Hawaiian feather helmets, known as mahiole in the Hawaiian language, were worn with feather cloaks. These were symbols of the highest rank reserved for the men of the aliʻi, the chiefly class of Hawaii. There are examples of this traditional headgear in museums around the world. At least sixteen of these helmets were collected during the voyages of Captain Cook; these helmets are made from a woven frame structure decorated with bird feathers and are examples of fine featherwork techniques. One of these helmets was included in a painting of Cook's death by Johann Zoffany. While the Hawaiians did not wear hats, during times of combat the Ali'i chiefs would wear specially created wicker helmets that have been likened to the classic Greek helmets, co-incidentally bear a resemblance to the headdress worn by Ladakh Buddhist religious musicians. While the question has been posed if the influence is from the Spanish, the tradition comes from the northern coast of New Ireland; the design for mahiole is a basketry frame cap with a central crest running from the center of the forehead to the nape of the neck.
However the variation in the design is considerable with the colour and arrangement of the feather patterns differing and the crest varying in height and thickness. A number of museums have numerous examples in different stages of preservation. A related Hawaiian term Oki Mahiole means a haircut; the image of the Hawaiian god Kū-ka-ili-moku is sometimes presented with a similar shaped head. The helmets are constructed on a basket type construction which gives a strong frame; the frame is decorated with feathers obtained from local birds although there have been variations which have used human hair instead. The plant used to make the baskets is Freycinetia arborea, a plant used to make basketware. In addition to Freycinetia arborea the makers used fibre from the Touchardia latifolia plant, a type of nettle. Touchardia latifolia was used to create thread to tie the feathers to the basketry; the colouring was achieved using different types of feathers. The black and yellow came from a bird called the ʻOʻo in Hawaiian.
There were four varieties of this bird. The last type became extinct in 1987 with the probable cause being disease. Black feathers were sourced from the bird called the Mamo, now extinct; the distinctive red feathers came from the'I ` the ʻApapane. Both species are still moderately common birds in Hawaii. Although birds were exploited for their feathers the effect on the population is thought to be minimal; the birds were not killed but were caught by specialist bird catchers, a few feathers harvested and the birds were released. Tens of thousands of feathers were required for each mahiole. A small bundle of feathers was tied before being tied into the framework. Bundles were tied in close proximity to form a uniform covering of the surface of the mahiole; when Captain James Cook visited Hawaii on 26 January 1778 he was received by a high chief called Kalaniʻōpuʻu. At the end of the meeting Kalaniʻōpuʻu placed the feathered helmet and cloak he had been wearing on Cook. Kalaniʻōpuʻu laid several other cloaks at Cook's feet as well as four large pigs and other offerings of food.
Much of the material from Cook's voyages including the helmet and cloak ended up in the collection of Sir Ashton Lever. He exhibited them in his museum called the Holophusikon and the Leverian Museum, it was while at this museum that Cook's mahiole and cloak were borrowed by Johann Zoffany in the 1790s and included in his painting of the Death of Cook. Lever went bankrupt and his collection was disposed of by public lottery; the collection was obtained by James Parkinson. He sold the collection in 1806 in 8,000 separate sales.. The mahiole and cloak were purchased by the collector William Bullock who exhibited them in his own museum until 1819 when he sold his collection; the mahiole and cloak were purchased by Charles Winn and they remained in his family until 1912, when Charles Winn’s grandson, the Second Baron St Oswald, gave them to the Dominion of New Zealand. They are now in the collection of the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa; the Bernice P. Bishop Museum in Honolulu has matching cloak.
This bright red and yellow mahiole was given to the king of Kauaʻi, Kaumualiʻi, when he became a vassal to Kamehameha I in 1810, uniting all the islands into the Kingdom of Hawaii. The British Museum has seven of these helmets; the large red one pictured was obtained from the collection of Sir Joseph Banks. Banks was a rich polymath, interested in botany, he sailed with Captain Cook on his first journey of exploration and continued to keep in contact with Cook's further explorations. It is speculated that this helmet may have belonged to Cook's second in Charles Clerke. Clerke's collections were left to Joseph Banks following Clerke's death on Cook's third voyage. At the time of his death Clerke was captain of the vessel following Cook's death. A second helmet differs in overall design to the first in that it has concentric bands of yellow and black against an overall red background. A hat of this design was recorded by John Webber, Captain Cook's official artist; the British Museum holds an example without feathers which shows how the framework was constructed.
