Bombay High Court
Bombay High Court is one of the oldest High Courts of India. It is located in Maharashtra, its jurisdiction covers the states of Maharashtra and Goa, the Union Territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. The High Court has regional branches at Nagpur and Aurangabad in Maharashtra and Panaji, the capital of Goa; the first Chief Justice, the Attorney General and Solicitor General of Independent India were from this court. Since India's Independence, 22 judges from this court have been elevated to the Supreme Court and 8 of them have been Chief Justice of India; the court has Original Jurisdiction in addition to its Appellate. The decisions of this court can be appealed only to the Supreme Court of India; the Bombay High Court has a sanctioned strength of 94 judges. The building is part of The Victorian and Art Deco Ensemble of Mumbai, added to the list of World Heritage Sites in 2018. A. S. Oka The Bombay High Court was one of the three High Courts in India established at the Presidency Towns by Letters patent granted by Queen Victoria, bearing date June 26, 1862.
It was inaugurated on August 14, 1862 under the High Courts Act, 1861. The work on the present building of the High Court was commenced in April 1871 and completed in November 1878, it was designed by British engineer Col. James A. Fuller; the first sitting in this building was on 10 January 1879. Justice M. C. Chagla was the first Indian permanent Chief Justice of Bombay High Court after independence Architecture: Gothic revival in the Early English style, it is 187 feet wide. To the west of the central tower are two octagonal towers; the statues of Justice and Mercy are atop this building. In 2016, it was announced that the premises of the Bombay High Court would be shifting to Bandra Kurla Complex; the 125th anniversary of the building was marked by the release of a book, commissioned by the Bar Association, called "The Bombay High Court: The Story of the Building - 1878–2003" by local historians Rahul Mehrotra and Sharada Dwivedi. FR: Bombay Uchca Nyāyālaya) est l'une des plus anciennes hautes cours de l'Inde.
Il est situé à Mumbai, Maharashtra. Sa juridiction couvre les États du Maharashtra et de Goa, ainsi que les territoires de l'Union de Daman et Diu et de Dadra et Nagar Haveli. La Haute Cour a des antennes régionales à Nagpur et Aurangabad dans le Maharashtra et à Panaji, la capitale de Goa. Le premier juge en chef, le procureur général et le solliciteur général de l'Inde indépendante appartenait à cette cour. Depuis l'indépendance de l'Inde, 22 juges de cette cour ont été nommés à la Cour suprême et 8 d'entre eux ont été nommés juges en chef de l'Inde. Le tribunal a compétence initiale en plus de son appel. Les décisions de cette cour ne peuvent faire l'objet d'un appel que devant la Cour suprême de l'Inde. La Haute Cour de Bombay dispose d'un effectif sanctionné de 94 juges. Le bâtiment fait partie de l'ensemble victorien et art déco de Mumbai, qui a été ajouté à la liste des sites du patrimoine mondial en 2018. Although the name of the city was changed from Bombay to Mumbai in 1995, the Court as an institution did not follow suit and retained the name Bombay High Court.
Although, a bill to rename it as Mumbai High Court was approved by the Cabinet on July 5, 2016 along with the change of name of the Calcutta High Court and Madras High Court as Kolkata High Court and Chennai High Court the same is pending approval before the Parliament of India but may not be enacted for some time. In 2010, the High Court organized several functions to mark the completion of 150 years of establishment of the High Court. A special postal cover was released by Milind Deora, the Minister of State for Communications and Information Technology at the historical Central Court Hall of the High Court on 14 August 2012. An exhibition displaying important artifacts, royal charters, old maps and other documents of historical importance was inaugurated by the Chief Minister of Maharashtra, Prithviraj Chavan, in the Central Court Hall on 15 August 2012; the Prime Minister of India, Dr. Manmohan Singh was the Chief Guest at the concluding ceremony of the year-long Sesquicentennial celebrations on 18 August 2012.
