Evros (regional unit)
Evros is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of East Macedonia and Thrace and its name is derived from the river Evros, which appears to have been a Thracian hydronym. Evros is the northernmost regional unit and it borders Turkey to the east, across the river Evros, and it borders Bulgaria to the north and the northwest. Together with the regional units Rhodope and Xanthi, it forms the region of Western Thrace. Evros is one of the largest regional units of Greece and it forms the eastern part of the geographical region Western Thrace, and includes the island Samothrace in the northern Aegean Sea. Its length is about 150 km from north to south and its width ranges from 70 to 100 km from east to west. The most important rivers are the Evros and its tributary Arda, the Rhodope Mountains lie in the west and the southwest. The Aegean Sea lies to the south, the coastal area has a predominantly Mediterranean climate, whereas the northern part and the mountains have a colder continental climate.
The Evros regional unit is subdivided into 5 municipalities and these are, Alexandroupoli Didymoteicho Orestiada Samothrace Soufli Evros was established as a prefecture in 1930, when the former Thrace Prefecture was divided into the Rhodope and Evros prefectures. As a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the prefecture was transformed into a unit within the East Macedonia and Thrace region. At the same time, the municipalities were reorganised, according to the table below, as a part of Western Thrace, the territory of the Evros regional unit followed the fate of that region. At 1821, several parts of Evros region, such as Lavara and it became part of Greece in 1920, when it was ceded by Bulgaria as a result of the Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine. Initially it was part of the Thrace Prefecture, which was subdivided in 1930, during the Greco-Turkish War, many Greek refugees settled in the Evros, and new towns bere built, including Orestiada. The Evros river valley was flooded several times, notably in 1997,2005, another line connects Alexandroupoli with Dimitrovgrad, Bulgaria via Didymoteicho and Orestiada, with a branch line from Didymoteicho to Uzunköprü, Turkey.
The Alexandroupolis International Airport is served by national flights
Aetolia-Acarnania is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of Central Greece and the administrative region of West Greece. A combination of the regions of Aetolia and Acarnania, it is the countrys largest regional unit. Its capital is Missolonghi for historical reasons, with its biggest city, the area is now connected with the Peloponnese peninsula via the Rio-Antirio Bridge. The surrounding regional units take in Arta in Epirus, a narrow length bordering Karditsa of Thessaly, Evrytania to the northeast, Mountains dominate the north, northeast and southeast, especially the Acarnanian Mountains. The longest and main river is the Acheloos, which ends as a delta in wetlands to the southwest on a fertile valley. The second longest is Evinos, others include the Ermitsa, the Inachos, the regional unit excludes the islands lying to its west, since they belong to the Kefalonia and Ithaca regional units. There is one reservoir and a lake in its central part, lakes include the Amvrakia, the Lysimachia and Trichonida, and artificial lakes and reservoirs include Kastraki, the largest lake in Greece since its creation in 1970, and Stratos.
Two lagoons are found in the part of the regional unit, the Messolongi. Its climate tends toward hot summers and mild winters in the low-lying areas. At the highest elevations, summers are cool, and snow, during the Ottoman period, between the 16th century until the Greek War of Independence, the region was called Karleli and formed a province in the Rumelia Eyalet. Evrytania separated from the prefecture in 1948, in the 20th century, ferry services between Rio and the Peloponnese began. And in the 1950s and the 1960s ferry services began to incorporate vehicles, following World War II and the Greek Civil War a number of buildings needed to be repaired. A drawbridge linking the island of Lefkada began in the 1960s, two more dams were added, the Stratos Hydroelectric Dam in the 1980s and another in the late-1980s. The following years, GR-5 bypassed Messolonghi and Agrinion and GR-38 became connected with paved road with Eurytania, in the late-1980s, the by-pass of Naupaktos began construction but after paving the road, the signs did not appear and until 1998, it was left unopened.
