Tamil Nadu is one of the 29 states of India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian subcontinent and is bordered by the union territory of Puducherry and the South Indian states of Kerala and Andhra Pradesh, it is bounded by the Eastern Ghats on the north, by the Nilgiri Mountains, the Meghamalai Hills, Kerala on the west, by the Bay of Bengal in the east, by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait on the southeast, by the Indian Ocean on the south. The state shares a maritime border with the nation of Sri Lanka. Tamil Nadu is the sixth largest by population, it has a high HDI ranking among Indian states as of 2017. The economy of Tamil Nadu is the second-largest state economy in India with ₹17.25 lakh crore in gross domestic product after Maharashtra and a per capita GDP of ₹167,000. It was ranked as one of the top seven developed states in India based on a "Multidimensional Development Index" in a 2013 report published by the Reserve Bank of India.
Its official language is Tamil, one of the longest-surviving classical languages in the world. The region was ruled by several empires, including the three great empires – Chola and Pandyan empires, which shape the region's cuisine and architecture; the British Colonial rule during the modern period led to the emergence of Chennai known as Madras, as a world-class city. Modern-day Tamil Nadu was formed in 1956 after the reorganization of states on linguistic lines; the state is home to a number of historic buildings, multi-religious pilgrimage sites, hill stations and three World Heritage sites. Archaeological evidence points to this area being one of the longest continuous habitations in the Indian peninsula. In Attirampakkam, archaeologists from the Sharma Centre for Heritage Education excavated ancient stone tools which suggests that a humanlike population existed in the Tamil Nadu region somewhere around 300,000 years before homo sapiens arrived from Africa. In Adichanallur, 24 km from Tirunelveli, archaeologists from the Archaeological Survey of India unearthed 169 clay urns containing human skulls, bones, grains of rice, charred rice and celts of the Neolithic period, 3,800 years ago.
The ASI archaeologists have proposed that the script used at that site is "very rudimentary" Tamil Brahmi. Adichanallur has been announced as an archaeological site for further excavation and studies. About 60 per cent of the total epigraphical inscriptions found by the ASI in India are from Tamil Nadu, most of these are in the Tamil language. A Neolithic stone celt with the Indus script on it was discovered at Sembian-Kandiyur near Mayiladuthurai in Tamil Nadu. According to epigraphist Iravatham Mahadevan, this was the first datable artefact bearing the Indus script to be found in Tamil Nadu. According to Mahadevan, the find was evidence of the use of the Harappan language, therefore that the "Neolithic people of the Tamil country spoke a Harappan language"; the date of the celt was estimated at between 1500 BCE and 2000 BCE. Though this finding remains contested,like the claim of historian Michel Danino who rubbishes the theory of the latter’s southward migration in a paper he presented at the International Symposium on Indus Civilisation and Tamil Language in 2007.
He wrote: ‘There is no archaeological evidence of a southward migration through the Deccan after the end of the urban phase of the Indus- Sarasvati civilization… The only actual evidence of movements at that period is of Late Harappans migrating towards the Ganges plains and towards Gujarat... Migration apart, there is a complete absence of Harappan artefacts and features south of the Vindhyas: no Harappan designs on pottery, no Harappan seals and ornaments, no trace of Harappan urbanism… Cultural continuity from Harappan to historical times has been documented in North India, but not in the South… This means, in effect, that the south-bound Late Harappans would have reverted from an advanced urban bronze-age culture to a Neolithic one! Their migration to South would thus constitute a double “archaeological miracle”: apart from being undetectable on the ground, it implies that the migrants experienced a total break with all their traditions; such a phenomenon is unheard of.’ The early history of the people and rulers of Tamil Nadu is a topic in Tamil literary sources known as Sangam literature.
Numismatic and literary sources corroborate that the Sangam period lasted for about eight centuries, from 500 BC to AD 300. The recent excavations in Alagankulam archaeological site suggests that Alagankulam is one of the important trade centre or port city in Sangam Era; the Bhakti movement originated in Tamil speaking region of South India and spread northwards through India. The Bhakti Movement was a rapid growth of bhakti beginning in this region with the Saiva Nayanars and the Vaisnava Alvars who spread bhakti poetry and devotion; the Alwars and Nayanmars were instrumental in propagating the Bhakti tradition. During the 4th to 8th centuries, Tamil Nadu saw the rise of the Pallava dynasty under Mahendravarman I and his son Mamalla Narasimhavarman I; the Pallavas ruled parts of South India with Kanchipuram as their capital. Tamil architecture reached its peak during Pallava rule. Narasimhavarman II built the Shore Temple, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Much the Pallavas were replaced by the Chola dynasty as the dominant kingdom in the 9th century and they in turn were replaced by the Pandyan Dynasty in the 13th century.
