Chrzanów is a town in southern Poland with 39,704 inhabitants as of 2006. It is the capital of Chrzanów County, it is impossible to establish a reliable date for the foundation of the town. A stronghold existed on the site, raised to the rank of a castellany; the earliest documents which corroborate the existence of Chrzanów castellany come from the late 12th century when, in around 1178, Chrzanów castellany was annexed to Silesia by order of Duke Casimir II the Just. In the second half of the 13th century it was reunited with the Duchy of Kraków. In 1241 the wooden stronghold of Chrzanów was put to the torch by Mongol hordes invading Poland from the east; the town of Chrzanów was rebuilt according to the Magdeburg Law in the mid-14th century under the reign of King Casimir III the Great. However it seems, it is believed. The local church was mentioned for the first time in documents in the tax-register of Peter's Pence, 1325-1328. From the time of its construction in the 14th century until 1640 the town was the property of the Ligęza family of the Półkozic coat of arms.
In the mid-15th century Chrzanów had c. 430 residents and in the 17th century some 650. At least from the early 15th century a parish school existed next to Chrzanów's Church of St Nicholas. In the 16th century King Sigismund II Augustus of Poland bestowed a new privilege on the town, allowing for four extra fairs. Various guilds were active in the town: weavers', tailors', shoemakers', smiths', butchers' and others. Ancient Chrzanów's speciality was trading cattle, as here was a customs house for exports of cattle to Silesia and ore trade, mined and smelted by Chrzanów's burghers. In 1640 Chrzanów was taken over by Andrzej Samuel Dembiński. In 1649 it was inherited by his granddaughter Katarzyna Grudzińska, in 1675 by the Stadnicki family. In 1731 it went to Józef Kanty Ossoliński. In 1654 King John II Casimir bestowed upon Chrzanów the privilege of holding extra fairs and in 1781 a similar privilege was bestowed on the town by King Stanislaus II Augustus; the second half of the 17th century was a hard period for Chrzanów.
As a result of wars waged at the time the town was looted on several occasions by the Swedes, the Austrians who fought against them, by Transylvanian troops of Prince George Rákóczi and by Polish troops as well. During the Great Northern War Chrzanów was plundered and put to the torch by Swedish troops of King Charles XII. During the Polish-Russian war which broke out in 1792, Chrzanów was occupied by Russian and Prussian troops. In 1795, following the third partition of Poland-Lithuania, Chrzanów was annexed to Galicia in the Habsburg Empire. In the period 1795-1809 Chrzanów was a part of Austrian Galicia. In 1809, as a result of the war between Austria and the Duchy of Warsaw, West Galicia with Chrzanów was annexed to the Duchy of Warsaw. During this period ownership of the town changed. From 1804 to 1822 Chrzanów was owned by Duke Albert Casimir of Saxe-Cieszyn, son of the late King of Poland, Augustus III of Saxony. Following the fall of Napoleon, a treaty among Austria and Russia was concluded during the Congress of Vienna resulting in creation of the Free City of Kraków on 3 May 1815.
Chrzanów and the surrounding areas are annexed to the newly created state. In 1838 Chrzanów had 2069 of the Jewish faith; the period of the Free City of Cracow was a time of prosperity and rapid development for Chrzanów and its residents. In this period ownership of the town changed again; the former owner, Duke Albert Casimir of Saxe-Cieszyn, bequeathed the town to Archduke Karl Ludwig of Austria, who in turn sold it to the Cracovian Senator and MP from Chrzanów Jan Mieroszewski. In 1856 Mieroszewski decided to sell his Chrzanów estate to a group of Wrocław entrepreneurs, one of whom, Emanuel Loewenfeld, soon became the sole owner. In 1846 a revolt broke out in Kraków. Outside Cracow Austrian troops were engaged in battle at Chrzanów where in February 1846 a 15-troop squad commanded by the owner of Kwaczała estate, Józef Patelski, victoriously attacked Austrian troops forcing them to withdraw; the revolt was doomed, in September 1846 Chrzanów with the entire Free City of Cracow was annexed to the Austrian Kingdom of Galicia.
