Le Havre (film)
Le Havre is a 2011 comedy-drama film produced and directed by Aki Kaurismäki and starring André Wilms, Kati Outinen, Jean-Pierre Darroussin and Blondin Miguel. It tells the story of a shoeshiner who tries to save an immigrant child in the French port city Le Havre; the film was produced by Kaurismäki's Finnish company Sputnik with international co-producers in France and Germany. It is Kaurismäki's second French-language film, after La Vie de Bohème from 1992; the film premiered in competition at the 2011 Cannes Film Festival, where it received the FIPRESCI Prize. Kaurismäki envisions it as the first installment in a trilogy about life in port cities, his ambition is to make follow-ups shot in the local languages. Marcel Marx, a former bohemian and struggling author, has given up his literary ambitions and relocated to the port city Le Havre, he leads a simple life based around his wife Arletty, his favourite bar and his not too profitable profession as a shoeshiner. As Arletty becomes ill, Marcel's path crosses with an underage illegal immigrant from Africa.
Marcel and friendly neighbors and other townspeople help to hide him from the police. The police inspector may, or may not, be hot on their heels. André Wilms as Marcel Marx Kati Outinen as Arletty Jean-Pierre Darroussin as Monet Blondin Miguel as Idrissa Elina Salo as Claire Évelyne Didi as Yvette Quoc Dung Nguyen as Chang Laika as Laika François Monnié as Grocer Roberto Piazza as himself Pierre Étaix as Doctor Becker Jean-Pierre Léaud as Denouncer Kaurismäki had the idea of a film about an African child who arrives in Europe three years before the production started, his original intention was to set the story on the Mediterranean coast, preferably in Italy or Spain, but he had difficulties finding a suitable city. According to Kaurismäki, he "drove through the whole seafront from Genoa to Holland", settled on Le Havre in northern France, which attracted him with its atmosphere and music scene; the script was written in the summer 2009. The names of several characters were chosen as homages to French film icons, such as Arletty and Jacques Becker.
The name of the lead character, Marcel Marx, was inspired by Karl Marx. The character had appeared in Kaurismäki's 1992 film La Vie de Bohème, where he was played by André Wilms; the character Monet was inspired by Porfiry Petrovich, the detective from Fyodor Dostoevsky's Crime and Punishment. The budget was 3.8 million euro and included 750,000 euro in support from the Finnish Film Foundation. Kaurismäki's company Sputnik was the main producer, with Finnish broadcaster Yle, France's Pyramide Productions and Germany's Pandora Film as co-producers; the local rock singer Little Bob was cast in the film. Roberto Piazza is the Elvis of this Kingdom as long as Johnny Hallyday stays in Paris and then it would be a nice fight." Filming started 23 March and ended 12 May 2010. Le Havre premiered on 17 May 2011 in competition at the 64th Cannes Film Festival, it was the fourth time a film by Kaurismäki competed at the festival, after Drifting Clouds, The Man Without a Past and Lights in the Dusk. The Finnish premiere was on 9 September 2011 through Future Film Distribution.
Pyramide Distribution released it in France on 21 December of the same year. Janus Films acquired the American distribution rights. On Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds a "Certified Fresh" rating of 99%, based on reviews from 89 critics, with an average rating of 7.7/10. The website's critical consensus reads, "Aki Kaurismäki's deadpan wit hits a graceful note with Le Havre, a comedy/drama that's sweet and uplifting in equal measure." On Metacritic, the film has a score of 82 out of 100, based on 26 critics, indicating "universal acclaim". Leslie Felperin wrote in Variety: "It's all rather jolly and slight, doesn't break any new ground for the Finnish auteur though it foregrounds more influences than usual from French filmmakers like Marcel Carné, Jean-Pierre Melville, Robert Bresson and others, but on its own terms, Le Havre is a continual pleasure, seamlessly blending morose and merry notes with a deftness that's up there with Kaurismäki's best comic work." Felperin complimented the craft of Kaurismäki's regular cinematographer Timo Salminen and editor Timo Linnasalo, wrote: "It's like listening to a band that's been cheerfully churning it out for years, whose members all know each other's timings inside out, not unlike onscreen performers Little Bob and his grizzled in-sync crew."
