Nepal the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas but includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. With an estimated population of 26.4 million, it is 48th largest country by population and 93rd largest country by area. It borders China in the north and India in the south and west while Bangladesh is located within only 27 km of its southeastern tip and Bhutan is separated from it by the Indian state of Sikkim. Nepal has a diverse geography, including fertile plains, subalpine forested hills, eight of the world's ten tallest mountains, including Mount Everest, the highest point on Earth. Kathmandu is largest city. Nepal is a multiethnic nation with Nepali as the official language; the name "Nepal" is first recorded in texts from the Vedic period of the Indian subcontinent, the era in ancient India when Hinduism was founded, the predominant religion of the country. In the middle of the first millennium BCE, Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, was born in Lumbini in southern Nepal.
Parts of northern Nepal were intertwined with the culture of Tibet. The centrally located Kathmandu Valley is intertwined with the culture of Indo-Aryans, was the seat of the prosperous Newar confederacy known as Nepal Mandala; the Himalayan branch of the ancient Silk Road was dominated by the valley's traders. The cosmopolitan region developed distinct traditional architecture. By the 18th century, the Gorkha Kingdom achieved the unification of Nepal; the Shah dynasty established the Kingdom of Nepal and formed an alliance with the British Empire, under its Rajput Rana dynasty of premiers. The country was never colonized but served as a buffer state between Imperial China and British India. Parliamentary democracy was introduced in 1951, but was twice suspended by Nepalese monarchs, in 1960 and 2005; the Nepalese Civil War in the 1990s and early 2000s resulted in the proclamation of a secular republic in 2008, ending the world's last Hindu monarchy. The Constitution of Nepal, adopted in 2015, establishes Nepal as a federal secular parliamentary republic divided into seven provinces.
Nepal was admitted to the United Nations in 1955, friendship treaties were signed with India in 1950 and the People's Republic of China in 1960. Nepal hosts the permanent secretariat of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, of which it is a founding member. Nepal is a member of the Non Aligned Movement and the Bay of Bengal Initiative; the military of Nepal is the fifth largest in South Asia. Local legends have it that a Hindu sage named "Ne" established himself in the valley of Kathmandu in prehistoric times, that the word "Nepal" came into existence as the place was protected by the sage "Nemi", it is mentioned in Vedic texts. According to the Skanda Purana, a rishi called. In the Pashupati Purana, he is mentioned as a protector, he is said to have taught there. The name of the country is identical in origin to the name of the Newar people; the terms "Nepāl", "Newār", "Newāl" and "Nepār" are phonetically different forms of the same word, instances of the various forms appear in texts in different times in history.
Nepal is the learned Sanskrit form and Newar is the colloquial Prakrit form. A Sanskrit inscription dated 512 CE found in Tistung, a valley to the west of Kathmandu, contains the phrase "greetings to the Nepals" indicating that the term "Nepal" was used to refer to both the country and the people, it has been suggested that "Nepal" may be a Sanskritization of "Newar", or "Newar" may be a form of "Nepal". According to another explanation, the words "Newar" and "Newari" are vulgarisms arising from the mutation of P to V, L to R. Neolithic tools found in the Kathmandu Valley indicate that people have been living in the Himalayan region for at least eleven thousand years. Nepal is first mentioned in the late Vedic Atharvaveda Pariśiṣṭa as a place exporting blankets, in the post-Vedic Atharvashirsha Upanishad. In Samudragupta's Allahabad Pillar it is mentioned as a border country; the Skanda Purana has a separate chapter, known as "Nepal Mahatmya", with more details. Nepal is mentioned in Hindu texts such as the Narayana Puja.
Legends and ancient texts that mention the region now known as Nepal reach back to the 30th century BC. The Gopal Bansa were one of the earliest inhabitants of Kathmandu valley; the earliest rulers of Nepal were the Kiratas, peoples mentioned in Hindu texts, who ruled Nepal for many centuries. Various sources mention up to 32 Kirati kings. Around 500 BCE, small kingdoms and confederations of clans arose in the southern regions of Nepal. From one of these, the Shakya polity, arose a prince who renounced his status to lead an ascetic life, founded Buddhism, came to be known as Gautama Buddha. By 250 BCE, the southern regions had come under the influence of the Maurya Empire of North India and became a vassal state under the Gupta Empire in the 4th century CE. There is a quite detailed description of the kingdom of Nepal in the account of the renowned Chinese Buddhist pilgrim monk Xuanzang, dating from about 645 CE. Stone inscriptions in the Kathmandu Valley are important sources for the history of Nepal.