In 1999, the road was re-repaired and finally opened to traffic, in 2000, the construction of the Rio-Antirio or the Charilaos Trikoupis Bridge connecting the Peloponnese began construction and was opened to traffic in August 2004. A railway formally served the places from Kryoneri and Agrinio and served with the ferry with Rio, in the 1980s, the service came to an end and was the next on the list of prefectures not connected with rail. Greek National Road 5/E55, SE, S, Cen, N Greek National Road 38, Cen
Pella (regional unit)
Pella is one of the regional units of Greece, in the geographic region of Macedonia. It is part of the Region of Central Macedonia and it is named after the ancient city of Pella, the capital of ancient Macedonia and the birthplace of Alexander the Great. Other centers are the towns Krya Vrisi and Skydra, the regional unit Pella is subdivided into 4 municipalities. These are, Almopia Edessa Pella Skydra The region covers an area of 2.505,8 Km2 the majority of which is covered by arable land and pastures. The mountains that surround the county is Mount Vora, Mount Vermion, mount Paiko, Mount Jenna, the main plains of the prefecture is plain of Pozar in the north and the vast plain of Giannitsà in the southeastern part of the county. Natural features of the include the mountains, lakes Vegoritida and Agra. The county has surface and groundwater resources, there are a number of archaeological sites in the area. Administratively, the Pella divided into 4 municipalities, the population is according to the latest census of the Hellenic Statistical Authority to 139,680 inhabitants.
Note, Provinces no longer any legal status in Greece. The mountains lie to the north and the southwest, including the Vermio mountains, the Voras mountains to the northwest and the Paiko mountains to the northeast. The southernmost portion is flat and in the ancient times, it was a connected with the Aegean Sea. On the north, it is bounded by the border between Greece and the Republic of Macedonia. Five spa gush along the river, which continues to flow in the basin of Almopia. Near the baths is the gorge of Baths, Folk - Paleontological Museum, The Black forest Kaimaktsalan ski resort, there is a ski area with 16 ski slopes. At the foot of the mountain there is the village of Agios Athanasios, in antiquity, the area around the modern Pella regional unit was part of the ancient greek Kingdom of Macedon. It became part of the Roman Empire and the Byzantine, following approximately 500 years of Ottoman rule, it rejoined Greece in 1913, following the Balkan Wars. The southern part of the unit has a number of orchards.
Agriculture once represented its main industry, manufacturing, services, gR-1, SE GR-2/E90, W, SW, Cen
Thasos or Thassos is a Greek island, geographically part of the North Aegean Sea, but administratively part of the Kavala regional unit. It is the northernmost Greek island, and 12th largest by area, Thasos is the name of the largest town of the island, situated at the northern side, opposite the mainland and about 10 kilometres from Keramoti. Thassos island is known from ancient times for its making it a climatic and balneoclimateric resort area. Thasos economy relies on timber, marble quarries, olive oil, tourism has become important since the 1960s, although not to the level of other Greek islands. Even earlier activity is demonstrated by the presence of large pieces of megalithic anthropomorphic stelai built into these walls, which, so far, have no parallels in the Aegean area. There is a gap in the record until the end of the Bronze Age c 1100 BC. Here built tombs covered with small mound of earth were typical until the end of the Iron Age, the temple still existed in the time of Herodotus.
An eponymous Thasos, son of Phoenix was said to have been the leader of the Phoenicians, around 650 BC, or a little earlier, Greeks from Paros founded a colony on Thasos. A generation or so later, the poet Archilochus, a descendant of these colonists, wrote of casting away his shield during a war against an indigenous Thracian tribe. Herodotus says that the best mines on the island were opened by the Phoenicians on the east side of the island. Archilochus described Thasos as an asss backbone crowned with wild wood, the islands capital, had two harbours. Besides its gold mines, the wine and marble of Thasos were well known in antiquity, Thasian coins had the head of the wine god Dionysos on one side and bunches of grape of the other. Thasos was important during the Ionian Revolt against Persia, after the capture of Miletus Histiaeus, the Ionian leader, laid siege. The attack failed, warned by the danger, the Thasians employed their revenues to build war ships and this excited the suspicions of the Persians, and Darius compelled them to surrender their ships and pull down their walls.
