Department for Environment and Water (South Australia)
The Department for Environment and Water is a department of the Government of South Australia. Created on 1 July 2012 by the merger of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources and the Department for Water as the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, it was given its present name on 22 March 2018, it is responsible for ensuring that South Australia's natural resources are managed productively and sustainably, while improving the condition and resilience of the state's natural environment. Following the Liberal Party's victory in the 2018 state election, the department was renamed as the Department for Environment and Water on 2 March 2018. On 23 December 1971, a new department called the Department of Environment and Conservation was created by the amalgamation of the Museum Department and the State Planning Office, part of the Department of the Premier and of Development. On 18 December 1975, the Department of Environment and Conservation was renamed as the Department for the Environment following a merger with the Botanic Garden Department.
On 11 May 1981, the Department for the Environment and the Department of Urban and Regional Affairs were merged with the Department of Environment and Planning, created on 7 August 1980 when it only consisted of the office of its first permanent head. On 8 October 1992, the Department of Environment and Planning was abolished on 8 October 1992 and its parts were distributed to new entities including the Department of Environment and Land Management which included the entirety of the former Department of Lands, abolished on 8 October 1992. On 1 October 1993, the Department of Environment and Land Management was renamed as the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. On 23 October 1997, the Department of Environment and Natural Resources was abolished and replaced in part by the Department for Environment and Aboriginal Affairs which included “employees” of other abolished “Administrative Units” such as the Department of State Aboriginal Affairs and the Department of Mines and Energy.
In 1999, the Department for Environment and Aboriginal Affairs became the Department for Environment and Heritage. On 1 July 2010, the Department for Environment and Heritage was renamed for the second time as the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. On 1 July 2012, the Department of Environment and Natural Resources became the Department of Environment and Natural Resources after acquiring the roles and responsibilities of the former Department of Water. Protected areas of South Australia State Herbarium of South Australia List of environmental ministries Water Witch Friends of Parks National Parks and Wildlife Service Australasian Fire and Emergency Service Authorities Council Premier's Climate Change Council The Department for Environment and Water. Government of South Australia. Retrieved 24 March 2018
Murray River National Park
Murray River National Park is a protected area in South Australia located between 180 kilometres and 240 km north east of the Adelaide city centre. The national park was proclaimed in 1972 "to conserve a significant proportion of South Australia’s floodplain environments which are not represented in other reserve systems." The national park consists of three sections adjoining the Murray River and extending from near Loxton in the south west to near Renmark in the north-east. The first, known as the ‘Katarapko’ section is located on the north side of the river between Loxton in the south and Berri in the north; the second section, known as the ‘Lyrup Flats’ section is located on the north side of the river midway between Berri and Loxton. The third section is known as the ‘Bulyong’ section is located on the west side of the river upstream from Renmark; the national park is classified as an IUCN Category VI protected area. Protected areas of South Australia Riverland Biosphere Reserve List of islands within the Murray River in South Australia Riverland Mallee Important Bird Area Murray River National Park official site Murray River National Park webpage on protected planet
Innes National Park
Innes National Park is a protected area in the Australian state of South Australia located on the southwest tip of Yorke Peninsula about 300 kilometres west of the state capital of Adelaide. Known as Innes by many, the national park is a popular destination for camping, fishing and scuba diving. Innes National Park is located on the southern western extremity of Yorke Peninsula in South Australia about 300 kilometres by road from the Adelaide city centre, it is located within the locality known as Inneston. The national park occupies most of the land on the south-western tip of Yorke Peninsula south west of a line running from Willyama Bay on the south coast of the peninsula near Marion Bay to Gym Beach on the west coast of the peninsula and the following four islands adjoining the coastline: Chinamans Hat Island, Middle Island and South Island west of Pondalowie Bay, Royston Island west of Royston Head. Within the above area, land excluded from the national park includes the following saline lakes which were associated with gypsum mining at the time of proclamation of the national park - Marion Lake, Snow Lake and Spider Lake.
As of 2014, the national park included the following "no access" areas - a section of coastline between Cape Spencer and Ethel Beach and Middle Islands at the entrance to Pondalowie Bay, Royston Island, the coastline between Royston Head and Dolphin Beach, the coastline between Browns Beach and Gym Beach. The coastline extending from Willyama Bay to Cape Spencer consists of a number of bays such as Cable Bay and Stenhouse Bay with some prominent headlands such as Rhino Head and a line of cliffs between Cable Bay and Stenhouse Bay. From Cape Spencer to West Cape, an unbroken line of cliffs ranging in height between 37 metres and 79 metres with some sandy beaches at their feet make up the south west coast of Yorke Peninsula. From West Cape to Pondalowie Bay, the cliff line is of a lower height. From the south end of Pondalowie Bay to Gym Beach, areas of sand dunes dominate the shoreline and the land adjoining it with the exception of Royston Head and the cliff line extending eastward to Dolphin Beach.