In 1853/54 Galicia was divided into counties and Chrzanów became a seat of a county. In 1847 the first part of the railway running through Chrzanów County was built: from Cracow to Silesia with railway stations in Krzeszowice and Szczakowa. In 1856 another section was built joining Cracow with Vienna and this one ran through Chrzanów. In 1852 a zinc and lead ore mine "Matilda" was opened in the direct vicinity. Chrzanów entered the age of rapid industrialization. With it the number of residents grew. In 1870 the town had 6,323 inhabitants, 7,712 in 1890, 10,000 in 1900 and 11,572 in 1910. Henry Avenue was built in 1893 following a purchase of land situated between modern Henry Avenue and Oświęcimska St. from the Lowenfeld family. This initiated dynamic development of the town in S-W direction and intensive urbanization of the neighbourhood continued in the interwar period. In 1911 Chrzanów Secondary School was founded. Following Austria-Hungary's collapse in 1918 Chrzanów with the rest of Galicia was reunited with the Republic of Poland.
In the years 1919-1939 Chrzanów and Chrzanów County belonged to the Province of Cracow in the Second Polish Republic. In the interwar years further industrialization of the town followed. In the 1920s Stella ceramic works and Fablok, the First Locomotive Factory in Poland, were founde
Lublin Voivodeship, or Lublin Province, is a voivodeship, or province, located in southeastern Poland. It was created on January 1, 1999, out of the former Lublin, Chełm, Zamość, Biała Podlaska and Tarnobrzeg and Siedlce Voivodeships, pursuant to Polish local government reforms adopted in 1998; the province is named after its largest city and regional capital and its territory is made of four historical lands: the western part of the voivodeship, with Lublin itself, belongs to Lesser Poland, the eastern part of Lublin Area belongs to Red Ruthenia, the northeast belongs to Polesie and Podlasie. Lublin Voivodeship borders Subcarpathian Voivodeship to the south, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship to the south-west, Masovian Voivodeship to the west and north, Podlaskie Voivodeship along a short boundary to the north and Ukraine to the east; the province's population as of 2006 was 2,175,251. It covers an area of 25,155 square kilometres; the Polish historical region that encompasses Lublin, approximates Lublin Voivodeship as it was before the Partitions of Poland, is known as Lubelszczyzna.
Provinces centred on Lublin have existed throughout much of Poland's history. The region was, before World War II, one of the world's leading centres of Judaism. Before the middle of the 16th century, there were few Jews in the area, concentrated in Lublin, Kazimierz Dolny, Chełm. Since these new towns competed with the existing towns for business, there followed a low-intensity, long-lasting feeling of resentment, with failed attempts to limit the Jewish immigration; the Jews tended to settle in the cities and towns, with only individual families setting up businesses in the rural regions. By the middle of the 18th century, Jews were a significant part of the population in Kraśnik, Lubartów and Łęczna. By the 20th century, Jews represented greater than 70% of the population in eleven towns and close to 100% of the population of Laszczów and Izbica. From this region came both religious figures such as Mordechai Josef Leiner of Izbica, Chaim Israel Morgenstern of Puławy, Motele Rokeach of Biłgoraj, as well as famous secular authors Israel Joshua Singer.
Israel's brother, the Nobel prize winner Isaac Bashevis Singer, was not born in Biłgoraj but lived part of his life in the city. The "Old Town" of the city of Lublin contained a famous yeshiva, Jewish hospital, synagogue and kahal, as well as the Grodzka Gate. Before the war, there were 300,000 Jews living in the region, which became the site of the Majdanek concentration camp and Bełżec extermination camp as well as several labour camps which produced military supplies for the Wehrmacht and Luftwaffe); this was once one of the biggest forced labour centres in occupied Europe, with 45,000 Jewish prisoners. As well, the Sobibór extermination camp was located in the Lublin Voivodeship. After the war, the few surviving Jews left the area; the voivodeship contains 42 towns. These are listed below in descending order of population (according to official figures for 2006: Lublin Voivodeship is divided into 24 counties: 4 city counties and 20 land counties; these are further divided into 213 gminas. The counties are listed in the following table.