The Pandyan capital Madurai was in the deep s
Namakkal District is an administrative district in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. The district was bifurcated from Salem District with Namakkal town as headquarters on 25 July 1996 and started to function independently from 1 January 1997; the district has seven taluks: Tiruchengode, Rasipuram, Paramathi-Velur, Komarapalayam, Kolli Hills and Mohanur. It has two revenue divisions: Tiruchengode; as of 2011 census, Namakkal district had a population of 1,726,601 with a sex-ratio of 986 females for every 1,000 males. Namakkal district is geographically affiliated to Kongu Nadu region. To The district is famous for its large poultry industry, egg production and lorry body-building industry, for which it is referred to as "Egg City" and "Transport City". After the struggle between the Cheras and Pandyas, the Hoysalas rose to power and had the control until the 14th century, followed by Vijayanagara Empire until 1565 AD; the Allala Ilaya Nayakas vettuva king came to power in 1623 AD. Two of the Poligans of Tirumalai Nayak namely, Ramachandra Nayaka ruled the Salem area.
The Namakkal fort is reported to have been built by Ramchandra Nayaka. After about 1635 AD. Valvil Ori was a chieftain and one of the seven patrons from Sangam age who ruled over Kolli Hills around 200 AD. Namakkal district covers an area of 3,368.21 km2. The district is bounded by Salem district on the north; the average annual rainfall is 716.54 mm. This district receives rainfall from North East Monsoon. Namakkal District comes under the North Western Agro climatic zone of Tamil Nadu. Tiruchengode taluk alone is placed under Western Agro-climatic zone; the forest cover has an area of 512.5 km2, 15.4% of the total area. Temperature ranges between maximum of 40’C and minimum of 18’C. Besides the above two zones, Kolli Hills and a few isolated hills and ridges are scattered over Namakkal and Tiruchengode and along with the valleys and rolling hills, make up the characteristic topography of the district; the river Kaveri flows southwest hugging the district's borders with Karur and Erode. The other rivers flowing though the district are Aiyaru, Karipottan Aaru and Thirumanimutharu.
The district is situated in the dividing portion of two watersheds between Cauvery and the Vellar System with the Taluks of Attur and Namakkal on the East and Salem and Mettur on the West. Mettur East Bank canal irrigates Pallipalayam Block with an area of 4585 Ha. Rajavaikal canal irrigates an area of 4215 Ha. Mohanur vaikal irrigates about 355 Ha. Kumarapalayam vaikal irrigates about 1146 Poiyeri vaikal irrigates about 323 Ha. According to 2011 census, Namakkal district had a population of 1,726,601 with a sex-ratio of 986 females for every 1,000 males, much above the national average of 929. A total of 150,699 were under the age of six, constituting 71,945 females. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes accounted for 20.% and 3.3% of the population respectively. The average literacy of the district was 68.12%, compared to the national average of 72.99%. The district had a total of 475,511 households. There were a total of 898,245 workers, comprising 152,497 cultivators, 228,614 main agricultural labourers, 35,156 in house hold industries, 422,885 other workers, 59,093 marginal workers, 5,976 marginal cultivators, 25,112 marginal agricultural labourers, 3,641 marginal workers in household industries and 24,364 other marginal workers.
The main occupation for most of the people in the district is agriculture, with a gross cropped area of around 336,700 Ha, out of which about 60,939 Ha are irrigated and about 80,598 Ha are rainfied. The cultivation depends on monsoon rains and tanks. Major soil in this district is red soil. Nearly 90 percent of the cultivated area is under food crops; the principal cereal crops of this district are paddy, cholam and ragi. Panivaragu, Samai Varagu and Thinai are some of the millets cultivated. Among pulses, the major crops are redgram, blackgram and horsegram. Among oil, groundnut and gingelly occupy important places. Of the commercial crops, sugarcane and tapioca are some of the important. Using tapioca as raw material about 350 factory units are engaged in the production of Starch and Sago in Namakkal District. Namakkal district is noted for truck and lorry external body building industry which dates back to 1956. Nationwide Namakkal is known for body building for truck, trailer and rig unit. Throughout India, Tiruchengode is known for its body building industry for trucks, trailers and rig units.