After the defeat of Xerxes the Thasians joined the Delian League, Thasos was part of the Eastern Roman Empire, now known as the Byzantine Empire, from 395 on. According to the 6th century Synecdemus, it belonged to the province of Macedonia Prima, the island was a major source of marble until the disruption of the Slavic invasions in the late 6th/7th centuries, and several churches from Late Antiquity have been found on it. The island remained in Byzantine hands for most of the Middle Ages and it functioned as a naval base in the 13th century, under its own doux, and came briefly under the rule of the Genoese Tedisio Zaccaria in 1307–13. Returning to Byzantine control, its bishopric was raised to an archdiocese by Manuel II Palaiologos, Thasos was captured by the Genoese Gattilusi family ca
Evrytania is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of Central Greece, Evrytania is almost entirely formed of mountains, including the Tymfristos and the Panaitoliko in the south. Its rivers include the Acheloos in the west, Agrafiotis to the east and it is one of the least populated regional units in Greece. The area borders Aetolia-Acarnania to the west and south, Karditsa regional unit to the north, Evrytania features a famous skiing resort located near Karpenisi on the Tymfristos mountain. Its climate is a mixture of Mediterranean and mountainous in the western portion, much of the area receives snow in winter and is warm during the summer months. The Greek National Road 38 from Agrinio to Lamia passes through the part of Evrytania. On the border with Phthiotis, the GR-38 passes through the 1.4 km-long Tymfristos Tunnel since 2004, Evrytania dates to ancient times, the area was first settled around 6000 to 5000 BC. In classical antiquity, the Greek Eurytanes resided in the region, in the 2nd century BC it fell into Roman hands, and became part of the Roman province of Macedonia.
At the division of the Roman Empire in the 3rd century it joined the eastern part, in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade in 1204 it became part of the Despotate of Epirus, which was conquered by the Ottoman Empire around 1450. After 400 years, Evrytania finally became part of Greece following the Greek War of Independence, as in all of Greece, the area was affected by World War II, and the Greek Civil War. Peace finally returned to Evrytania at the end of the 1940s and its economy expanded, the regional unit Evrytania is subdivided into 2 municipalities. These are, Agrafa Karpenisi Evrytania was created as a prefecture in 1947 out of the Aetolia-Acarnania prefecture, as a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the regional unit Evrytania was created out of the former prefecture Evrytania. The prefecture had the territory as the present regional unit. At the same time, the municipalities were reorganised, according to the table below. evrytania. gr Evrytania
Phthiotis is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of Central Greece. The capital is the city of Lamia, the name dates back to ancient times. It is best known as the home of Achilles, Phthiotis covers the northern and southern shorelines of the Malian Gulf, an inlet of the Aegean Sea. It stretches inland towards the west along the valley of the river Spercheios, in the south it covers the upper part of the Cephissus valley. Phthiotis means the region of Phthia, the southernmost region of ancient Thessaly around Pharsalus, in Classical times, it referred to the region of Achaea Phthiotis, which bordered on Thessalian Phthiotis to the south and east. Achaea Phthiotis covered the part of the present regional unit Phthiotis. The southeastern part of present Phthiotis was covered by the ancient region Locris, NE Greek National Road 1/E75, SE, E, Cen. NE Greek National Road 3, SE, S, Cen, N Greek National Road 27, S, Cen. Greek National Road 38, W, the regional unit Phthiotis is subdivided into 7 municipalities.