A book titled A Heritage of Judging: The Bombay High Court through one hundred and fifty years, edited by Dhananjaya Y. Chandrachud, Anoop V. Mohta and Roshan S. Dalvi was published by the Maharashtra Judicial Academy. In its illustrious history, the Bombay High Court has been the site for numerous noteworthy trials and court cases. Bal Gangadhar Tilak was tried a number of times in the Bombay high Court, but the most famous was his trial for sedition in the 1916 case Emperor v. Bal Gangadhar Tilak; the Bombay High Court saw the last case in the Indian Judicial System to use a jury in the famous K. M. Nanavati v. State of Maharashtra case of 1959. Bar Council had boycotted some judges of the High Court in 1991 under the leadership of Senior Counsel Iqbal Chagla. In 2011, a couple of petitions came to be filed challenging housing societies built by judges upon plots of land reserved for other purposes; the court has a Sanctioned strength of 94 judges. The court has a judge to people ratio of 1 to 1.61 million.
The total pending cases in High Court are about 4,64,074. The Judge to case ratio is 1:6630; the strength of judges in Maharashtra as on 01.01.2018 was 70 High Court Judges, 399 District Judges, 484 Senior Civil Judges and 1267 Junior Civil Judges against the sanctioned strength of 2642 judges. Thus the judge to people ratio of Maharashtra is 1:55000; the Law Commission in its 120th report has recommended a ratio of 1:20000. As on 01.03.2018 the number of practici
Gyan Mukherjee was a Bengali Indian film director and screenwriter, who worked in Hindi cinema, best known for the hits Jhoola and Kismet. Mukherjee was born on 30 September 1909 in British India, he graduated with a degree in science. Mukherjee started his career with New Theatres in Calcutta, Bengal Presidency, subsequently joined Bombay Talkies as a supervising technician. Soon became a trendsetter of "formula film" starting with first directorial venture Geeta based on the theme, "Crime-doesn't-pay", "Boy meets girl" was used in Jhoola. In 1943, he reused the formula of Geeta to direct the biggest hit of his career, which add another formula of "lost-and-found", which remained popular for several decades in Hindi films; the film had Ashok Kumar, the leading star of the era, playing an anti-hero and appearing in a double role. The film had a strong-anti British sentiment and featured the noted patriotic song, "Door hato O Duniya walon, Hindustan Hamara Hai" by Kavi Pradeep, went on to run at Roxy Cinema in Calcutta for 3 years and 8 months.
Subhash K. Jha has called Kismet as one of the most influential films of all times" in Indian cinema. After death of Himanshu Rai, founder of Bombay Talkies Studio in 1940, a group led by producer Sashadhar Mukherjee along with production controller Rai Bahadur Chunilal, actor Ashok Kumar and Mukherjee, broke away to establish the Filmistan studio in March 1943 at the premises of old Sharada Movietone studios in Goregaon, Mumbai, he retouched the concept of anti-hero in Sangram, today his works are seen as early depictions of the underworld and the anti-hero in Indian cinema. While working at Bombay Talkies, auteur Guru Dutt trained under him, though he assisted Amiya Chakravarty, Dutt emulated Mukherjee's formula-based film style in his early films and dedicated his classic, Pyaasa to Mukherjee, Another noted director, who assisted him at Bombay Talkies, was Shakti Samanta, who made Aradhana and Amar Prem. Mujherjee died on 13 November 1956 in Calcutta, at the age of 47. Guru Dutt's Kaagaz Ke Phool is considered to be an homage to Mukherjee.
Gulzar. Encyclopaedia of Hindi Cinema. Popular Prakashan. ISBN 978-81-7991-066-5. Nasreen Munni Kabir. Guru Dutt: a life in cinema. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-567233-6. Gyan Mukherjee on IMDb Gyan Mukherjee at Bollywood Hungama
Rajendra Kumar Tuli was an Indian film actor who starred in Bollywood films. Starting his career in 1950, he appeared in more than 80 films in a career spanning over four decades, he was considered one of the most successful Indian Bollywood actors in the 1960s. He produced several films starring his son Kumar Gaurav; the Government of India honoured him with the Padma Shri in 1969. He was born in a Punjabi Hindu family in the Punjab province of British India. Rajendra Kumar's family was based in Pakistan former British India, his grandfather was a successful military contractor and his father had a textile business in Karachi, British India. During the Partition of India, the family had to leave all the land and property behind and move to India; when they came to Bombay, Kumar decided to try his luck in the Hindi film industry. He never took up work with director H. S. Rawail as an assistant. For nearly five years, he worked with Rawail as an assistant in films like Patanga, Pocketmaar. During this time he made his film debut with a small role in Kidar Sharma's 1950 film Jogan, opposite Dilip Kumar and Nargis.