The kings of the Lichhavi dynasty have been found to have r
Kathmandu University is an autonomous governmental, public institution. It is the third oldest university in Nepal, located in Dhulikhel, Kavrepalanchok District, about 30 km east of Kathmandu. KU was established in 1991 with the motto "Quality Education for Leadership"; this university operates through its seven schools and from premises in Dhulikhel and Bhaktapur. The university provides postgraduate programs in a variety of fields. Prof. Dr. Subodh Sharma was appointed as registrar of the university in 2018; as a precursor to the establishment of a University, a team of dedicated people first established Kathmandu Valley Campus in 1985 to provide education in the Intermediate of Science level. The same team proposed the establishment of Kathmandu University. After a thorough discussion on the proposal in the Parliament, Kathmandu University was granted by an Act of Parliament on 11 December 1991; when established in November 1991 as a non-profit, public university by an Act KU became the first managed public institution of higher learning in Nepal.
The predecessor of the university was the Kathmandu Valley Campus founded in 1985. The campus started as a private campus affiliated to Tribhuvan University and offered courses in science at the intermediate level. Kathmandu University started its academic program in 1992 with an Intermediate in Science program. In 1994, the university launched Bachelor programs in Pharmacy and Engineering. Environmental Engineering and Sciences were included in its academic program. M. Phil and Ph. D. programs were started in 1997. The university started a Law program, under the School of Law in 2014. August 1985 Establishment of Kathmandu University Valley Campus with academic affiliation to Tribhuvan University. Commencement of Intermediate of Science courses. November 1991 Kathmandu University chartered by an Act of Parliament. December 1991 First Senate meeting presided by the Prime Minister and Chancellor of Kathmandu University, Girija Prasad Koirala. Appointment of Dr. Suresh Raj Sharma as the Vice Chancellor of the University.
January 1992 Appointment of Dr. Sitaram Adhikary as the Registrar of the University. July 1992 School of Science opened in Tangal. Appointment of Dr. Bhadra Man Tuladhar as the Dean of the School of Science. Commencement of Kathmandu University's own Intermediate of Science courses. August 1993 School of Management opened in New Baneswor. Appointment of Professor Krishna Swaminathan as the Dean of the School of Management. Commencement of Masters of Business Administration program. March 1994 Academic Council decided to introduce three-year degree programs for B. A./B. Sc. Pass, four-year degree programs for B. A. B. E. B. Sc. honors. Kathmandu University provides education through seven schools: School of Science School of Arts & Humanities School of Education School of Engineering School of Management School of Medical Sciences School of LawThe School of Medical Sciences and the School of Engineering have the most students; the School of Medical Science was known as KUMS, but in 2006 its name was changed to KUSMS, with the view that the school not only trains medical graduates and postgraduates but runs paramedical disciplines.
The School of Science and School of Engineering are present in the university premises, unlike other schools which have affiliated colleges around the nation. School of Engineering runs undergraduate and graduate level courses in Electrical and Electronics, Computer and Geomatics Engineering, it has recently launched Chemical Engineering and Bachelor of Architecture. The School of Science is conducting classes in B. Sc Human Biology, Environmental Science and Engineering, Bio Technology and Applied Physics. Chemical Engineering, BSc nursing In Midwifery, Bachelors in Physiotherapy is the recent addition to the list of the subject being offered by KU to students in Nepal for the first time ever; the university provides undergraduate to postgraduate programs in the fields of engineering, management, education and medical sciences. It provides undergraduate courses in engineering, Management, medical science. Chemical Engineering first time in Nepal. Graduate courses in science, pharmacy and business administration are offered.