Protected areas in Lublin Voivodeship include 17 Landscape Parks. These are listed below. Polesie National Park Roztocze National Park Chełm Landscape Park Janów Forests Landscape Park Kazimierz Landscape Park Kozłówka Landscape Park Krasnobród Landscape Park Krzczonów Landscape Park Łęczna Lake District Landscape Park Podlaskie Bug Gorge Landscape Park Polesie Landscape Park Puszcza Solska Landscape Park Skierbieszów Landscape Park Sobibór Landscape Park South Roztocze Landscape Park Strzelce Landscape Park Szczebrzeszyn Landscape Park Wieprz Landscape Park Wrzelowiec Landscape Park Wójcik: 12,937 Mazurek: 9,644 Mazur: 8,019 Lublin Voivodeship was an administrative region of the Kingdom of Poland created in 1474 out of parts of Sandomierz Voivodeship and lasting until the Partitions of Poland in 1795, it was part of the prowincja of Lesser Poland. Lublin Voivodeship was one of the voivodeships of Congress Poland, it was formed in 1816 from Lublin Department, in 1837 was transformed into Lublin Governorate.
Lublin Voivodeship was one of the administrative regions of the interwar Second Polish Republic. In early 1939 its area was 26,555 square kilometres and its population was 2,116,200. According to the 1931 census, 85.1% of its population was Polish, 10.5% Jewish, 3% Ukrainian. Lublin Voivodeship was an administrative region of Poland between 1945 and 1975. In 1975 it was transformed into Chełm, Zamość, Biała Podlaska, Tarnobrzeg and
Brzeszcze is a town in Oświęcim County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship in southern Poland, near Oświęcim. As of 2006, Brzeszcze has about 12,000 citizens; the history of the town dates back to the 15th century, it was founded by Flemish settlers. Brzeszcze lies along regional roads nr. 933 and nr. 949, its name comes from the brzost trees, which once were abundant in the Sola river valley. In the past the town was spelled Brzescie, Brescze and Brzesczye. Brzeszcze lies in the Northern Carpathian Foothills, on the Vistula river, in western Lesser Poland; the town is part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. The distance to Kraków is 79 kilometres, the distance to Czech border crossing at Cieszyn, 50 km; the town has three rail stations - Brzeszcze, Brzeszcze-Kopalnia, Brzeszcze-Jawiszowice. All three are located along rail line nr. 93, which goes from Trzebinia to Zebrzydowice. First documented mention of Brzeszcze comes from 1438, when the village was part of the Duchy of Oświęcim, a fee of the Kingdom of Bohemia.
In 1457 Jan IV of Oświęcim agreed to sell the duchy to the Polish Crown, in the accompanying document issued on 21 February the village was mentioned as Brzescze. The territory of the Duchy of Oświęcim was incorporated into Poland in 1564 and formed Silesian County of Kraków Voivodeship. For centuries Brzeszcze remained a small, private village, which belonged to Polish kings, who leased it to members of the nobility; the inhabitants were fishermen and farmers, among others, Brzeszcze was owned by Dominik Gherri, the physician of King Stanisław August Poniatowski. Like all towns and villages of Lesser Poland, Brzeszcze was destroyed during the Swedish invasion of Poland. Following the Partitions of Poland, the village was annexed by the Habsburg Empire, from 1772 until 1918 it was part of the province of Galicia. In 1900, there were some 220 houses at Brzeszcze, with the population of 1,400. All residents were ethnic Poles and Roman Catholics. Brzeszcze grew because of the anthracite coal mine, founded in 1907.
New housing districts for miners were built, the population grew, in the Second Polish Republic, Brzeszcze was one of main industrial villages of Kraków Voivodeship. During World War II, the town was a stronghold of the Polish resistance, helping the prisoners of Auschwitz concentration camp. Prisoners of Auschwitz were housed in a sub-camp, called Jawischowitz, near the mine where they labored. Numerous prisoners were killed through slave labour by the German civilian mine authorities, by the SS. German authorities changed its name into Kohlendorf. After the war the village continued its development, in July 1962 was granted town charter; the economy of the town focuses on an anthracite coal mine "Brzeszcze-Silesia", the biggest employer in the region, one of the biggest in the entire Voivodeship. In the Second Polish Republic, it was the only large coal mine. During the war, the mine was part of the Reichswerke Hermann Göring conglomerate, inmates of the Jawischowitz were employed in it. Most important point of interest is a 19th-century Roman Catholic parish church of St. Urban.