The Museum of Ethnology in Vienna obtained some of its oldest exhibits from the Leverian Museum sale of 1806. Baron Leopold von Fichtel purchased a number of items for his museum in Vienna; the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa ha
Queen Kapiʻolani was married to King Kalākaua and reigned as Queen Consort of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi from 1874 to 1891. Interested in the health and welfare of the Native Hawaiian people, Kapiʻolani established the Kapiʻolani Home for Girls, for the education of the daughters of resident of the leprosy settlement at Kalaupapa, the Kapiʻolani Maternity Home, where Hawaiian mothers and newborns could receive care. Kapiʻolani was born December 31, 1834 in Hilo on Hawaiʻi Island to High Chief Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole of Hilo and High Chiefess Kinoiki Kekaulike of Kauaʻi, the daughter of King Kaumualiʻi, last king of an independent Kauaʻi before its cession to Kamehameha the Great, her two younger sisters were Kapoʻoloku Poʻomaikelani, who married Hiram Kahanawai, Kinoiki Kekaulike, who married David Kahalepouli Piʻikoi. Her full name was Kapiʻolani Napelakapuokakaʻe, her namesake was her great-aunt High Chiefess Kapiʻolani, who plucked the ʻōhelo berries and defied the goddess Pele as a dramatic demonstration of her new faith in Christianity.
Kapiʻolani is composed of three words and means "the arch heaven". Her secondary name Napelakapuokakaʻe translates to "the sacred flesh of Kakae", she was raised in Hilo until the age of eight when she was sent to be raised in the district of Kona, on the western side of the island of Hawaii. She went to Honolulu on Oahu when she was sixteen and came under the guardianship of King Kamehameha III. Kapiʻolani was brought up to write in the Hawaiian language. Although she learned to understand a few words and phrases like many Native Hawaiians, she never learned to speak English fluently and required a Hawaiian translator when communicating with English speakers. Kapiʻolani became a member of the Anglican Church of Hawaii after it was established in 1862. On March 7, 1852, Kapiʻolani married in Honolulu to High Chief Bennett Nāmākēhā, she was eighteen years old while her husband was thirty years her senior. He was an uncle of the wife of Kamehameha IV, on her father George Naʻea's side; this made her aunt by marriage to Queen Emma.
Nāmākēhā and Kapiʻolani had no children. For his health the couple voyaged for months on The Morning Star, a missionary vessel, among the Gilbert Islands, but in vain, for Nāmākēhā died on December 27, 1860, at Honolulu. Nāmākēhā and Kapiʻolani were appointed the caretaker of Prince Albert Kamehameha, the only child of Emma and Kamehameha IV. Kapiʻolani was the royal child's chief nurse; the prince died at the age of four, on August 27, 1862 from appendicitis. Historian Helena G. Allen claimed that Queen Emma blamed Kapiʻolani for the child's death; the prince was under Kapiʻolani's care when he was doused with cold water by the king to calm him during a tantrum, traditionally thought to have induced the brain fever which killed the prince. Historian George Kanahele concludes. Queen Emma wrote Kapiʻolani a kind reply in March 1863 to her letter, "Dear Kapiʻolani, my companion in the caring of my son. You were my son's favorite, your chest must be filled with hurt. You were our third companion...."Visiting British dignitaries Jane, Lady Franklin and her niece Sophia Cracroft met "Madame Nāmākēhā" in June 1861.
Cracroft wrote: At last she yielded, but sent for his nurse, whom we had not before seen—only heard of. She fulfills her duties exceedingly well, she is rather young and nice-looking—dressed like us, in mourning. She went with us, but the dear little child wanted no keeping in order—he was good. On December 8, 1863, Kapiʻolani remarried to David Kalākaua in a quiet ceremony conducted by an Anglican minister, their wedding was criticized since it fell during the time of mourning for King Kamehameha IV. Her second husband was an aspiring high chief and politician who served in the House of Nobles, the Privy Council of State and many other court and government posts during the reigns of Kamehameha IV, Kamehameha V and Lunalilo. Although unsuccessful in his attempt for the throne in 1873, Kalakaua defeated Queen Dowager Emma to succeed Lunalilo as the monarch of Hawaii on February 12, 1874. Kapiʻolani became queen consort of Hawaii upon the accession of her husband to the Hawaiian throne. One of the first acts of the couple was to conduct a royal progress of the Hawaiian Islands.