The film received the FIPRESCI Prize for best film at the Cannes Film Festival. It received a Special Mention from the Ecumenical Jury; the dog Laika received a special Jury Prize from the Palm Dog jury. The film went on to win the top prize for best international film at the 2011 Munich International Film Festival, it was selected as a nominee for the European Parliament's Lux Prize. The film was selected as the Finnish entry for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 84th Academy Awards, but it did not make the final shortlist. Le Havre won the Gold Hugo at the Chicago International Film Festival. List of submissions to the 84th Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film List of Finnish submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film Official website Le Havre on IMDb Le Havre at AllMovie Le Havre at Box Office Mojo Le Havre at the British Board of Film Classification Le Havre at the British Film Institute Le Havre at Metacritic Le Havre at Rotten Tomatoes Le Havre at the Swedish Film Institute Database Le Havre: “Always Be a Human” an essay by Michael Sicinski at the Criterion Collection
Finland the Republic of Finland, is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, Russia to the east. Finland is situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia; the capital and largest city is Helsinki. Other major cities are Espoo, Tampere and Turku. Finland's population is 5.52 million, the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region. 88.7% of the population is Finnish and speaks Finnish, a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages. Finland is the eighth-largest country in Europe and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union; the sovereign state is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital city of Helsinki, local governments in 311 municipalities, one autonomous region, the Åland Islands. Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, which produces one third of the country's GDP. Finland was inhabited when the last ice age ended 9000 BCE.
The first settlers left behind artefacts that present characteristics shared with those found in Estonia and Norway. The earliest people were hunter-gatherers; the first pottery appeared in 5200 BCE. The arrival of the Corded Ware culture in southern coastal Finland between 3000 and 2500 BCE may have coincided with the start of agriculture; the Bronze Age and Iron Age were characterised by extensive contacts with other cultures in the Fennoscandian and Baltic regions and the sedentary farming inhabitation increased towards the end of Iron Age. At the time Finland had three main cultural areas – Southwest Finland and Karelia – as reflected in contemporary jewellery. From the late 13th century, Finland became an integral part of Sweden through the Northern Crusades and the Swedish part-colonisation of coastal Finland, a legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status. In 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland.
In 1906, Finland became the first European state to grant all adult citizens the right to vote, the first in the world to give all adult citizens the right to run for public office. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared itself independent. In 1918, the fledgling state was divided by civil war, with the Bolshevik-leaning Red Guard supported by the new Soviet Russia, fighting the White Guard, supported by the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the country became a republic. During World War II, the Soviet Union sought to occupy Finland, with Finland losing parts of Karelia, Kuusamo and some islands, but retaining their independence. Finland established an official policy of neutrality; the Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War era. Finland joined the OECD in 1969, the NATO Partnership for Peace in 1994, the European Union in 1995, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in 1997, the Eurozone at its inception, in 1999.
Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialisation, remaining a agrarian country until the 1950s. After World War II, the Soviet Union demanded war reparations from Finland not only in money but in material, such as ships and machinery; this forced Finland to industrialise. It developed an advanced economy while building an extensive welfare state based on the Nordic model, resulting in widespread prosperity and one of the highest per capita incomes in the world. Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, human development. In 2015, Finland was ranked first in the World Human Capital and the Press Freedom Index and as the most stable country in the world during 2011–2016 in the Fragile States Index, second in the Global Gender Gap Report, it ranked first on the World Happiness Report report for 2018 and 2019. A large majority of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, freedom of religion is guaranteed under the Finnish Constitution.