The land between the national park's boundary and the road system is dominated in part by a network of saline lakes. The national park is serviced by a road connected to the western end of the Yorke Highway which passes through Marion Bay; the road which starts at Stenhouse Bay follows the coastline as a sealed road passing Chinamans Hat Island, Cable Bay and the turn-offs to Cape Spencer, Ethel Beach, West Cape and two camping grounds at Pondalowie Bay. The road concludes as a sealed road at the turn-off to the Pondalowie Surf Break Carpark, it continues as an unsealed road, passing turn-offs to Dolphin Beach and Shell Beach, to terminate at Browns Beach in the north west of the national park. Gym Beach in the extreme north west, while being accessible via the national park's walking trail system can only reached via vehicle from the Marion Bay Road, located to the east of the national park's boundary; the national park is classified as an IUCN category II protected area. As of 2003, 333 species of native plants had been recorded in Innes National Park of which 115 species were of conservation significance including 24 scheduled in the South Australian National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 and the following four species listed in the Australian Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999: annual candles, winter spider-orchid, bead samphire and splendid bush-pea.
Native mammals found within the national park as of 2003 included New Zealand fur seal, western pygmy possum, Gould's wattle bat, chocolate wattled bat, common dolphin, southern right whale, western grey kangaroo, Australian sea lion, short-beaked echidna and bottlenose dolphin. Birds found within the national park as of 2003 included 111 species of native bird of which 13 species were scheduled in Australian and state legislation; the following 13 species were listed in the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 either as being vulnerable or rare species - chestnut quail-thrush, eastern reef egret, fairy tern, hooded plover, little tern, osprey, painted button-quail, peregrine falcon, rock parrot, shy heathwren, western whipbird and white-bellied sea-eagle while the malleefowl was recognised nationally as a vulnerable species under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. Reptiles found within the national park as of 2003 included marbled gecko, mallee snake-eye, painted dragon, barking gecko, yellow-faced whipsnake, black tiger snake, eastern stone gecko, eastern bearded dragon, bull skink, eastern brown snake, four-toed earless skink, peninsula brown snake, southern four-toed slider, common scaly-foot, dwarf skink, western bluetongue, Adelaide snake-eye, sleepy lizard and prickly dragon.
Introduced animals found within the national park as of 2003 included rock dove, rabbit, house mouse, house sparrow, black rat, common starling and fox. Innes National Park was declared on 5 March 1970 under the National Parks Act 1966 to "conserve important habitat for the western whipbird, the mallee fowl and to protect a number of heritage buildings at Inneston." Land was added to the national park in 1977, 1984 and 1993 in order to deal with increased recreational use. The Narungga people occupied the Yorke Peninsula for thousands of years, they consisted of four clans, the Kurnara of the north, the Windera of the east, the Wari of the West and the Dilpa of the south. European colonisation of the area began in 1846 with sheep grazing near Cape Spencer. Crops were grown on a small scale in the early 20th century. Innes National Park was named after William Innes, who disc
Althorpe Islands Conservation Park
Althorpe Islands Conservation Park is a protected area in the Australian state of South Australia occupying the Althorpe Islands, Haystack Island and Seal Island in Investigator Strait near the town of Stenhouse Bay. The conservation park was proclaimed in 1972 following the enactment of the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 with the protection applying to the Western Islets in the Althorpe Islands, Haystack Island and Seal Island with Althorpe Island itself was not added until 1997; the purpose of the conservation park is ‘to protect important wildlife habitat for sea-bird populations’. It is classified as an IUCN Category Ia protected area. Althorpe Islands Conservation Park webpage on protected planet
Lake Eyre basin
The Lake Eyre basin is a drainage basin that covers just under one-sixth of all Australia. The Lake Eyre Basin is the largest endorheic basin in Australia and amongst the largest in the world, covering about 1,200,000 square kilometres, including much of inland Queensland, large portions of South Australia and the Northern Territory, a part of western New South Wales; the deserts that have formed in the basin, including Sturt Stony Desert, Tirari Desert and the Strzelecki Desert, are most the southern hemisphere's largest source of airborne dust. The basin is one of the largest, least-developed arid zone basins with high degrees of variability anywhere. Grazing is the major land use; the grazing is low density due to harsh and variable climatic conditions. The basin began as a sinking landmass covered by forest and contained many more lakes than now; the climate has changed from wet to arid over the last 60 million years. Most of the rivers in the Lake Eyre basin are now slow flowing and dry for lengthy periods.
They all flow towards the lowest point in the basin, 16 metres at Lake Eyre. Significant mineral deposits can be found in the basin. In 2004 the Lake Eyre Basin Intergovernmental Agreement was formed after concerns with the management of four separate state governments was raised as problems in the Murray-Darling basin arose; the basin began to form in the early Paleogene when south-eastern South Australia started to sink and rivers began to deposit sediment into the large, shallow basin. The basin is still sinking, still accumulating sediment. For many millions of years, the Lake Eyre Basin was well supplied with water and forested. About 20 million years ago, large shallow lakes formed, covering much of the area for about 10 million years. From that time on, as Australia drifted further north and the climate became more arid, the lakes and floodplains started to dry. Only in the last 2.6 million years did the onset of the ice ages bring about the present climatic regime and the consequent rapid desertification of the area.