It was producer Devendra Goel who noticed Kumar in Jogan and gave him a break in Vachan in 1955. Kumar was paid only fifteen hundred rupees for the film, he got further success with his supporting role in Mehboob Khan's blockbuster epic film Mother India in 1957 in which he played Nargis's character's son. His first major success as a romantic leading man was in Amit Saxena's musical Goonj Uthi Shehnai, co-starring Ameeta; the 1960s saw. There were times when he had six or seven films which had run for more than 25 weeks, all running at the cinema at the same time, which rendered him the nickname "Jubilee Kumar", he starred in many box office hits including Dhool Ka Phool, Dil Ek Mandir, Mere Mehboob, Ayee Milan Ki Bela, Suraj, Jhuk Gaya Aasmaan and Ganwaar. He received the Filmfare Nomination for Best Actor for Dil Ek Mandir, Ayee Milan Ki Bela, as Best Supporting Actor for Sangam. From 1972 onwards, he faced competition from Rajesh Khanna and many of his films were flops, he switched to character roles in the late 1970s and 1980s.
He was offered a role in the film Saajan Bina Suhaagan opposite Nutan in 1978, a success. He starred in a number of Punjabi films like Teri Meri Ek Jindari, his brother Naresh Kumar was a director and directed him in the 1975 film Do Jasoos. In 1981, Rajendra introduced his son Kumar Gaurav in the film Love Story which he produced and starred in; the film was declared a blockbuster. Rajendra produced a few other films starring his son but none matched the success of Love Story with the exception of the 1986 film Naam, which featured his son starring alongside Sanjay Dutt, his last production was the 1993 film Phool which didn't do well. In 1995 he acted in the television serial Andaz, his last acting role, he had a son and two daughters. His son Kumar Gaurav had a brief acting career. Kumar acted with Sunil Dutt and Nargis in the film Mother India where Sunil Dutt and Rajendra Kumar played natural sons of Nargis's character, he had a special relationship with Dutt and used to participate in campaigning for him, whenever the latter used to contest for elections.
Dutt quoted as having said that "Even though Rajendra Kumar did not win any award throughout his career, he was one of the most genuine human beings I have encountered. When I was struggling with the troubles related to the arrest of my son Sanjay Dutt and my house was being searched by means of numerous police raids, Rajendra Kumar was the one who came to my rescue by staying at my house and ensuring that raids were conducted using due procedures, false evidences were not planted in the house and valuables were not stolen." Kumar was best friends with Raj Kapoor, so much so that his son Kumar Gaurav was engaged to the latter's daughter, Reema. As fate would have it, this friendship could not last long after their children broke the engagement and Kumar Gaurav got married to Sunil Dutt and Nargis's daughter Namrata, he attained a Ph. D. and had a title of'Doctor' prefixed to his name. For the premier of his film Vachan, he was asked if he wanted any seats for his relatives or friends, thinking that it would be complimentary, he answered ten.
After some days when he went to get his fees from the producer's accountant, he was given a lesser amount and when he asked why he was told that the money was deducted for the seats he took for his relatives and friends. He took this lesson as a principle of production and when he produced Naam, he deducted some amount from Amrita Singh's fees for the long calls she had made from Hong Kong to India. Known to refuse taking any medication, he succumbed to cancer on 12 July 1999, just a day after his son's 39th birthday, just 8 days before his 70th birthday. Rajendra Kumar was honoured with the Padma Shri Award in 1969, he was conferred with Justice of Peace honour and served as Honorary Magistrate. He was awarded the National Honour by late Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru for "Kanoon" and "Mehndi Rang Lagyo", he received a special Lal Bahadur Shastri National Award and was associated with several charity schemes. Filmfare Awards Rajendra Kumar was nominated for Filmfare Award for Best Actor for three consecutive years in 1964, 1965 and 1966.