These are, Amfikleia-Elateia Domokos Lamia Lokroi Makrakomi Molos-Agios Konstantinos Stylida The prefecture Phthiotis and Phocis was created in 1845, in 1947 this prefecture was split into the southern part Phocis and the northern part Phthiotis. As a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the regional unit Phthiotis was created out of the former prefecture Phthiotis, the prefecture had the same territory as the present regional unit. At the same time, the municipalities were reorganised, according to the table below, Province of Domokos - Domokos Province of Phthiotis - Lamia Province of Locris - Atalanti Note, Provinces no longer hold any legal status in Greece. Thanos Livaditis Dimitrios Holevas Lamia F. C. Ionikos Lamias BC List of traditional Greek place names List of settlements in Phthiotis Media related to Fthiotis at Wikimedia Commons
Laconia, known as Lacedaemonia, is a region in the southeastern part of the Peloponnese peninsula. The word laconic is derived from the name of the region by analogy—to speak in a concise way, as the Spartans were reputed by the Athenians to do. Laconia is bordered by Messenia to the west and Arcadia to the north and is surrounded by the Myrtoan Sea to the east and by the Laconian Gulf and it encompasses Cape Malea and Cape Tainaron and a large part of the Mani Peninsula. The islands of Kythira and Antikythera lie to the south, the island, situated between the Laconian mainland and Kythira, is part of Laconia. The Evrotas is the longest river in the prefecture, the valley of the Evrotas is predominantly an agricultural region that contains many citrus groves, olive groves, and pasture lands. It is the location of the largest orange production in the Peloponnese, lakonia, a brand of orange juice, is based in Amykles. The main mountain ranges are the Taygetus in the west and the Parnon in the northeast, known as Pentadaktylos throughout the Middle Ages, is west of Sparta and the Evrotas valley.
It is the highest mountain in Laconia and the Peloponnese and is covered with pine trees. Two roads join the Messenia and Laconia prefectures, one is a mountain pass through Taygetus. The stalactite cave, Dirou, a major tourist attraction, is located south of Areopolis in the southwest of Laconia, Laconia has a Mediterranean climate with warm winters and hot summers. Snow is rare on the coast throughout the winter but is common in the mountains. In ancient Greece, this was the region of the Spartan state. For much of antiquity the Spartan sphere of influence expanded to Messenia. Significant archaeological recovery exists at the Vaphio-tomb site in Laconia, found here is advanced Bronze Age art as well as evidence of cultural associations with the contemporaneous Minoan culture on Crete. Laconia was at war with the Kingdom of Macedonia and saw several battles, at the end of the Mycenaean period, from the early-2nd century BC until 395 AD, it was a part of the Roman Empire. In the medieval period, Laconia formed part of the Byzantine Empire, following the Fourth Crusade, it was gradually conquered by the Frankish Principality of Achaea.
In the 1260s, the Byzantines recovered Mystras and other fortresses in the region and managed to evict the Franks from Laconia, by the mid-14th century, this evolved into the Despotate of Morea, held by the last Greek ruling dynasty, the Palaiologoi. With the fall of the Despotate to the Ottomans in 1460, with the exception of a 30-year interval of Venetian rule, Laconia remained under Ottoman control until the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence of 1821
Administrative regions of Greece
The administrative regions of Greece are the countrys thirteen first-level administrative entities, each comprising several second-level units, originally prefectures and, since 2011, regional units. The current regions were established in July 1986, by decision of then-Interior Minister Menios Koutsogiorgas as a second-level administrative entities, as part of a decentralization process inspired by then-Interior Minister Alekos Papadopoulos, they were accorded more powers in the 1997 Kapodistrias reform of local and regional government. They were transformed into separate entities by the 2010 Kallikratis Plan. In the 2011 changes, the general secretary was replaced with a popularly elected regional governor. Many powers of the prefectures, which were abolished or reformed into regional units, were transferred to the region level. The regional organs of the government were in turn replaced by seven decentralized administrations. Bordering the region of Central Macedonia there is one region, Mount Athos.