From March to May 1874, they toured the main Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Hawaii Island, Molokaʻi and Oahu. The royal pair were enthusiastically received by the people, their marriage remained childless. A clinical analysis into the cause of Kalākaua's death speculate that the king may have been infertile since Kapiʻolani had had a miscarried pregnancy with her previous marriage, thus and her sister Poʻomaikelani adopted, in the tradition of hānai, their sister Kekaulike's three sons. Kapiʻolani took David Kawānanakoa and Jonah Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole and Poʻomaikelani adopted Edward Abnel Keliʻiahonui. In 1883, Kalākaua made Kapiʻolani's nephews princes of Hawaii with the style of Highness in honor of his coronation. Kalākaua and Kapiʻolani were crowned in a coronation ceremony on February 12, 1883, they been denied a coronation ceremony in 1874 because of the civil unrest following the election. Under Minister of Finance Walter Murray Gibson, the 1880 legislature appropriated $10,000 for a coronation.
The coronation ceremony and related celebratory events were spread out over a two-week period. A special octagon-shaped pavilion and grandstand were built for the February 12, 1883, ceremony. Preparations
Kauaʻi, anglicized as Kauai, is geologically the oldest of the main Hawaiian Islands. With an area of 562.3 square miles, it is the fourth-largest of these islands and the 21st largest island in the United States. Known as the "Garden Isle", Kauaʻi lies 105 miles across the Kauaʻi Channel, northwest of Oʻahu; this island is the site of Waimea Canyon State Park. The United States Census Bureau defines Kauaʻi as census tracts 401 through 409 of Kauai County, Hawaiʻi, which comprises all of the county except for the islands of Kaʻula, Lehua and Niʻihau; the 2010 United States Census population of the island was 67,091. The most populous town was Kapaʻa. In 1778, Captain James Cook arrived at Waimea Bay, the first European known to have reached the Hawaiʻian islands, he named the archipelago after his patron the 6th Earl of George Montagu. During the reign of King Kamehameha, the islands of Kauaʻi and Niʻihau were the last Hawaiʻian Islands to join his Kingdom of Hawaiʻi, their ruler, Kaumualiʻi, resisted Kamehameha for years.
King Kamehameha twice prepared a huge armada of ships and canoes to take the islands by force, twice failed. In the face of the threat of a further invasion, Kaumualiʻi decided to join the kingdom without bloodshed, became Kamehameha's vassal in 1810, he ceded the island to the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi upon his death in 1824. In 1815, a ship from the Russian-American Company was wrecked on the island. In 1816, an agreement was signed by Kaumualiʻi to allow the Russians to build Fort Elizabeth, it was an attempt by Kaumuali’i to gain support from the Russians against Kamehameha I. Construction was begun in 1817, but in July of that year under mounting resistance of Native Hawaiians and American traders the Russians were expelled; the settlement on Kauai has been considered an abrupt instance of a Pacific outpost of the Russian Empire per se. Valdemar Emil Knudsen was a Norwegian plantation pioneer who arrived on Kauai in 1857. Knudsen, or "Kanuka" arrived in Koloa where he managed Grove Farm, but sought a warmer land and purchased the leases to Mana and Kekaha, where he became a successful sugarcane plantation owner.
Knudsen settled in Waiawa, between Mana and Kekaha across the channel from Niʻihau Island. His son, Eric Alfred Knudsen, was born in Waiawa. Knudsen was appointed land administrator by King Kamehameha for an area covering 400 km2, was given the title konohiki as well as a position as a nobility under the king. Knudsen, who spoke fluent Hawaiian became an elected representative and an influential politician on the island. Knudsen lends his name to the Knudsen Gap, a narrow pass between the Kahili Ridge, its primary function was as a sugar farm planted by the Knudsen family. In 1835, Old Koloa Town opened a sugar mill. From 1906 to 1934 the office of County Clerk was held by John Mahiʻai Kāneakua, active in attempts to restore Queen Liliuokalani to the throne after the United States takeover of Hawaiʻi in 1893. Hawaiian narrative locates the name's origin in the legend of Hawaiʻiloa, the Polynesian navigator credited with discovery of the Hawaiʻian Islands; the story relates. Another possible translation is "food season".