In the year 1965 he was nominated
Prabodh Chandra Dey, known by his stage name Manna Dey, an Internationally acclaimed Indian playback singer. He is considered one of the most celebrated vocalists of the Hindi film industry, he was one of the playback singers credited with the success of Indian classical music in Hindi commercial movies. He debuted in the film Tamanna in 1942. After the song "Upar Gagan Bishal" composed by S D Burman he saw success and went on to record more than 4,000 songs till 2013; the Government of India honoured him with the Padma Shri in 1971, the Padma Bhushan in 2005 and the Dadasaheb Phalke Award in 2007. Dey sang in all the major regional Indian languages, though in Hindi and Bengali. Dey sang in Bhojpuri, Maithili, Assamese, Konkani, Gujarati, Kannada and Nepali, his peak period in Hindi playback singing was from 1953 to 1976. Dey was born to Purna Chandra Dey on 1 May 1919 in Kolkata. Besides his parents, his youngest paternal uncle, Sangeetacharya Krishna Chandra Dey inspired and influenced him, he received his early education in a small pre-primary school.
He started doing stage shows in school since 1929. He attended Scottish Church College, he participated in sports events like wrestling and boxing in his college days, taking training from Gobar Guha. He graduated from Vidyasagar College. Dey began taking music lessons from Ustad Dabir Khan. During this period, he stood first for three consecutive years in three different categories of inter-collegiate singing competitions. In 1942, Dey accompanied Krishna Chandra Dey on a visit to Bombay. There he started working as an assistant music director first under Krishna Chandra Dey, under Sachin Dev Burman, he assisted other music composers and started to work independently. While working independently as a music director for various Hindi movies, Manna Dey continued to take musical lessons in Hindustani classical music from Ustad Aman Ali Khan and Ustad Abdul Rahman Khan. Dey started his career in playback singing with the movie Tamanna, in 1942; the musical score was by Krishna Chandra Dey and Manna sang a duet named "Jago Aayee Usha Ponchi Boley Jago" with Suraiya, an instant hit.
But it was only in 1943. Incidentally, the producer of the film Vijay Bhatt and its composer Shankar Rao Vyas had approached K C Dey with an offer for playback in the film; when K C Dey refused the offer on the grounds that he would not lend his voice to other actors, they spotted Manna Dey sitting in the corner of the room and offered him the opportunity. Shankar Rao Vyas taught he chose to sing them in his uncle's distinct style, and thus started the illustrious career with the first song “Gayi tu gayi Seeta sati“. His songs like "O Prem Diwani Sambhal Ke Chalna" from 1944 film Kadambari composed by Anil Biswas, "Dil Churaney Ki Liye from Dur Chaley" composed by Jafar Khurshid, his duets with Amira Bahee like "E Diniya Jara Suney" from Kamala and duet song "Aaj Bor Aayee" with Meena Kapoor from 1947 film Chaltey Chaltey became chartbusters in respective years. Between 1945–47 many Manna Dey-Rajkumari duets like "Hay Gagan Me Badal Tharey" in 1945 for the film Vikaramaditya, "Aowji Morey" from Insaaf, all 4 duets from the film Geet Govind composed by Pandit Indra – "Kit Ho Nando Kumar", "Chorr Sakhi Aaj Laj", "Apney Hi Rang", "Lalit Labang Lata" from Geet Govind became popular.
He sang for first time songs composed by Sachin Dev Burman, Upar Gagan Vishal and Duniya Ke Logo in the 1950 movie Mashal, which became popular and from here his association with S. D. Burman began, its lyrics were written by Kavi Pradeep. In 1952, Dey sang for a Marathi movie with the same name and storyline, Amar Bhupali; this established him as a leading playback singer in Bengali films and Marathi films as well by 1953. In the post independence period, after 1947, Manna Dey was used by music composers Anil Biswas, Shankar Rao Vyas, S. K. Pal, S. D. Burman, Khem Chand Prakash, Mohd. Safi from 1947 to 1957. Dey-Anil Biswas combination gave hit numbers from films like Gajre, Hum Bhi Insaan Hai, Do Sitaare, Mahatma Kabir,Jasoos and Pardesi. Though Anil Biswas worked with Dey in few films, their songs remain famous, he recorded his first duet with Shamshad Begum, the Hindi female singer most in demand from 1940–1961, "Phoolon Ka Swapna" in the films Girls School composed by S. K. Pal, his first duet with the upcoming singer Lata Mangeshkar was "Lapat Ke Pot Pahaney Bikral" composed by Vasant Desai for Narsingh Avtar, with Kishore Kumar it was "Subaho Ki Paheli Kiran" from 1951 film Anadolan composed by Pannalal Ghosh.