The earliest written appearance of the name Finland is thought to be on three runestones. Two have the inscription finlonti; the third was found in Gotland. It dates back to the 13th century; the name can be assumed to be related to the tribe name Finns, mentioned at first known time AD 98. The name Suomi has uncertain origins, but a candidate for a source is the Proto-Baltic word *źemē, meaning "land". In addition to the close relatives of Finnish, this name is used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian. Alternatively, the Indo-European word * gʰm-on "man" has been suggested; the word referred only to the province of Finland Proper, to the northern coast of Gulf of Finland, with northern regions such as Ostrobothnia still sometimes being excluded until later. Earlier theories suggested derivation from suomaa or suoniemi, but these are now considered outdated; some have suggested common etymology with saame and Häme, but that theory is uncertain
Shadows in Paradise
Shadows in Paradise is a 1986 Finnish art house comedy-drama film written and directed by Aki Kaurismäki. The film stars Kati Outinen as Matti Pellonpää as Nikander. Ilona is a supermarket check-out clerk who meets Nikander, a lonely garbage man, they develop romantic feelings towards each other. Shadows in Paradise was awarded the Best Film award at the 1987 Jussi Awards; this is the first film in Kaurismäki's Proletariat Trilogy. The trilogy has been released on Region One DVD by Criterion, in their Eclipse box-sets, on region-free Blu-ray discs by Future Film in Scandinavia. Shadows in Paradise on IMDb Shadows in Paradise at AllMovie Shadows in Paradise at the British Board of Film Classification Shadows in Paradise at the British Film Institute Shadows in Paradise at Elonet Shadows in Paradise at Rotten Tomatoes Shadows in Paradise at the Swedish Film Institute Database
Lights in the Dusk
Lights in the Dusk is a 2006 Finnish comedy-drama film written and directed by Aki Kaurismäki. Starring Janne Hyytiäinen, Ilkka Koivula, Maria Järvenhelmi, the film was presented at the 2006 Cannes Film Festival, it is the last installment in Kaurismäki's "Finland" trilogy after Drifting Clouds and The Man Without a Past. The film is about a security guard, set up in a robbery by a femme fatale who exploits his gullibility and loyalty. Classical music is used as background throughout much of the film, including excerpts from the work of the famous Swedish tenor Jussi Björling, it has been argued that the film deals with the ways in which "apitalism has painted the town red, just a different shade of red from its socialist connotations," as well as that "rock is so important to the director that a number of his males, including Koistinen, favor a 50s, sweptback hair style, to go along with their love of rock'n' roll." Koistinen is a lonely nightwatchman tasked with guarding a shopping mall. He attempts to socialize, but is treated coldly by his manager and subjected to mocking by his colleagues.
While he is drinking alone in a bar, he catches the eye of some criminals headed by Lindholm who learn of his occupation. Koistinen's only human contact is the grill vendor Aila to whom he outlines his plans of starting his own company. While at work, Koistinen notices. While he is taking a break, Mirja approaches him, they agree to go on a date together. Returning from his break, Koistinen meets a young boy in front of the pub and asks if he knows the owners of the dog. Despite the boy's warning, Koistinen is beaten off-camera. Koistinen and Mirja go on a date, they talk little, at a concert Koistinen watches as Mirja goes dancing on her own with other men. Despite this, they agree to meet again. Koistinen returns to Aila's grill and talks about his evening. Insulted, Aila closes shop. Meanwhile, Mirja meets with Lindholm for ridicules Koistinen. Lindholm informs his contacts of an "open-door day." Koistinen seeks a loan to start his own business, but is harshly refused at the bank due to his insufficient education and lack of guarantors.