Finished trucks and rig units are exported to foreign countries from Namakkal. Nearly 25000 people are employed, both directly and indirectly, in truck body building activity and about 300 units in Namakkal and 100 units in Tiruchengode are engaged in this activity. Ashok Leyland's Driver Training Institute in Namakkal was the first of its kind and has served as a beacon to lead the way in the training of drivers. Accessible from Erode and Trichy, spread over 25 acres, the campus includes a driving range with every conceivable road configuration. A spacious building accommodates large classrooms, a library, a model room, a laboratory and a cafeteria with an open-air theatre attached; the roads come with electronic signals, signs and streetlights for night driving – everything, in fact, that drivers will encounter on the highways. Poultry plays an important role in the economy of Namakkal which has
Namakkal is a Selection grade municipality and the headquarters of Namakkal district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, Which is waiting to be upgraded as a Municipal Corporation. It is the first ISO 14001-2004 certified municipality in Asia for environmental management the provision and maintenance of water supply, solid waste and sewage management, town planning and other social services; as of 2011, the town had a population of 55,145. It is a part of Kongu Nadu, hotly contested and coveted by both the ancient Pallavas and the Pandyas. Namakkal was in the hands of Atiakula King called Gunasila; the taluk was overrun by the Cholas in the Mandalam. After the struggle between the Cheras and Pandiyan, the Hoysalas rose to power and had control till the 14th century followed by Vijayanagar Kings till 1565 AD; the Madurai Nayaks came to power in 1623 AD. Two of the Polygons of Thirumalai Nayak namely, Ramachandra Nayaka and Gatti Mudaliars ruled the Salem area; the Namakkal Fort is reported to have been built by Ramachandra Nayakas.
After about 1625 AD, the area came successively under the rule of Muslim Sultans of Bijapur and Golkonda Mysore kings and the Marathas, when about the year 1750 AD. Hyder Ali came to power. During this period, it was a history of power struggle between Hyder Ali and Tippu, with the British; the Rock Fort in Namakkal is a special feature of the Town. The Fort covers an area of one and half acres of flat surface and is accessible from South-West by a flight of narrow steps. Namakkal was held by Killdhar on Hyder Ali until it was captured by British in 1768. For a brief period during late 18th and early 19th century Namakkal was under Tiruchirappalli district of British Rule. Namakkal was transferred back to Salem District. At 01-01-1997 announced as a separate district from Salem District. Namakkal is located at 11.23°N 78.17°E / 11.23. It has an average elevation of 218 metres, it is close to Kolli Hills -, part of the Eastern Ghats. The closest river is Kaveri and it is located 360 km southwest of Chennai and 250 km south of Bangalore.
Namakkal is a historic town with reference at back to at least the 7th century. The name Namakkal derives from Namagiri, the name of the single rock formation at the center of the town; the rock is enormous - more than a kilometre in circumference. Over this massive rock, is a fort, Namakkal Fort; the fort over the rock was built by Ramachandra Nayakar, a small king who ruled Namakkal during the 16th century. It is believed; the fort was not built by Tippu Sultan but he occupied it for a brief period of time. The fort was captured by British; the front side of the hill is called Thiru. Vi. Ka. Paarai and today is used by taxis as their stand. Two cave temples at Namakkal were called as Adiyanavaya Visnugrha; these Rock cut shrines were built by King Gunaseela of Adhiyaman clan descendant. Because of his marriage relations with Pallavas the temples were built of Pallava Architectural style during the 7th century. Namakkal is considered to be a Vaishnava Kshetram, there is no Shiva temple in the town until a few years ago.
Mahatma Gandhi held a public meeting in 1933 in Namakkal under the slope of the Namakkal rock. It is one of the few places in Tamil Nadu that has not been affected by famine and war; the economy of the district was agricultural, but as on today it has changed its occupation to Lorries, Educational Institutions, Poultry Farms and real estate. So, Lorry Transport and related businesses drive the economy of the town. Out of 60000 lorries in Namakkal district Namakkal itself having 25000 lorries, 7000 LPG tankers, 3500 trailers, it made India's No,1 transport hub. Namakkal is known for its lorry body building industries and poultry farms, it is India's No.1 biggest egg producing region followed by Andhra Pradesh, Punjab. A wide variety of crops are grown within the district. One of the main crop is due to that Namakkal has several Sago Factories. Namakkal is noted for truck body building activity. Truck body building is being carriedout in Namakkal since 1956. Nationwide Namakkal is known for body building for truck, trailer and rig unit.