His first duet with Geeta Dutt was "Dhonyo Dhonyo He Ayodh Puri" from the film Ram Vivah composed by Shankar Rao Vyas, first duet with Umadevi was "Hay Ye Hain" from Jangal Ka Jaanwar composed by Ghantshala. His first duet with the struggling singer Asha Bhosle was "O Raat Gayee Fir Din Aya" from 1953 film Bootpolish. Manna Dey established his verstality between 1948 to 1954 by singing not only the classical based film songs but singing such film songs which were fusion of Indian classical music and pop music and by giving classical music concerts, his experimentation with western music too produced many unforgettable melodies resulting in an increase in singing offers in films from 1955. He began singing ghazals in Hindi films from 1953, he became a music composer in Hindi films when he composed music along with Khemchand Prakash for both Shri Ganesh Janma and Vishwamitra
Ashok Kumar, born Kumudlal Ganguly, fondly called Dadamoni, was an Indian film actor who attained iconic status in Indian cinema. He was honoured in 1988 with the Dadasaheb Phalke Award, the highest national award for cinema artists, by the Government of India and received the Padma Bhushan in 1999 for his contributions to Indian cinema, he is considered to be one of India's finest actors playing leading and character roles with equal panache. Ashok Kumar was born Kumudlal Ganguly to a Bengali family in Bhagalpur in the Bengal Presidency of British India and now in the Bihar state of India, his father, Kunjlal Ganguly, was a lawyer while Gouri Devi, was a home-maker. Kumudlal was the eldest of four children, his only sister, Sati Devi, a few years younger to him, was married at a young age to Sashadhar Mukherjee and became the matriarch of a large "film family". Next was his brother, more than 14 years younger, who took the screen name Anoop Kumar. Youngest of all was Abhas, whose screen name was Kishore Kumar, who became a phenomenally successful playback singer of Hindi films.
Although the eldest by several years, Kumudlal outlived all his siblings. In fact, he stopped celebrating his birthday after his youngest brother, died on that day in 1987. While still a teenager, well before he had given thought to a career in films, the young Kumudlal was married to Shobha in a match arranged by their parents in the usual Indian style, their lifelong marriage was a harmonious and conventional one, despite his film career, the couple retained a middle-class outlook and value system, bringing up their children with traditional values in a remarkably simple home. They were the parents of one son, Aroop Ganguly, three daughters named Bharati Patel, Rupa Verma and Preeti Ganguly. Aroop Kumar Ganguly worked in only one film, appearing as hero in Bezubaan, which flopped at the box office, he made a career in the corporate world. The eldest daughter, Bharati Patel, is the mother of the actress Anuradha Patel, married to actor Kanwaljeet Singh, his second daughter, Rupa Verma, is the widow of comedian Deven Verma.
The youngest daughter, Preeti Ganguly, was the only one among his daughters to enter the film industry. She acted as a comedienne in several Hindi films during the 1970s and 1980s, died unmarried in 2012. Kumudlal's daughter Bharati married twice, both times for love, her first marriage was to a Gujarati gentleman. By this marriage, she had one daughter, the actress Anuradha Patel, married to the actor Kanwaljeet Singh, and much against the wishes of all her relatives, Bharati married Hameed Jaffrey, a Muslim, the brother of the actor Saeed Jaffrey. By this second marriage, Bharati had another daughter, Shaheen Jaffrey, whose principal claim to fame is that she may have been the first love of actor Salman Khan. By this second marriage, Bharati acquired a step-daughter, Geneviève, Hameed's daughter by his first wife Valarie Salway, a woman of Scottish, Irish and Spanish heritage. Geneviève married, their daughter is actress Kiara Advani. Thus, Ashok Kumar has no blood relationship with Kiara Advani and she is not his great-granddaughter, as is sometimes rumoured.
