57th Street in Manhattan, where much of CBS's programming would originate. By the turn of 1929, the network could boast to sponsors of having 47 affiliates. Paley moved right away to put his network on a firmer financial footing. In the fall of 1928, he entered into talks with Adolph Zukor of Paramount Pictures, who planned to move into radio in response to RCA's forays into motion pictures with the advent of talkies; the deal came to fruition in September 1929: Paramount acquired 49% of CBS in return for a block of its stock worth $3.8 million at the time. The agreement specified that Paramount would buy that same stock back by March 1, 1932 for a flat $5 million, provided CBS had earned $2 million during 1931 and 1932. For a brief time there was talk that the network might be renamed "Paramount Radio", but it only lasted a month – the 1929 stock market crash sent all stock value tumbling, it galvanized Paley and his troops, who "had no alternative but to turn the network around and earn the $2,000,000 in two years....
This is the atmosphere in which the CBS of today was born." The near-bankrupt movie studio sold its CBS shares back to CBS in 1932. In the first year of Paley's wa
Red Norvo was one of jazz's early vibraphonists, known as "Mr. Swing", he helped establish the xylophone and vibraphone as jazz instruments. His recordings included "Dance of the Octopus", "Bughouse", "Knockin' on Wood", "Congo Blues", "Hole in the Wall". Red Norvo was born in Illinois, his career began in Chicago with a band called "The Collegians" in 1925. He played with many other bands, including an all-marimba band on the vaudeville circuit, the bands of Paul Whiteman, Benny Goodman, Charlie Barnet, Woody Herman, he recorded with Billie Holiday, Dinah Shore and Frank Sinatra. Norvo and his wife were known as "Mr. and Mrs. Swing." He appeared as himself in the film Screaming Mimi and in Ocean's 11, accompanying Dean Martin while he sang "Ain't That a Kick in the Head?". In 1933 he recorded two sessions for Brunswick under his own name; the first, "Knockin' on Wood" and "Hole in the Wall", pleased Brunswick's recording director Jack Kapp, Norvo was booked for another session. This time, Kapp was out of town and Norvo went ahead and recorded two early pieces of chamber jazz: "In a Mist" by Bix Beiderbecke's and Norvo's own "Dance of the Octopus".
He played marimba instead of xylophone in the second session, accompanied by Benny Goodman in a rare performance at bass clarinet, Dick McDonough on guitar, Artie Bernstein on double bass. Kapp was outraged when he tore up Norvo's contract; this modern record remained in print through the 1930s. Norvo recorded eight modern swing sides for Columbia in 1934–1935, fifteen sides for Decca and their short-lived Champion label series in 1936. Starting in 1936 through 1942, Norvo formed a swing orchestra and recorded for ARC, first on their Brunswick label Vocalion and Columbia after CBS bought ARC; the recordings featured arrangements by Eddie Sauter with Mildred Bailey as vocalist. In 1938, Red Norvo and His Orchestra reached number one with their recordings of "Please Be Kind", number one for two weeks, "Says My Heart", with lead vocals by Bailey, number one for four weeks on the pop charts, reaching number one during the week of June 18, 1938. In June 1945, while a member of the Benny Goodman Sextet, he recorded a session for Comet Records that employed members of Goodman's group, Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie.
About the session Norvo said, "Diz were dirty words for musicians of my generation. But jazz had always gone through changes and in 1945 we were in the middle of another one. Bird and Diz were saying new things in an exciting way. I had a free hand, so I gambled". In 1949, while trying to find work near home on the West Coast and running into difficulties with large groups, Norvo formed a trio with the novel combination of vibes and bass; when the original guitarist and bassist quit, he brought in two little-known players. Tal Farlow became one of the most important of the postwar generation of guitarists, in part because the demands of the trio led him to explore changes in tempo and harmony. Farlow left the group in 1953 and guitarist Jimmy Raney took his place. Charles Mingus's prominence as a bass player increased through this group, though its repertoire did not reflect the career he would develop as a composer. Mingus left in 1951 and Red Mitchell replaced him; the Norvo and Mingus trio recorded two albums for Savoy Records.
In 1959, Norvo's group played concerts in Australia with Frank Sinatra. Norvo and his group made several appearances on The Dinah Shore Chevy Show in the late 1950s and early'60s. Norvo recorded and toured throughout his career until a stroke in the mid-1980s forced him into retirement, he died at a convalescent home in Santa Monica, California at the age of 91. Red Norvo composed the following instrumentals during his career: "Dance of the Octopus", "Bughouse" with Irving Mills and Teddy Wilson, "The Night is Blue", "A Cigarette and a Silhouette", "Congo Blues", "Seein' Red", "Blues in E Flat", "Hole in the Wall", "Knockin' on Wood", "Decca Stomp", "Tomboy", "1-2-3-4 Jump". Red Norvo's Fabulous Jazz Session Red Norvo with Strings Vibe-Rations in Hi-Fi Midnight on Cloud 69 Move! with Tal Farlow, Charles Mingus The Red Norvo Trios Music to Listen to Red Norvo By Ad Lib with Buddy Collette Some of My Favorites Red Plays the Blues Windjammer City Style Red Norvo in Hi-Fi Pretty Is the Only Way to Fly The Second Time Around Live at Rick's Cafe Red and Ross Just Friends Red Norvo:'Mr.
Swing' at NPR Jazz Profiles Red Norvo Interview NAMM Oral History Library