Customers from other states get the truck body building work done in Namakkal. Body built. About 25000 people are employed directly and indirectly in truck body building activity in Namakkal District. About 300 units in Namakkal are engaged in this activity. Namakkal Anjaneyar temple is located in Namakkal, is dedicated to the Hindu god Hanuman, it is constructed in the Dravidian style of architecture. The legend of the temple is associated with Narasimha, an avatar of Hindu god Vishnu appearing for Hanuman and Lakshmi; the image of Anjaneyar is 18 ft making it one of the tallest images of Hanuman in India. The image of Anjaneyar is carved out of a single stone and believed to be existing from the 5th century. There is no roof over the sanctum and Anjaneyar has a unique iconography sporting a sword in his waist and holding a garland made of saligrama; the temple is considered one of the prominent temples in the country. The Agamam is followed by "Sri Vaikhanasam". Namagiri Lakshmi Narasimhaswami Temple is a "
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Tiruchengode is a City and Municipality located in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu. And it is the first city formed in Namakkal district and the second most populated urban area in Namakkal district, And it is a major Suburb for both The cities Namakkal and Erode, it is famous for the ancient hilltop temple of Arthanāreeshwara, dedicated to the unique combined male-female form of Lord Shiva and Goddess Parvathi. This important place of pilgrimage is mentioned in the Tamil work Silapathikaram as'Nedulkundru' and is celebrated in the hymns of Saivite saints; the famous Chenkottu Velavar Temple, dedicated to Lord Murugan, is situated on the same hill. As of 2011, the town had a population of 95,335; as per population, Tiruchengode is the largest city in Namakkal district. In ancient days, Tiruchengode was known as Thirukodimaadachenkundrur - one of the historic places in Tamil Nadu, it was known as Thiruchengottankudi Nageswaram. It enshrines the Ardhanareeswarar manifestation of Shiva, representing the unity of Shiva and Parvati, is enshrined in this revered hill temple of great significance, accessible by a motorable road.
The red color of the hill is the reason. The image above, shows the view of the surrounding area from the top of the Tiruchengode hill; this temple is regarded as the 4th of the 7 Tevara Stalams in the Kongu Region of Tamil Nadu. It is believed that Kannagi, after demolishing the city of Madurai by fire is called to Sorgam by her husband Kovalan and is in a wrath at the peak of the Tiruchengode hill; the modern history of Tiruchengode includes many memorable events. Eminent leaders like Rajaji, EVR Periar, T. S. Pattabiraman, T. M. Kaliyannan Gounder and EVK Sampath are bound to this town. Tiruchengode has the pride of having the country's first Gandhi Ashram a tribute to India's great leader Mahatma Gandhi and opened by country's viceroy Rajaji. Tiruchengode is in northwestern part of Tamil Nadu 20 km from the City of Erode, 46 km from Salem, 120 km from Coimbatore. Tiruchengode has a more industry oriented occupation rather than agriculture. Agriculture is not done here on a large scale due to lack of abundant water supply as it is dependent on the Cauvery river that flows near Pallipalayam and dependent on the occasional rains.
The major industries here are Rig Spares, Power Looms and Textile Industries and Lorry Body Building, Lathe Industry, Rice Mills,Granite Factory etc. Tiruchengode is well known for its Rig Lorries. Tiruchengode can be called "The Borewell Hub of India" as it manufactures the largest number of Borewell Vehicles operated in India. Nearly more than half of borewells operating across india are from Tiruchengode. According to 2011 census, Tiruchengode had a population of 95,335 with a sex-ratio of 994 females for every 1,000 males, much above the national average of 929. A total of 8,901 were under the age of six, constituting 4,406 females. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes accounted for 11.36% and.07% of the population respectively. The average literacy of the town was 75.87%, compared to the national average of 72.99%. The town had a total of 26508 households. There were a total of 42,405 workers, comprising 329 cultivators, 686 main agricultural labourers, 1,279 in house hold industries, 38,804 other workers, 1,307 marginal workers, 7 marginal cultivators, 46 marginal agricultural labourers, 80 marginal workers in household industries and 1,174 other marginal workers.
As per the religious census of 2011, Tiruchengode had 95.88% Hindus, 2.95% Muslims, 1.05% Christians, 0.02% Sikhs, 0.0% Buddhists, 0.0% Jains, 0.1% following other religions and 0.0% following no religion or did not indicate any religious preference. This city has various other names like Nagasalam, Kodhai Malai, Vayu Malai, Nagagiri, Siddharmalai and still more, it is a part of Kongu Nadu region of Tamil Nadu. Kongu Nadu includes in it 24 villages, out of which Poondhurai, a suburb of Erode city is one of the important pilgrimage centre. West of Cauvery is Melakarai Pundhurai and East of Cauvery is Kilakarai Pundhurai. Kilakarai Pundhurai is famously known as Thiruchengodu; the word "Thiruchengodu" means steeped hill in Tamil Language. Thiruchengodu is famous for its reference in Kandhar Anuboothi sung by Arunagirinathar for Lord Murugan -as "Nagasala velava nalu kavi". Tiruchengodu is famous for the temple on the top. Ancient and historical Thiruchengodu is crowned with Mummurthies named Arthanareeswar, Chengodu Velan and Athikesava Perumal.