Significant minerals deposits such as oil and natural gas, including Australia's most significant onshore petroleum reserves, are found within the basin. The mining and petroleum industries account for the greatest economic activity in the Lake Eyre Basin. Opals, phosphate and uranium are mined from the basin. In 2009, the Queensland Environmental Protection Agency confirmed that heavy metals from mining operations near Mount Isa had entered the upper reaches of the Georgina River; the spill has the potential to contaminate parts of the basin as far south as Lake Eyre. During years of high rainfall, all the riverbeds in this vast flat and semi-arid area lead inland towards Lake Eyre in central South Australia. Lake Eyre itself lies 16 metres below sea level, contains only salt. In flood years it fills and for a short time undergoes a period of rapid growth and fertility: long-dormant marine creatures multiply and large flocks of waterfowl arrive to feed and raise their young before the waters evaporate once more.
The annual mean runoff in the Lake Eyre Basin is lowest of any of the world's major drainage basins. None of the creeks and rivers in the Lake Eyre Basin are permanent: they flow only after heavy rain – a rare to rare event in the arid interior of Australia. Average annual rainfall in the area surrounding Lake Eyre is 125 millimetres, the pan evaporation rate 3.5 metres. Annualised average figures are misleading: since 1885 annual rainfall over the 1,100,000 square kilometres of the Lake Eyre Basin has ranged from about 45 millimetres in 1928 to over 760 millimetres in 1974. Most of the water reaching Lake Eyre comes from the river systems of semi-arid inland Queensland 1,000 kilometres to the north. To provide a sense of scale, the Lake Eyre Basin is about the size of France and Italy combined, it is larger than the Murray-Darling basin but has vastly less water. The entire flow of the Murray-Darling would be insufficient to fill Lake Eyre keeping pace with evaporation. In contrast, the flow of the Mississippi could fill Lake Eyre in 22 days, that of the Amazon in just 3 days.
Other lakes in the basin include Lake Yamma Yamma and Lake Hart. The Cooper Creek, Finke River, Georgina River and Diamantina River are the four main rivers of the basin. Other desert rivers include the Hale River, Plenty River and Todd River that flow from the south east of the Northern Territory, south. In the western parts of the basin the Neales River and Macumba River flow into Lake Eyre. Rivers within the basin have a low gradient, slow flow rate and a turbid water quality. Several of the major Lake Eyre Basin river systems are well-known; because the Lake Eyre Basin is flat, rivers flow and split up into floodplains or multiple braided channels. Water is lost to evaporation, to seepage, in the many ephemeral wetland systems, with the result that downstream flows are smaller than upstream flows. Only in exceptional years is there sufficient upstream rain to provide a flow into Lake Eyre itself; the Finke River, starting west of Alice Springs is thought to be the oldest riverbed in the world and although it flows for only a few days a year is home to seven species of fish, two of which are found nowhere els
Aldinga Scrub Conservation Park
Aldinga Scrub Conservation Park is a protected area located in the suburbs of Aldinga Beach and Sellicks Beach about 46 kilometres south by west of Adelaide in South Australia. The park was proclaimed in November 1975 under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 for the purpose of protecting a parcel of undeveloped land considered to be'a significant remnant of the natural habitat that once occurred all along the southern Adelaide coastline'; the conservation park is classified as an IUCN Category III protected area. List of protected areas in Adelaide Aldinga Scrub Conservation Park official site Friends of Aldinga Scrub Aldinga Scrub Conservation Park webpage on protected planet
Coffin Bay National Park
Coffin Bay National Park is a protected area in on the Eyre Peninsula of South Australia, located about 301 km west of Adelaide and about 46 km west of Port Lincoln. The town of Coffin Bay is near the entrance to the national park; the national park occupies the Coffin Bay Peninsula - a long peninsula with a sheltered bay to its north, coastal dunes, swamps and a coastline which overlooks islands, limestone cliffs and white surf beaches. To the east of Point Avoid are Almonta and Gunyah Beaches, used for surfing. Reefs extend out to sea from Point Avoid to Golden Island with Price Island further out. There is a camping area at Yangie Bay with camping fees payable on entry to the National Park. Access to the majority of the park's area north of Yangie Bay is via four wheel drive tracks only; the historic former Coffin Bay Whaling Site at Point Sir Isaac lies within the national park and is listed on the South Australian Heritage Register. There is a great variety of wildlife in the national park.
Many seabirds can be seen including white-bellied sea eagles and ospreys as well as various albatrosses and petrels. The volunteer organisation Friends of Coffin Bay Parks have worked to re-introduce native plants and eradicate feral animals and weeds; the waters adjoining. The area covered by the national park is overlapped by the Coffin Bay Important Bird Area, a non-statutory classification determined by BirdLife International; this particular IBA supports over 1% of the world populations of pied and sooty oystercatchers, as well as significant numbers of fairy terns, hooded plovers, western whipbirds, rock parrots and blue-breasted fairy-wrens. Protected areas of South Australia Avoid Bay Islands Conservation Park Kellidie Bay Conservation Park Mount Dutton Bay Conservation Park Whidbey Isles Conservation Park Coffin Bay National Park official webpage Coffin Bay National Park webpage on protected planet