Mirja unexpectedly joins Koistinen while he is taking his rounds. While Koistinen explains the mall's security system, Mirja memorizes the security code, she gives the code to Lindholm. Mirja abruptly leaves when he attempts to put his arm around her. Koistinen begins to drink and ends up at Aila's grill. Aila puts him to bed. At work, one of Koistinen's colleagues mockingly asks about his successes with women. Koistinen grabs the man, but goes to his rounds. Mirja asks him to come and talk. Koistinen leaves with Mirja in his car. Mirja drugs passes his keys to one of Lindholm's contacts. Using Koistinen's keys and security code, the thieves rob a jewellery store at the mall; the police question Koistinen. He is fired from his job. On Lindholm's insistence, Mirja meets with Koistinen at his apartment once again to plant evidence. Koistinen notices her hiding the evidence, but does not stop her and lets himself be arrested by the police, he is sentenced to two years in prison. Koistinen remains lonely in prison, tearing up a letter Aila sends him.
Just as Koistinen begins to have some contact to other inmates, he is released a year early on parole. He gets a job as a restaurant's dishwasher, he soon excuses himself. However, Aila asks about his plans for the future; when Koistinen says he plans to open a garage once he's back on his feet, she congratulates him for not losing hope. They agree to see each other again. Koistinen does not confront them. Lindholm calls up the head waitress and tells about Koistinen's criminal record, which results in him being fired immediately. Koistinen returns to the restaurant; as Lindholm and Mirja are leaving, he attacks Lindholm, but only manages to cut his hand while being disarmed and subdued by Lindholm's thugs. The thugs offer to kill Koistinen, but Lindholm refuses, saying he is a businessman and not a murderer; the young boy who warned Koistinen earlier sees the thugs finds Aila. They discover the badly beaten Koistinen in the harbour, along with the dog Koistinen attempted to help earlier. Aila offers to get help but Koistinen asks her to stay.
When she asks him not to die, Koistinen puts his hand on hers. Janne Hyytiäinen as Koistinen Maria Järvenhelmi as Mirja Maria Heiskanen as Aila Ilkka Koivula as Lindholm Sergei Doudko as Russian Andrei Gennadiev as Russian Arturas Pozdniakovas as Russian Matti Onnismaa as Shift Manager Sulevi Peltola as Foreman The film was chosen as Finland's nominee for the 79th Academy Awards in the category of Best Foreign Language Film. However, Kaurismäki decided to boycott the awards and refused the nomination as a protest against US President George W. Bush's foreign policy. Kaurismäki boycotted the 2002 gala, when his previous film The Man Without a Past was nominated for an Oscar. Lights in the Dusk received mixed-to-positive reviews from critics. On Rotten Tom
Vanessa Redgrave is an English actress of stage and television, a political activist. She is a 2003 American Theatre Hall of Fame inductee, received the 2010 BAFTA Fellowship. Redgrave rose to prominence in 1961 playing Rosalind in the Shakespeare comedy As You Like It with the Royal Shakespeare Company and has since starred in more than 35 productions in London's West End and on Broadway, winning the 1984 Olivier Award for Best Actress in a Revival for The Aspern Papers, the 2003 Tony Award for Best Actress in a Play for the revival of Long Day's Journey into Night, she received Tony nominations for The Year of Magical Thinking and Driving Miss Daisy. On screen, she has starred in scores of films and is a six-time Oscar nominee, winning the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for the title role in the film Julia, her other nominations were for Morgan: A Suitable Case for Treatment, Mary, Queen of Scots, The Bostonians and Howards End. Among her other films are A Man for All Seasons, Camelot, The Devils, Murder on the Orient Express, Prick Up Your Ears, Mission: Impossible, Atonement and The Butler.
Redgrave was proclaimed by Arthur Miller and Tennessee Williams as "the greatest living actress of our times", has won the Oscar, Tony, BAFTA, Cannes, Golden Globe, the Screen Actors Guild awards. A member of the Redgrave family of actors, she is the daughter of Sir Michael Redgrave and Lady Redgrave, the sister of Lynn Redgrave and Corin Redgrave, the mother of actresses Joely Richardson and Natasha Richardson, the aunt of British actress Jemma Redgrave, the mother-in-law of actor Liam Neeson. Redgrave was born on 30 January 1937 in Blackheath, the daughter of actors Sir Michael Redgrave and Rachel Kempson. Laurence Olivier announced her birth to the audience at a performance of Hamlet at the Old Vic, when he said that Laertes had a daughter. In her autobiography, Redgrave recalls the East End and Coventry Blitzes among her earliest memories. Following the East End Blitz, Redgrave relocated with her family to Herefordshire before returning to London in 1943, she was educated at the Alice Ottley School and Queen's Gate School, before "coming out" as a debutante.