Its construction was initiated in 1874, lasted 30 years due to financial difficulties. Apart from the church, Brzeszcze has an 18th-century Austrian boundary marker, several 19th-century roadside chapels, foundations of a 16th-century church, burned by the Swedish invaders in 1655. Górnik Brzeszcze - The club was founded in 1922 by the Polish refugees from Zaolzie in Czechoslovakia; the "Brzeszcze" mine used to be its main sponsor, club's original name was “Strzala”. Arkadiusz Skrzypaszek, modern pentathlete and Olympic gold medalist Włodzimierz Lubański, Polish footballer Beata Szydło, Polish Prime Minister Kazimierz Bielenin, Polish archeologist Jewish Community in Brzeszcze on Virtual Shtetl
Dąbrowa Górnicza is a city in Zagłębie Dąbrowskie, southern Poland, near Katowice and Sosnowiec. It is located in eastern part of the Silesian Voivodeship, on the Czarna Przemsza and Biała Przemsza rivers. Though Dąbrowa Górnicza belongs to the historic province of Lesser Poland, it now is situated in the Silesian Voivodeship, it was in Katowice Voivodeship. Dąbrowa Górnicza is one of the cities of the 2.7 million conurbation - Katowice urban area, within a greater silesian metropolitan area populated by about 5.2 million people. The population of the city itself is 127,500. Dąbrowa Górnicza is the largest city of the province and the 9th largest in Poland in terms of territory, with total area of 188 square kilometers; the city lies at 258 to 390 meters above sea level. Dąbrowa Górnicza borders Zawiercie County, Olkusz County and the city of Sosnowiec; the city is divided into several districts: Antoniów, Błędów, Centrum, Dziewiąty, Gołonóg, Korzeniec, Kuźniczka Nowa, Łazy Błędowskie, Łęka, Łęknice, Łosień, Mydlice, Okradzionów, Piekło, Reden, Strzemieszyce Małe, Strzemieszyce Wielkie, Trzebiesławice, Tucznawa, Ujejsce, Ząbkowice.
Furthermore, in 1977 - 1984 the town of Sławków was a district of Dąbrowa Górnicza. The place name Dąbrowa, is derived from the Polish word dąb, denotes an oak grove, as the territory of the original village is believed to have been covered by oak forests back in the early days of its existence. From the 19th century, the settlement grew to be an important coal mining center, its name was supplemented by the adjective Górnicza in 1919, to distinguish it from such towns, as Dąbrowa Tarnowska and Dąbrowa Białostocka. In the first half of the 18th century Dąbrowa was a small agricultural settlement belonging to the Będzin parish of Lesser Poland's Kraków Voivodeship. First mentioned on July 25, 1726, when parish priest of Holy Trinity Church at Będzin noted a woman named Anna Lisowa from Dąbrowa. According to the 1787 census of the Archdiocese of Kraków, the settlement numbered 184 inhabitants; the districts of Dąbrowa, which for centuries had been separate villages, are much older. Trzebieslawice was first mentioned in the 12th century, Błędow was mentioned by Bishop of Kraków Iwo Odrowąż in the year 1220, Strzemieszyce and Ujejsce were mentioned in the 14th century, Gołonóg in the 15th century, while Ząbkowice was described by Jan Długosz.
After the Third Partition of Poland Dąbrowa was incorporated into the Prussian province of New Silesia. The Prussians discovered rich deposits of coal here and the first coal mine was established by Friedrich Wilhelm von Reden in 1796. In 1799, first detailed map of this area was created, on which a settlement called Stara Dąbrowa is presented, it was located along a road from Kraków to Upper Silesia. The coal mine, established by Friedrich Reden, attracted workers, a settlement was soon established around it. In 1815, Dąbrowa was annexed by Russian-controlled Congress Poland. In 1846, the Cieszkowski Coal Mine was named after Józef Cieszkowski; the Zinc Plant Konstanty operated as early as 1823, the Huta Bankowa steel works, still in operation, was built in Dąbrowa Górnicza in 1834. First primary school was opened in 1820, first Roman Catholic church of St. Alexander was built in the 1870s. In 1909 the gmina of Dąbrowa Górnicza was established by Tsarist authorities. Though its population reached 30,000, the Russians were reluctant to grant Dąbrowa town charter, so it remained a village until August 18, 1916, when Austrian authorities, which during World War I occupied southern part of Congress Poland, agreed to establish the town.