Kauaʻi was known for its distinct dialect of the Hawaiian language. While the standard language today adopts the dialect of Hawaiʻi island, which has the sound, the Kauaʻi dialect was known for pronouncing this as. In effect, Kauaʻi dialect retained the old pan-Polynesian /t/, while "standard" Hawaiʻi dialect has changed it to the. Therefore, the native name for Kauaʻi was said as Tauaʻi, the major settlement of Kapaʻa would have been pronounced as Tapaʻa. Kauaʻi's origins are volcanic, the island having been formed by the passage of the Pacific Plate over the Hawaii hotspot. At five million years old, it is the oldest of the main islands; the highest peak on this mountainous island is Kawaikini at 5,243 feet. The second highest peak is Mount Waiʻaleʻale near the center of the island, 5,148 ft above sea level. One of the wettest spots on earth, with an annual average rainfall of 460 inches, is located on the east side of Mount Waiʻaleʻale; the high annual rainfall has eroded deep valleys in the central mountains, carving out canyons with many scenic waterfalls.
On the west side of the island, Waimea town is located at the mouth of the Waimea River, whose flow formed Waimea Canyon, one of the world's most scenic canyons, part of Waimea Canyon State Park. At three thousand feet deep, Waimea Canyon is referred to as "The Grand Canyon of the Pacific". Kokeo Point lies on the south side of the island; the Na Pali Coast is a center for recreation in a wild setting, including kayaking past the beaches, or hiking on the trail along the coastal cliffs. The headland, Kuahonu Point, is on the south-east of the island. Kauaʻi’s climate is tropical, with humid and stable conditions year round, although weather phenomena and infrequent storms have caused instances of extreme weather. At the lower elevations the annual precipitation varies from an average of about 50 inches on the windward shore, to less than 20 inches on the leeward side of the island. Average temperature in Lihu'e, the county seat, ranges from 78 °F in February to 85 °F in August and September. Kauaʻi’s mountainous regions offer cooler temperatures and provide a pleasant contrast to the warm coastal areas.
At the Kōkeʻe state park, 3,200–4,200 ft (980–1
Battle of Nuʻuanu
The Battle of Nuʻuanu, fought in May 1795 on the southern part of the island of Oʻahu, was a key battle in the final days of King Kamehameha I's wars to unify the Hawaiian Islands. It is known in the Hawaiian language as Kalelekaʻanae, which means "the leaping mullet", refers to a number of Oahu warriors driven off the cliff in the final phase of the battle. There are "varied and sometimes conflicting histories of the Battle of Nuʻuanu." Around the year 1792, Captain William Brown, an English merchant, landed in the harbor of Honolulu. As a Maritime Fur Trader and gun seller, he made several voyages before from the Pacific Northwest coast to the Hawaiian islands in command of the Butterworth Squadron. Captain Brown landed several vessels on the island. After landing, he made an agreement with Kahekili II that he would offer his military assistance against Kamehameha for use of the harbor. Kamehameha requested military assistance and the use of artillery from Captain George Vancouver and in exchange "ceded" the island of Hawaii to Great Britain in February 1794.
The two rival chiefs never met again, as Kahekili II died in mid-1794. At this point, Kahekili's son, had control of the island of Oʻahu and his half-brother, Kaʻeokulani, had control of the islands of Kauaʻi, Lanaʻi, Molokaʻi. After Kahekili's death, Kaʻeokulani decided to visit his home island. In order to accomplish this, he had to travel through the way of Oʻahu. Kalanikupule set up trenches and earthworks on the windward side of Oʻahu, where Kaʻeokulani's canoes would pass. Both sides fought, but the battle was stopped by Kalanikupule and the two chiefs met to mourn over the death of Kahekili. Kaʻeokulani discovered a plot to be thrown overboard by his chiefs on the way to Kauaʻi. To resolve the issue, he proposed war against Kalanikupule; this war was called Kukiʻiahu and lasted from November 16 until December 12, 1794. He ordered his men to make a land march to. In the early part of December 1794, Kaʻeokulani's army was confronted by Kalanikupule's, along with the artillery of Captain Brown's ships.