It is located on the easternmost of the three large peninsulas jutting into the Aegean from the Chalcidice Peninsula, ISO 3166-2, GR Administrative divisions of Greece
Kavala is a city in northern Greece, the principal seaport of eastern Macedonia and the capital of Kavala regional unit. It is situated on the Bay of Kavala, across from the island of Thasos and on the Egnatia motorway, a drive to Thessaloniki. In Antiquity the name of the city was Neapolis, during the Middle Ages, it was devoutly renamed Christoupolis. The etymology of the name of the city is disputed. Some mention an ancient Greek village Skavala near the town, other proposals include either from the Italian cavallo, or from the Hebrew Kabbalah due to the citys large Jewish population in the past. Its nickname is The cyan city, the city was founded in the late 7th century BC by settlers from Thassos. It was one of several Thassian colonies along the coastline, all founded in order to take advantage of rich gold and silver mines, worship of Parthenos / the Virgin, a female deity of Greek–Ionian origin associated with Athena, is archaeologically attested in the Archaic period. At the end of the 6th century BC Neapolis claimed independence from Thassos, a few decades a large Ionic temple made from Thassian marble replaced the Archaic one.
Parts of it can now be seen in the archaeological museum. In 411 BC, during the Peloponnesian War, Neapolis was besieged by the armies of the Spartans. Two Athenian honorary decrees in 410 and 407 BC rewarded Neapolis for its loyalty, Neapolis was a town of Macedonia, located 14 km from the harbour of Philippi. It was a member of the Athenian League, a found in Athens mentions the contribution of Neapolis to the alliance. The military Roman road Via Egnatia passed through the city and helped commerce to flourish and it became a Roman civitas in 168 BC, and was a base for Brutus and Cassius in 42 BC, before their defeat in the Battle of Philippi. The Apostle Paul landed at Kavala on his first voyage to Europe, in the 6th century, Byzantine emperor Justinian I fortified the city in an effort to protect it from barbarian raids. In Byzantine times the city was called Christoupolis and belonged to the theme of Macedonia, the first surviving mention of the new name is in a taktikon of the early 9th century.
The city is mentioned in the Life of St. Gregory of Dekapolis. In the 8th and 9th centuries, Bulgarian attacks forced the Byzantines to reorganise the defence of the area, giving great care to Christoupolis with fortifications, in 926 the Byzantine general Basil Klaudon reconstructed the towns fallen walls according to an inscription now in the archaeological museum. Thanks to its location, the city experienced an economic resurgence, during a Norman raid of Macedonia in 1185, the city was captured and burned
Greece, officially the Hellenic Republic, historically known as Hellas, is a country in southeastern Europe, with a population of approximately 11 million as of 2015. Athens is the capital and largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is strategically located at the crossroads of Europe, situated on the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, and Turkey to the northeast. Greece consists of nine regions, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Crete. The Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km in length, featuring a vast number of islands, eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as polis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea.
Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming a part of the Roman Empire and its successor. The Greek Orthodox Church shaped modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World, falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence. Greeces rich historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, among the most in Europe, Greece is a democratic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, and a very high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the member to join the European Communities and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001. Greeces unique cultural heritage, large industry, prominent shipping sector. It is the largest economy in the Balkans, where it is an important regional investor, the names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages and cultures.
The earliest evidence of the presence of human ancestors in the southern Balkans, dated to 270,000 BC, is to be found in the Petralona cave, all three stages of the stone age are represented in Greece, for example in the Franchthi Cave. Neolithic settlements in Greece, dating from the 7th millennium BC, are the oldest in Europe by several centuries and these civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A, and the Mycenaeans in Linear B, an early form of Greek. The Mycenaeans gradually absorbed the Minoans, but collapsed violently around 1200 BC and this ushered in a period known as the Greek Dark Ages, from which written records are absent. The end of the Dark Ages is traditionally dated to 776 BC, the Iliad and the Odyssey, the foundational texts of Western literature, are believed to have been composed by Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC. With the end of the Dark Ages, there emerged various kingdoms and city-states across the Greek peninsula, in 508 BC, Cleisthenes instituted the worlds first democratic system of government in Athens