In the Second Polish Republic, Dąbrowa belonged to Kielce Voivodeship, during World War II it was annexed into the Third Reich, as part of the Upper Silesia Province. Together with whole Zagłębie Dąbrowskie, the city was transferred to Katowice Voivodeship after World War II, in 1945; the 1970s saw the construction of the Katowice Steelworks, nowadays the biggest steel producing plant in Poland, after privatization owned by ArcelorMittal. In the 1970s the town expanded territorially and economically. In 1975 and 1977 the neighboring localities of Strzemieszyce Małe, Strzemieszyce Wielkie, Ząbkowice and others became suburbanized; the population of Dąbrowa Górnicza reached its peak in 1982 with 152,373 inhabitants. In the 1990s all local coal mines were closed, because of lack of coal, but the oldest part of the town Reden still exists. Silesian Technical University, Faculty of Chemistry and Environmental Chemistry course Wyższa Szkoła Biznesu Wyższa Szkoła Planowania Strategicznego There are many important routes crossing in Dąbrowa Górnicza.
These include expressway S1 and national road 94. Expressway S1 is a direct connection to Katowice International Airport. Dąbrowa Górnicza has rich railway network access including Warsaw-Katowice line and nearby Broad Gauge Metallurgy Line terminal in Sławków; the rail network is dense in the city as it is a branching point of former Warsaw-Vienna railway. There are nine rail stations within city limits: Dąbrowa Górnicza, Dąbrowa Górnicza Pogoria, Dąbrowa Górnicza Gołonóg, Dąbrowa Górnicza Ząbkowice, Dąbrowa Górnicza Sikorka, Dąbrowa Górnicza Strzemieszyce, Dąbrowa Górnicza Wschodnia, Dąbrowa Górnicza Huta Katowice, Dąbrowa Górnicza Południowa. Express and fast trains stop at two stations: Dąbrowa Górnicza and Dąbrowa Górnicza Ząbkowice, all other stations serve local connections. There is a tram network, being part of Silesian Interurbans. In Dąbrowa there are many green areas
Piekary Śląskie is a city in Silesia in southern Poland, near Katowice. The north district of the Upper Silesian Metropolitan Union – metropolis with the population of 2 million. Located in the Silesian Highlands, on the Brynica river, it is situated in the Silesian Voivodeship since its formation in 1999 in Katowice Voivodeship, before of the Autonomous Silesian Voivodeship. Piekary Śląskie is one of the cities of the 2.7 million conurbation – Katowice urban area and within a greater Silesian metropolitan area populated by about 5,294,000 people. The population of the city is 59,061. Piekary is a spiritual center of Upper Silesia, a Marian shrine, a pilgrimage site for thousands of the faithful, a mining town; the town Piekary Śląskie was created in 1934 by joining the communes of Wielkie Piekary. In 1975, the administrative reform led to joining the nearby towns: Dąbrówka Wielka, Brzeziny Śląskie, Kamień and Kozłowa Góra. Between 1303 and 1318, the first church and independent parish were created there.
In the 15th century, the zinc and lead mining industry developed and the process of settlement evolution begun. In the 12th and 14th centuries, the Germanised Silesian dukes governed the town, but a short visit of the King John III Sobieski rushing to relief Vienna in 1683 cause that memory about the Polish origin livened among them; the next years brought several peasant revolts against the German magnates. In 1697, Augustus II the Strong visited Piekary, he converted to Catholic religion in the local church and at the same time he sworn the pacta conventa. In the 18th century and Germanisation of Piekary Śląskie was increased; the result was a strong movement towards maintaining the Polish origins of the land. In 1842, Piekary's rector, priest Alojzy Ficek, commissioned a new neo-romanesque Basilica of St. Mary and St. Bartholomew designed by Daniel Grötschel. A painting of the Virgin Mary was placed there, it was one of the centers of Silesian Uprisings and in 1922 was ceded to the Second Polish Republic by Weimar Germany as 86% of the population voted for joining the re-established Polish state.
1 Kozłowa Góra 2 Piekary-Centrum 3 Szarlej 4 Brzozowice 5 Kamień 6 Brzeziny Śląskie 7 Dąbrówka Wielka Hans Kroll Karol Langner Wilhelm Antoni Góra Hans Marchwitza, born at Szarlej Adam Matysek Jerzy Polaczek Marek Siwiec Walter Winkler Dariusz Wosz Piekary, Silesia Jewish Community in Piekary Śląskie on Virtual Shtetl
Katowice is a city in southern Poland, with a city-proper population of 297,197 making it the eleventh-largest city in Poland as of 2017 and is the center of the Katowice metropolitan area, which has 2 million people. Throughout the mid-18th century, Katowice had developed into a village upon the discovery of rich coal reserves in the area. In 1742 the First Silesian War transferred Upper Silesia, including Katowice, to Prussia. Subsequently, from the second half of the 18th century, many German or Prussian craftsmen and artists began to settle in the region, inhabited by Poles over the past hundreds of years. Silesia experienced the influx of the first Jewish settlers. In the first half of the 19th century, intensive industrialization transformed local mills and farms into industrial steelworks, mines and artisan workshops; this contributed to the establishment of companies and eventual rapid growth of the city. At the same time, Katowice became linked to the railway system with the first train arriving at the main station in 1847.