With Kaʻeokulani being outnumbered and outmaneuvered, his forces fled and scattered to the mountains. Kaʻeokulani's army was destroyed. After Kaʻeokulani's defeat, a dispute arose with Captain Brown over payment. Brown and several of his men were killed, Kalanikupule took possession of the Jackal and the Prince Lee Boo, together with all their arms. After 3 weeks of preparation, on January 4, 1795 Kalanikupule set sail for Hawaii with a fleet of canoes and the two ships, intending to make war on Kamehameha, but the ships' crews recaptured the vessels. They sailed for Hawaii, they traded Kamehameha all of Kalanikupule's weapons, which had remained in the ships, in return for supplies. Kalanikupule had received prior warnings of the impending invasion from the chiefs of Maui and Molokaʻi and had begun building several lines of fortifications on Oʻahu, he had begun buying muskets and cannons from European traders, but had far fewer than Kamehameha. He was assisted by one of Kamehameha's chiefs, who defected before the battle began.
Kaiana had fallen out of favor with Kamehameha's inner circle and feared that he was being plotted against. On the voyage to Oʻahu, his army split off from the Hawaiian armada and landed on the north side of the island. There, they began cutting notches into the Nuʻuanu mountain ridge, which would serve as gunports for Kalanikupule's cannons. Kamehameha I had begun his campaign to unify Hawaii in 1783, but prior to 1795 had only managed to unify the Big Island. However, in 1794 a civil war broke out when the chief of Kahekili II, died; the civil war was fought between his son Kalanikupule. Kalanikupule won, but emerged from the war weakened. During this time, Kamehameha had been equipping his army with modern muskets and cannon, as well as training his men in their use under direction of British Sailor John Young. In February 1795 he assembled the largest army the Hawaiian islands had seen, with about 12,000 men and 1,200 war canoes. Kamehameha moved against the southern islands of Maui and Molokaʻi, conquering them in the early spring.
He invaded Oʻahu. The Battle of Nuʻuanu began when Kamehameha's forces landed on the southeastern portion of Oʻahu near Waiʻalae and Waikiki. After spending several days gathering supplies and scouting Kalanikupule's positions, Kamehameha's army advanced westward, encountering Kalanikupule's first line of defense near the Punchbowl Crater. Splitting his army into two, Kamehameha sent one half in a flanking maneuver around the crater and the other straight at Kalanikupule. Pressed from both sides, the Oʻahu forces retreated to Kalanikupule's next line of defense near Laʻimi. While Kamehameha pursued, he secretly detached a portion of his army to clear the surrounding heights of the Nuʻuanu Valley of Kalanikupule's cannons. Kamehameha brought up his own cannons to shell Laʻimi. During this part of the battle, both Kalanikupule and Kaiana were wounded, Kaiana fatally. With its leadership in chaos, the Oʻahu army fell back north through the Nuʻuanu Valley to the cliffs at Nuʻuanu Pali. Caught between the Hawaiian Army and a 1000-foot drop, over 700 Oʻahu wa
Olowalu is a community on the west side of the island of Maui in the state of Hawaii. It is located about 4 miles south of Lahaina on the Honoapiʻilani Highway, it sustained a large population, governed by the high chiefess Kalola, daughter of Maui ruler Kekaulike, grandmother of Keopuolani. It was home to a traditional farming community until the arrival of the Europeans, who replaced it with a sugarcane plantation; the massacre in 1790 described below, as well as the labor-hungry sandalwood trade, contributed to the site's decline. A substantial real estate development is under consideration for the area; the area is home to one of Hawaii's most striking reefs. From ancient times, Olowalu was considered a place of puʻu honua, by Hawaiians. Persons pursued for committing an offense against a family group or an ali'i were untouchable once they stepped inside its borders. Violating sanctuary was punishable by death. For Pacific Island cultures, maintaining a peaceful order was a deep cultural tenet.