The university, in partnership with Rangjung Yeshe Institute, runs the Centre for Buddhist Studies. The centre offers undergraduate and graduate programs leading to Bachelor of Arts and Master of Arts degrees in Buddhist Studies and Himalayan languages, it provides research facilities for visiting international scholars of Buddhism for their graduate or postgraduate projects. In the summer, it hosts study-abroad programs and conducts intensive language immersion programs in Tibetan and Sanskrit; the university owns Kathmandu University High School. Except for the School of Education and School of Management, the schools operate from the university's premises at Dhulikhel. Four batches of stud
Lalitpur Metropolitan City Patan, is the third largest city of Nepal after Kathmandu and Pokhara and it is located in the south-central part of Kathmandu Valley, a new metropolitan city of Nepal. Lalitpur is known as Manigal, it is best known for its rich cultural heritage its tradition of arts and crafts. It is called city of festival and feast, fine ancient art, making of metallic and stone carving statue. At the time of the 2011 Nepal census it had a population of 226,728 in 54,748 individual households; the city received extensive damage from an earthquake on 25 April 2015. Lalitpur is on the elevated tract of land in Kathmandu Valley on the south side of the Bagmati River, which separates it from the city of Kathmandu on the northern and western side; the Nakkhu Khola acts as the boundary on the southern side. It was developed on thin layers of deposited clay and gravel in the central part of a dried ancient lake known as the Nagdaha; the city is divided into 29 municipal wards. It is bounded by: East: Imadol VDC West: Kirtipur Municipality and Kathmandu Metropolitan City North: Kathmandu Metropolitan City South: Godawari Municipality.
Climate is characterized by high temperatures and evenly distributed precipitation throughout the year. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfa". Lalitpur is believed to have been founded in the third century BC by the Kirat dynasty and expanded by Licchavis in the sixth century, it was further expanded by the Mallas during the medieval period. There are many legends about its name; the most popular one is the legend of the god Rato Machhindranath, brought to the valley from Kamaru Kamachhya, located in Assam, India, by a group of three people representing the three kingdoms centered in the Kathmandu Valley. One of them was called Lalit, a farmer who carried god Rato Machhindranath to the valley all the way from Assam, India; the purpose of bringing the god Rato Machhindranath to the valley was to overcome the worst drought there. There was a strong belief, it was due to Lalit's effort. Many believe that the name of the town is kept after his name pur meaning township.
In May, a chariot festival honoring the deity known as Bunga Dyah Jatra is held in Patan. It is one of the most important religious celebrations in Patan. During the month-long festival, an image of Rato Machhendanath is placed on a tall chariot and pulled through the city streets in stages. Lalitpur said to have been founded by King Veer Deva in 299 AD, but there is unanimity among scholars that Patan was a well established and developed town since ancient times. Several historical records including many other legends indicate that Patan is the oldest of all the cities of Kathmandu Valley. According to a old Kirat chronicle, Patan was founded by Kirat rulers long before the Licchavi rulers came into the political scene in Kathmandu Valley. According to that chronicle, the earliest known capital of Kirat rulers was Thankot. Kathmandu, the present capital was most removed from Thankot to Patan after the Kirati King Yalamber came into power sometimes around second century AD. One of the most used and typical Newar names of Lalitpur is Yala.
It is said that King Yalamber or Yellung Hang named this city after himself, since this ancient city was known as Yala. In 1768, Lalitpur was annexed to the Gorkha Kingdom by Prithvi Narayan Shah without any battle; the city was designed in the shape of the Buddhist Dharma-Chakra. The four thurs or mounds on the perimeter of Patan are ascribed around, one at each corner of its cardinal points, which are popularly known as Asoka Stupas. Legend has it that Emperor Asoka visited with his daughter Charumati to Kathmandu in 250 BC and erected five Asoka Stupas, four in the surrounding and one at the middle of the Patan; the size and shape of these stupas seem to breathe their antiquity in a real sense. There are more than 1,200 Buddhist monuments of various shapes and sizes scattered in and around the city; the most important monument of the city is Patan Durbar Square, listed by UNESCO as one of seven Monument Zones that make up the Kathmandu Valley World Heritage Site. The seven monument zones were included in the World Heritage List in 1979 as one integrated site.
The monument zones are declared as protected and preserved according to the Monuments Preservation Act of 1956. The Square was damaged on 25 April 2015 by an earthquake. Lalitpur was planned in Bahils. Out of 295 Vihars and Bahils of the valley 56% of them are in Patan; the water conduits, stone spouts, artistic gate ways, Hindu temples and Buddhist Vihars adorn the city. The in-built cultural heritage like the royal palace, with intricately carved doors and windows and beautiful courtyards adorned with exquisite icons enhance the beauty of the city; such art pieces are found in stone, terracotta ivory and other objects. All these artifacts exhibit artistic excellence of the craftsmen and the whole city looks like an open museum. A substantial portion of the population is engaged in trades, notably in traditional handicrafts and small-scale cottage industries, some residents work in agriculture. Lalitpur has produced the highest number of renowned artists and finest craftsmen recorded in the history of Nepali art.
Lalitpur has maintained a culture of craftwork in the face of rapid urbanization and many so