Her siblings, Lynn Redgrave and Corin Redgrave, were acclaimed actors. Vanessa Redgrave entered the Central School of Speech and Drama in 1954, she first appeared in the West End, playing opposite her brother, in 1958. In 1959, she appeared at the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre under the direction of Peter Hall as Helena in A Midsummer Night's Dream opposite Charles Laughton as Bottom and Coriolanus opposite Laurence Olivier, Albert Finney and Edith Evans. In 1960, Redgrave had her first starring role in Robert Bolt's The Tiger and the Horse, in which she co-starred with her father. In 1961, she played Rosalind in As You Like It for the Royal Shakespeare Company. In 1962, she played Imogen in William Gaskill's production of Cymbeline for the RSC. In 1966, Redgrave created the role of Jean Brodie in the Donald Albery production of The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie, adapted for the stage by Jay Presson Allen from the novel by Muriel Spark. Redgrave had her first credited film role, in which she co-starred with her father, in Brian Desmond Hurst's Behind the Mask.
Redgrave's first starring film role was in Morgan – A Suitable Case for Treatment, co-starring David Warner and directed by Karel Reisz, for which she received an Oscar nomination, a Cannes award, a Golden Globe nomination and a BAFTA Film Award nomination. Following this, she portrayed a cool London swinger in Blowup. Co-starring David Hemmings, it was the first English-language film of the Italian director Michelangelo Antonioni. Reunited with Karel Reisz for the biographical film of dancer Isadora Duncan in Isadora, her portrayal of Duncan led her gaining a National Society of Film Critics' Award for Best Actress, a second Prize for the Best Female Performance at the Cannes Film Festival, along with a Golden Globe and an Oscar nomination. In the same period came other portrayals of historical figures – ranging from Andromache in The Trojan Women to the lead in Mary, Queen of Scots, the latter earning her a third Oscar nomination, she played the role of Guinevere in the film Camelot with Richard Harris and Franco Nero, as Sylvia Pankhurst in Oh!
What a Lovely War. She portrayed the character of Mother Superior Jeanne des Anges in The Devils, the once controversial film directed by Ken Russell. Redgrave funded and narrated a documentary film, The Palestinian, about the situation of the Palestinians and the activities of the Palestinian Liberation Organisation. In the film Julia, she starred in the title role as a woman murdered by the Nazi German regime in the years prior to World War II for her anti-Fascist activism, her co-star in the film was Jane Fonda, who, in her 2005 autobiography, noted that: there is a quality about Vanessa that makes me feel as if she resides in a netherworld of mystery that eludes the rest of us mortals. Her voice seems to come from some deep place that knows all secrets. Watching her work is like seeing through layers of glass, each layer painted in mythic watercolor images, layer after layer, until it becomes dark, but then you know you haven't come to the bottom of it... The only other time I had experienced this with an actor was with Marlon Brando...
Like Vanessa, he always seemed to be in another reality, working off some secret, magn
Helsinki is the capital and most populous city of Finland. Located on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, it is the seat of the region of Uusimaa in southern Finland, has a population of 650,058; the city's urban area has a population of 1,268,296, making it by far the most populous urban area in Finland as well as the country's most important center for politics, finance and research. Helsinki is located 80 kilometres north of Tallinn, Estonia, 400 km east of Stockholm, 390 km west of Saint Petersburg, Russia, it has close historical ties with these three cities. Together with the cities of Espoo and Kauniainen, surrounding commuter towns, Helsinki forms the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, which has a population of nearly 1.5 million. Considered to be Finland's only metropolis, it is the world's northernmost metro area with over one million people as well as the northernmost capital of an EU member state. After Stockholm and Oslo, Helsinki is the third largest municipality in the Nordic countries.