For people on Maui, Olowalu created an interval of time to resolve disputes. In 1789, Captain Simon Metcalfe set out on a maritime fur trading mission with two ships: the large Eleanora, the tender Fair American, a schooner under command of his son Thomas Humphrey Metcalfe; the Fair American was captured by the Spanish during the Nootka Crisis and taken to Mexico, but released. The Metcalfes had earlier agreed to rendezvous in the Hawaiian Islands at Kealakekua Bay; the Eleanora had arrived by January 1790, met chief Kameʻeiamoku who boarded the ship to welcome them. Something he did must have offended Simon Metcalfe; this was to have severe consequences later. The Eleanora sailed north to the island of Maui to trade and resupply. One night a small boat was stolen and the night watchman was killed. Captain Metcalfe fired his cannons into the village, captured a few Hawaiians who told him the boat was taken by people from the village of Olowalu, he found that boat had been broken up for its nails.
Nails were treasured in ancient Hawaii. Metcalfe invited the villagers to meet the ship. However, he had all the cannons loaded and ready on the side where he directed the canoes to approach, they opened fire, killing about one hundred Hawaiians, wounded many others. About five or six weeks the Fair American arrived at the Island of Hawaiʻi where Kameʻeiamoku was waiting at Kaʻūpūlehu; the schooner's crew of five were overwhelmed and four were killed, including Thomas Metcalfe. The lone survivor was Isaac Davis. King Kamehameha I found out about the incident when another sailor, John Young, was captured by Kamehameha's men when he came ashore from the Eleanora to inquire about the Fair American. Kamehameha decided to spare the lives of Davis and Young, who became valued military advisors during his subsequent battles and negotiations with visitors; the muskets of the Fair American were salvaged and the schooner refloated. Simon Metcalfe left the island without realizing that he had indirectly caused his own son's death.
Traditional Hawaiian planters filled these arable lands or kula with food and material crops. Olowalu was known for luxuriant shady breadfruit groves. Other crops such as sweet potato and plants that produced useful materials for clothing and transport, such as kukui, wauke,'olona and naio were plentiful. A meandering stream and network of irrigation ditches nourished these crops. Throughout most of the 19th and 20th centuries, the area was farmed for sugarcane and a sugar mill operated there; the top of the Olowalu ahupuaʻa on Pu'u Kukui reaches 4,457 feet feet. Its boundaries trace downhill between LThau Mountain on the north and LThau'Ula Mountain on the south. Olowalu Valley and ` Iao Valley were linked by an ancient trail. Olowalu Valley opens up to a fan-shaped alluvial plain; when the Olowalu hills were cleared of sandalwood and hardwoods, Olowalu Valley became a much dryer environment, from mountains to shore. Reforestation of LThau with sandalwood and'ohi'a lehua is a major long-range goal of the OCR, a huge undertaking requiring partnership with the Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources.
Increased condensation drip in the high forest, added to conservation methods on the kula, are an opportunity to restore past moisture levels to Olowalu Valley. Every activity in an ahupua'a was carried out within the context of a spiritual and cultural belief system that maintained harmony and peace for both seen and unseen life forms of all creation. Restoring the OCR is a foundation for bringing the concept of sanctuary back into present day culture, redeeming the powerful history of Olowalu as a functioning pu'uhonua. Olowalu Cultural Reserve was founded in 1999 as a community-based, non-profit organization to support and promote the revitalization of traditional Hawaiian culture, restoring native habitat, protecting historic and cultural sites and providing educational experiences to students and visitors. In 2006 OCR began restoring 74 acres from Olowalu Valley to the ocean along Olowalu Stream. OCR is restoring the former irrigation systems and loʻi's for cultivating taro and other traditional.