The outbreak of World War I was favourable for Katowice due to the prospering steel industry. Following Germany's defeat and the Silesian Uprisings and parts of Upper Silesia were annexed by the Second Polish Republic. Poland was backed by the Geneva Convention and the ethnic Silesian minority. On 3 May 1921, the Polish army entered the Polish administration took control; the city became the capital of the autonomous Silesian Voivodeship as well as the seat of the Silesian Parliament and Committee of Upper Silesia. After the plebiscite, many former German citizens emigrated, however a vibrant German community remained until the end of World War II. In 1939, after the Wehrmacht seized the town and the provinces were incorporated into the Third Reich; the town was liberated by the Soviet army on 27 January 1945. Katowice is a center of science, industry, business and transportation in Upper Silesia and southern Poland, the main city in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region. Katowice lies within an urban zone, with a population of 2,746,460 according to Eurostat, part of the wider Silesian metropolitan area, with a population of 5,294,000 according to the European Spatial Planning Observation Network.
Today, the city is considered as an emerging metropolis. The whole metropolitan area is the 16th most economically powerful city by GDP in the European Union with an output amounting to $114.5 billion. Katowice is the seat of Orchestra, it hosts the finals of Intel Extreme Masters, an Esports video game tournament. In 2015, Katowice was named a UNESCO City of Music; the area around Katowice, in Upper Silesia, has been inhabited by ethnic Polish Silesians from its earliest documented history. It was ruled by the Polish Silesian Piast dynasty until its extinction; the settlement of the area surrounding Katowice dates back to the end of the 12th century. From 1138, the Bytom castellany encompassed territories. In 1177 the lands were handed over by Duke Casimir II the Just to his nephew Mieszko I Tanglefoot. At the turn of the 14th century, new villages called Bogucice, Ligota and Podlesie were established, as well as the village of Dąb, mentioned in 1299 in a document issued by Duke Casimir of Bytom.
From 1327, the region was under Czech administration as part of the Kingdom of Bohemia. In historical documents dating from 1468 there was a reference to the settlement of Podlesie, which, at present, is one of the city districts, whereas the village of Katowice was first mentioned in the year 1598. Historians assume that Katowice was founded on the right bank of the Rawa river by Andrzej Bogucki in around 1580. In 1598 a village called Villa Nova was documented to stand in the area now occupied by the city of Katowice. By this time the territory had changed from the Bohemian Crown to the domain of the Austrian Habsburg dynasty. Kattowitz gained city status in 1865 in the Prussian Province of Silesia; the city flourished due to large mineral deposits in the nearby mountains. Extensive city growth and prosperity depended on the coal mining and steel industries, which took off during the Industrial Revolution; the city was inhabited by Germans, Silesians and Poles. In 1884, 36 Jewish Zionist delegates met here.
Part of the Beuthen district, in 1873 it became the capital of the new Kattowitz district. On 1 April 1899, the city was separated from the district. Under the Treaty of Versailles after World War I, the Upper Silesia plebiscite was organised by the League of Nations. Though Kattowitz proper voted 22,774 to remain in Germany and 3,900 for Poland, it was attached to Poland as the larger district voted 66,119 for Poland and 52,992 for Germany. Following the Silesian Uprisings of 1918–21 Katowice became part of the Second Polish Republic with some autonomy for the Silesian Parliament as a constituency and the Silesian Voivodeship Council as the executive body). During the early stages of World War II and the Poland Campaign, Katowice was abandoned, as the Polish Army had to position itself around Kraków. While the shelling of Westerplatte on 1 September 1939 is recognised as the first involvement in the Second World War, Hitler ordered a silent sabotage mission a day earlier by dressing his SS officers as Polish soldiers.