The average annual rainfall is around 950 mm. The altitude is about 150–200 metres msl. Around Tiruchengode many schools and colleges are there. Ardhanareeswarar, one of the 64 manifestations of Shiva, representing the unity of Shiva and Parvati, is enshrined in this revered hill temple of great significance, accessible by a motorable road; this temple is regarded as the 4th of the 7 Tevara Stalams in the Kongu Region of Tamil Nadu. Ancient walls and sculptured pillars add to the awe that this temple perpetuates, on top of the hill; the motorway and the renovated Rajagopuram are of recent origin. True to the name Nagagiri, there is a 60 ft long snake carved on the hill. Although the sanctum faces the West, entrance to it is from the South. A majestic image of Ardanareeswarar adorns the sanctum. There is a water spring at the foot of the image, said to have been divinely manifested. There are inscriptions here from the times of Parantaka Chola, Gangaikonda Chola, the Vijayanagar and Mysore Kings and the Nayaks.kann
States and union territories of India
India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and smaller administrative divisions; the Constitution of India distributes the sovereign executive and legislative powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State. The Indian subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region. During the British Raj, the original administrative structure was kept, India was divided into provinces that were directly governed by the British and princely states which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, which held de facto sovereignty over the princely states. Between 1947 and 1950 the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union. Most were merged into existing provinces.
The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January 1950, made India a sovereign democratic republic. The new republic was declared to be a "Union of States"; the constitution of 1950 distinguished between three main types of states: Part A states, which were the former governors' provinces of British India, were ruled by an elected governor and state legislature. The nine Part A states were Assam, Bombay, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal; the eight Part B states were former princely states or groups of princely states, governed by a rajpramukh, the ruler of a constituent state, an elected legislature. The rajpramukh was appointed by the President of India; the Part B states were Hyderabad and Kashmir, Madhya Bharat, Mysore and East Punjab States Union, Rajasthan and Travancore-Cochin. The ten Part C states included both the former chief commissioners' provinces and some princely states, each was governed by a chief commissioner appointed by the President of India.
The Part C states were Ajmer, Bilaspur, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur and Vindhya Pradesh. The only Part D state was the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which were administered by a lieutenant governor appointed by the central government; the Union Territory of Puducherry was created in 1954 comprising the previous French enclaves of Pondichéry, Karaikal and Mahé. Andhra State was created on 1 October 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras State; the States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganised the states based on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states. As a result of this act, Madras State retained its name with Kanyakumari district added to form Travancore-Cochin. Andhra Pradesh was created with the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of Hyderabad State in 1956. Kerala was created with the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of Madras State with Travancore-Cochin. Mysore State was re-organized with the addition of districts of Bellary and South Canara and the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore district from the Madras State, the districts of Belgaum, North Canara and Dharwad from Bombay State, the Kannada-majority districts of Bidar and Gulbarga from Hyderabad State and the province of Coorg.
The Laccadive Islands which were divided between South Canara and Malabar districts of Madras State were united and organised into the union territory of Lakshadweep. Bombay State was enlarged by the addition of Saurashtra State and Kutch State, the Marathi-speaking districts of Nagpur Division of Madhya Pradesh and Marathwada region of Hyderabad State. Rajasthan and Punjab gained territories from Ajmer and Patiala and East Punjab States Union and certain territories of Bihar was transferred to West Bengal. Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay Reorganisation Act. Nagaland was formed on 1 December 1963; the Punjab Reorganisation Act of 1966 resulted in the creation of Haryana on 1 November and the transfer of the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh. The act designated Chandigarh as a union territory and the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana. Madras state was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968. North-eastern states of Manipur and Tripura were formed on 21 January 1972.
Mysore State was renamed as Karnataka in 1973. On 16 May 1975, Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union and the state's monarchy was abolished. In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while Goa's northern exclaves of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli became separate union territories. In November 2000, three new states were created. Orissa was renamed as Odisha in 2011. Telangana was created on 2 June 2014 as ten former districts of north-western Andhra Pradesh. ^Note 1 Andhra Pradesh was divided into two states, Telangana and a residual Andhra Pradesh on 2 June 2014. Hyderabad, located within the borders of Telangana, is to serve as the capital for both states for a period of time not exceeding ten years; the Go