The city is served by the international Helsinki Airport, located in the neighboring city of Vantaa, with frequent service to many destinations in Europe and Asia. Helsinki was the World Design Capital for 2012, the venue for the 1952 Summer Olympics, the host of the 52nd Eurovision Song Contest. Helsinki has one of the highest urban standards of living in the world. In 2011, the British magazine Monocle ranked Helsinki the world's most liveable city in its liveable cities index. In the Economist Intelligence Unit's 2016 liveability survey, Helsinki was ranked ninth among 140 cities. According to a theory presented in the 1630s, settlers from Hälsingland in central Sweden had arrived to what is now known as the Vantaa River and called it Helsingå, which gave rise to the names of Helsinge village and church in the 1300s; this theory is questionable, because dialect research suggests that the settlers arrived from Uppland and nearby areas. Others have proposed the name as having been derived from the Swedish word helsing, an archaic form of the word hals, referring to the narrowest part of a river, the rapids.
Other Scandinavian cities at similar geographic locations were given similar names at the time, e.g. Helsingør in Denmark and Helsingborg in Sweden; when a town was founded in Forsby village in 1548, it was named Helsinge fors, "Helsinge rapids". The name refers to the Vanhankaupunginkoski rapids at the mouth of the river; the town was known as Helsinge or Helsing, from which the contemporary Finnish name arose. Official Finnish Government documents and Finnish language newspapers have used the name Helsinki since 1819, when the Senate of Finland moved itself into the city from Turku; the decrees issued in Helsinki were dated with Helsinki as the place of issue. This is; as part of the Grand Duchy of Finland in the Russian Empire, Helsinki was known as Gelsingfors in Russian. In Helsinki slang, the city is called Stadi. Hesa, is not used by natives of the city. Helsset is the Northern Sami name of Helsinki. In the Iron Age the area occupied by present day Helsinki was inhabited by Tavastians, they used the area for fishing and hunting, but due to a lack of archeological finds it is difficult to say how extensive their settlements were.
Pollen analysis has shown that there were cultivating settlements in the area in the 10th century and surviving historical records from the 14th century describe Tavastian settlements in the area. Swedes colonized the coastline of the Helsinki region in the late 13th century after the successful Second Crusade to Finland, which led to the defeat of the Tavastians. Helsinki was established as a trading town by King Gustav I of Sweden in 1550 as the town of Helsingfors, which he intended to be a rival to the Hanseatic city of Reval. In order to populate his newly founded town, the King issued an order to resettle the bourgeoisie of Porvoo, Ekenäs, Rauma and Ulvila into the town. Little came of the plans as Helsinki remained a tiny town plagued by poverty and diseases; the plague of 1710 killed the greater part of the inhabitants of Helsinki. The construction of the naval fortress Sveaborg in the 18th century helped improve Helsinki's status, but it was not until Russia defeated Sweden in the Finnish War and annexed Finland as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland in 1809 that the town began to develop into a substantial city.
Russians besieged the Sveaborg fortress during the war, about one quarter of the town was destroyed in an 1808 fire. Russian Emperor Alexander I of Russia moved the Finnish capital from Turku to Helsinki in 1812 to reduce Swedish influence in Finland, to bring the capital closer to Saint Petersburg. Following the Great Fire of Turku in 1827, the Royal Academy of Turku, which at the time was the country's only university, was relocated to Helsinki and became the modern University of Helsinki; the move helped set it on a path of continuous growth. This transformation is apparent in the downtown core, rebuilt in the neoclassical style to resemble Saint Petersburg to a plan by the German-born architect C. L. Engel; as elsewhere, technological advancements such as railroads and industrialization were key factors behind the city's growth. Despite the tumultuous nature of Finnish history during the first half of the 20th century, Helsinki continued its steady development. A landmark e