It is creating an educational and cultural puʻuhonua or sanctuary. The community is sparsely inhabited today. Coordinates are 20°48′39″N 156°37′20″W. A 600-acre planned community called Olowalu Town was announced in 2005, but as of 2012 had not been constructed. Plans called for constructing 1,500 housing units, a 300,000 square feet shopping area, relocating the current highway and installing rel
Kaʻahumanu was queen consort and acted as regent of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi as Kuhina Nui. She was the favorite wife of King Kamehameha I and the most politically powerful, continued to wield considerable power as co-ruler in the kingdom during reigns of his first two successors. Kaahumanu was born in a cave called Puu Kauiki in Hāna on the Hawaiian Island of Maui, she was born on 17 March 1768. The present Kaahumanu Society celebrates the birthday of its namesake on March 17, her father was Keʻeaumoku Papaʻiahiahi, a fugitive aliʻi from the island of Hawaiʻi, her mother was Nāmāhānaikaleleokalani, the wife of her half-brother the late king of Maui, Kamehameha Nui. From her mother she was related to many kings of Maui. From her father, she was the third cousin of Kamehameha I, both sharing the common ancestor, Princess Kalanikauleleiaiwi of the island of Hawaiʻi, she was named after her father’s rival, Kahekilinuiʻahumanu because it was from him that her father was fleeing at the time. Her siblings include Governor John Adams Kuakini of Hawaii island, Queen Kalākua Kaheiheimālie, Governor George Keʻeaumoku II of Maui.
Her father became an advisor and friend to Kamehameha I becoming royal governor of Maui. He arranged for Kaʻahumanu to marry him. Kamehameha had numerous wives but Kaʻahumanu would become a favorite and encouraged his war to unify the islands. Kaʻahumanu was one of Kamehameha I's favorite wives and his most powerful. Upon Kamehameha's death on May 8, 1819, Kaʻahumanu announced that late king had wished that she share governance over the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi with his 22-year-old son Liholiho, who took the name of Kamehameha II; the council of advisors agreed and created the post of kuhina nui for her, with a similar to co-regent or modern-day prime minister. Her power base grew and she ruled as Queen Regent during the reigns of both Kamehameha II and Kauikeaouli, who assumed the throne as Kamehameha III. In some ways Kaʻahumanu was ahead of her time and championed the rights of native Hawaiian women, although this was to her own advantage. In what became known as the'Ai Noa, Kaʻahumanu conspired with Keōpūolani, another of her late husband's wives, a Queen Regent during the reign of Kamehameha II, to eat at the same table with the young king, breaking a major kapu which should have resulted in her death, changing the rules of Hawaiian society when her son refused to kill her.
The island of Kauaʻi and its subject island Niʻihau had never been forcibly conquered by Kamehameha. After years of resistance they negotiated a bloodless surrender in the face of Kamehameha's armada. In 1810 the island's King, Kaumualiʻi, became a vassal to Kamehameha; when Kamehameha I died, Kamehameha II and Kaʻahumanu feared Kauaʻi would break away from the kingdom. To preserve the union they kidnapped Kaumualiʻi on October 9, 1821 and Kaʻahumanu married him by force. After Kaumualiʻi died in 1824, a rebellion by Kaumualiʻi's son Humehume was put down, she married his other son Kealiʻiahonui. In April 1824, Kaʻahumanu publicly acknowledged her embrace of Protestant Christianity and encouraged her subjects to be baptized into the faith; that same year, she presented Hawaiʻi with its first codified body of laws modeled after Christian ethics and values and the Ten Commandments. Kaʻahumanu was baptized on December 1825 at the site where Kawaiahaʻo Church stands today, she took the name "Elizabeth".
Missionaries persuaded Kaʻahumanu that the Roman Catholic Church, which had established the Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace in Honolulu, should be removed from the island nation. On July 7, 1827, she ordered the first Catholic missionaries to leave. In 1830, Kaʻahumanu signed legislation that forbade Catholic teachings and threatened to deport whoever broke the law. In 1832, Kaʻahumanu visited Maui, came to the site of what is now Kaʻahumanu Church, witnessing services being presided by Jonathan Smith Green. Upon seeing this, Queen Ka'ahumanu asked the Congregationalist mission to name the permanent church structure after her. However, this request was not honored until 1876 when Edward Bailey constructed the fourth and current structure on the site, naming it after the Queen. Kaʻahumanu and King Kamehameha III negotiated the first treaty between the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi and the United States in 1826, under the administration of President John Quincy Adams; the treaty assumed responsibility on behalf of native Hawaiians with debts to American traders and paid the bill with $150,000 worth of sandalwood.