Tychy is a city in Silesia, Poland 20 kilometres south of Katowice. Situated on the southern edge of the Upper Silesian industrial district, the city borders Katowice to the north, Mikołów to the west, Bieruń to the east and Kobiór to the south; the Gostynia river, a tributary of the Vistula, flows through Tychy. Since 1999 Tychy has been located within the Silesian Voivodeship, a province consisting of 71 regional towns and cities. Tychy is one of the founding cities of the Metropolitan Association of Upper Silesia, a pan-Silesian economic and political union formed with the eventual aim of bringing the most populous Silesian areas under a single administrative body. Tychy is well known for its brewing industry and its international developed brand Tyskie, which dates back to the 17th century. Since 1950 Tychy has grown mainly as a result of post-war socialist planning policies enacted to disperse the population of industrial Upper Silesia. Cielmice Czułów Glinka, Tychy Jaroszowice Mąkołowiec Paprocany Śródmieście Stare Tychy Suble Urbanowice, Tychy Wartogłowiec Wilkowyje Wygorzele Zawiść Zwierzyniec Żwaków Osiedle A The moniker Tychy is derived from the Polish word cichy, meaning "quiet" or "still".
Although appropriate for most of Tychy's history, the name is now somewhat ironic considering the growth of the city from 1950 onwards. Established as a small agricultural settlement on the medieval trade route between Oświęcim and Mikołów, Tychy was first documented in 1467. In 1629 the first trace of serious economic activity was recorded in the shape of the Książęcy Brewery, now one of the largest breweries in Poland. From 1526 onwards the area on which Tychy is built was part of the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy; this situation came to an end when Prussia forcibly took the land in 1742, before itself becoming part of the German Empire between 1871 and 1918. For a short period between 1918 and 1921 Tychy was just inside the border of the newly formed Weimar Republic and still a part of the German Province of Silesia, only securing its place within the Second Polish Republic after the armed Silesian Uprisings. Shortly after its cession to Poland, Tychy began to develop into a small urban settlement, acquiring a hospital, a fire station, a post office, a school, a swimming pool, a bowling hall and a number of shops and restaurants.
Its population grew between World War I and World War II, reaching a population of 11,000 at its highest point during this time. Along with the rest of industrial Upper Silesia Tychy was occupied by Nazi Germany forces after the invasion of Poland and absorbed into the Third Reich, while many of its inhabitants who were not expelled or exterminated were forced to change their nationality to German in order to comply with the racist policies of Nazi Germany; the city received minimal damage during the invasion because most of the nearby fighting took place in the Mikołów-Wyry area. The "New City" was designated by the Polish government in 1950 and deliberately located near to Katowice with the intention that it would not be a self-sustaining city. Tychy is the largest of the so-called "new towns" in Poland and was built from 1950 to 1985, to allow for urban expansion in the southeast of the Upper Silesian industrial region. By 2006, the population had reached 132,500; the design and planning of New Tychy was entrusted to Kazimierz Wejchert and his wife Hanna Adamczewska-Wejchert.
In the administrative reforms which came into effect in 1999, Tychy was made a city with the status of a powiat. Between 1999 and 2002, it was the administrative seat of an entity called Tychy County, now known as the Bieruń-Lędziny County. Tychy is twinned with the town of United Kingdom. A large Fiat car factory is located in Tychy, opened in 1975, is owned by the Italian manufacturer since 1992. In 2008, the factory had a production of nearly half a million cars, it produces the new Lancia Ypsilon. It was the exclusive manufacturing site for the second generation Fiat Panda until 2012, when it ended production, of the 2nd generation Ford Ka until May 2016. In Tychy is located the GM Powertrain Poland factory producing automobile engines for General Motors cars; this plant was opened by Isuzu as Isuzu Motors Polska in 1996. The Tyskie beer is produced in Tychy, by Kompania Piwowarska, a subsidiary of the multinational brewing company SABMiller, it is one of the best selling brands of beer in Poland, with around 18% share of the Polish market as of 2009.
In Tychy operates one of three remaining trolleybus systems in Poland. Expressway S1 National road 1 National road 44 National road 86 Tychy is home to two major sporting teams, both named GKS Tychy. GKS stands for Górniczy Klub Sportowy, a common prefix for Polish sports teams situated near mines or in mining regions. GKS Tychy ice hockey club is among the most successful in Poland and plays in its premier league, the Ekstraliga. Established in 1971, the team won the Polish Championships in 2005 and has won the Polish Cup four times; the club is housed in the newly r