The same document was a free trade treaty, ensuring Americans had the right to enter all ports of Hawaiʻi to do business. Americans were afforded the right to sue in Hawaiian courts and be protected by Hawaiian laws. In 1827, after Kaʻahumanu returned from a tour of the windward islands, her health declined. During her illness missionaries printed the first copy, bound in red leather with her name engraved in gold letters, of the New Testament in the Hawaiian language, she kept it with her until her death of intestinal illness, June 5, 1832 in the Mānoa Valley near Honolulu. Her funeral was held at Kawaiahaʻo Church, which she commissioned as the Westminster Abbey of Hawaiʻi. Services were presided by Hiram Bingham, she was laid to rest on ʻIolani Palace grounds but was moved to the Royal Mausoleum. The large monument with her name in Waiola Church cemetery is the monument of Kaumualiʻi, who hoped to be buried beside her. A portion of the Hawaii Belt Road, state highway 19, on the Big Island of Hawaiʻi is named in her honor.
It connects the towns of Kawaihae. Referred to by locals as "the Queen K," it is used for the bicycle and running porti
Waiola Church is the site of a historic mission established in 1823 on the island of Maui in Hawaii. Called Waineʻe Church until 1953, the cemetery is the final resting place for early members of the royal family of the Kingdom of Hawaii; the first mission to Maui was founded by Reverend William Richards in 1823. For a few years, temporary structures made from wooden poles with a thatched roof were used. In 1828, island Governor Hoapili supported the building of a wood structure; the Christian church was built adjacent to a pond surrounding an island called Mokuʻula, sacred to traditional Hawaiian religion and residence of the king. The first stone building was called Waineʻe Church. Rev. Ephraim Spaulding joined with his wife Juliet Brooks from 1832 to 1836. Rev. Dwight Baldwin transferred here in 1836, served as physician though trained in theology; the Baldwins rebuilt the house of the Spaldings, kept in the family until 1967 when it was made into a museum. Waineʻe served as the church for the Hawaiian royal family during the time when Lahaina was the Kingdom's capital, from the 1820 through the mid-1840s.
Several members of the royal family were reputedly buried in the cemetery. A notable aspect of the cemetery is that the missionaries and Native Hawaiians were buried side by side. Another building called. In 1855 the congregation built a larger building, calling it Aloha Hale, completed in 1858, it was built to celebrate how Baldwin had spared the population of Maui from the smallpox epidemic of 1853. In 1859 the royal government used it as a school. In 1862 the Episcopal Diocese of Hawaii used it temporarily. In 1894 a fire destroyed the church. A new one was built from donations by son of the original Baldwin pastor. In the 1950s a wind storm damaged the Waineʻe Church. A modern church structure was finished in 1953; the bell from the Hale Aloha tower was salvaged for the new church. The congregation is pastored by lay Kahu Anela Rose. Sunday services are at 9:00 a.m. Services are a mixture of Hawaiian and English language and song. If you want to know the full beauty of a hymn, hear it in Hawaiian.
The congregation is affiliated with the Hawaii Conference of the United Church of Christ. It is located at 535 Waineʻe street, Hawaii, coordinates 20°52′9″N 156°40′23″W. Hale Aloha was remodeled in 1908, but fell into disrepair, was missing its roof a floor in 1973 when a restoration was begun by the Lahaina Restoration Foundation; the structure was rebuilt by 1985, stonework by 1992. A bell tower, built in 1910 was restored. A new bell was installed in the Hale Aloha tower in 2009. Hale Aloha is located on 600 Luakini Street, coordinates 20°52′21″N 156°40′32″W; the church and Hale Aloha are two contributing properties of the Lahaina Historic District, designated a National Historic Landmark District on December 29, 1962. The tombstones in the cemetery, with death dates: Keōpūolani, September 16, 1823 Kaumualiʻi, May 26, 1824 Nāhiʻenaʻena, December 30, 1836 Liliha, August 25, 1839 Ulumaheihei known as Hoapili, January 3, 1840 Kalākua Kaheiheimālie known as Hoapili Wahine, January 16, 1842 Kekauʻōnohi, granddaughter of Kamehameha I, 2 June 1847 William Richards, November 7, 1847