Reverently called Dadamoni, Kumudlal Ganguly was born in Bhagalpur and educated at Presidency College of the University of Calcutta, where he studied to become a lawyer. However, his heart was not in his law studies. Ganguly was more interested in cinema. Kumudlal's sister Sati Devi was married at a young age to Sashadhar Mukherjee, who lived in Mumbai and worked as a technician in the film industry; this connection resulted in Kumudlal becoming somewhat interested in the technical aspects of film-making. He failed his law exams and, to escape acrimony at home, came to live with his sister for a few months, until the exams were held again. In order to earn some livelihood, he requested his brother-in-law to find him a job. Sashadhar Mukherjee was working in a senior position in the technical department of Bombay Talkies, a pioneering Indian film studio, he used his influence to get Kumudlal a job there, he started off as a laboratory assistant in Bombay Talkies and lived with his sister's family in Chembur, not far from the studio.
This was in the early 1930s. The salary was decent, he managed to convince his father that he would not become successful as a lawyer and would be able to earn a living as lab assistant. His father reconciled himself to the situation and granted permission to abandon his law studies, thus began his film career, albeit as laboratory assistant in a film studio. He remained in that position for some five years, his acting career started purely by accident. Shooting was underway on the Bombay Talkies production Jeevan Naiya in 1936 when the male lead Najmul Hassan eloped with his co-star Devika Rani, who happened to be the wife of studio head Himanshu Rai. Rani subsequently returned to her husband who, out of spite, dismissed Hassan and called upon Kumudlal to replace him against the advice of director Franz Osten, who reckoned that the young man did not have the looks needed for an actor. Kumudlal was given the screen name Ashok Kumar, in keeping with the general trend in an era when actors concealed their real identities behind screen names.
Ashok Kumar, as Kumudlal Ganguly was now know
Sholay is a 1975 Indian action-adventure film, written by Salim-Javed, directed by Ramesh Sippy, produced by his father G. P. Sippy; the film is about two criminals and Jai, hired by a retired police officer to capture the ruthless dacoit Gabbar Singh. Hema Malini and Jaya Bhaduri star, as Veeru and Jai's love interests, respectively. Sholay is considered a one of the best Indian films, it was ranked first in the British Film Institute's 2002 poll of "Top 10 Indian Films" of all time. In 2005, the judges of the 50th Filmfare Awards named it the Best Film of 50 Years; the screenplay was written by screenwriter pair Salim-Javed, consisting of Salim Khan and Javed Akhtar. Their screenplay was rejected by several producers and directors, before they met Ramesh Sippy and his father G. P. Sippy, both of whom liked the script and wanted to direct and produce it, respectively; the film was shot in the rocky terrain of Ramanagara, in the southern state of Karnataka, over a span of two and a half years.
After the Central Board of Film Certification mandated the removal of several violent scenes, Sholay was released with a length of 198 minutes. In 1990, the original director's cut of 204 minutes became available on home media; when first released, Sholay received negative critical reviews and a tepid commercial response, but favourable word-of-mouth publicity helped it to become a box office success. It broke records for continuous showings in many theatres across India, ran for more than five years at Mumbai's Minerva theatre; the film was an overseas success in the Soviet Union. It was the highest-grossing Indian film at the time, was the highest-grossing film in India up until Hum Aapke Hain Koun..!. By some accounts, Sholay remains the highest-grossing Indian film of all time, adjusted for inflation; the film is a Dacoit Western, combining the conventions of Indian dacoit films with that of Spaghetti Westerns along with elements of Samurai cinema. Sholay is a defining example of the masala film, which mixes several genres in one work.
Scholars have noted several themes in the film, such as glorification of violence, conformation to feudal ethos, debate between social order and mobilised usurpers, homosocial bonding, the film's role as a national allegory. The combined sales of the original soundtrack, scored by R. D. Burman, the dialogues, set new sales records; the film's dialogues and certain characters became popular, contributing to numerous cultural memes and becoming part of India's daily vernacular. In January 2014, Sholay was re-released to theatres in the 3D format. In the small village of Ramgarh, the retired policeman Thakur Baldev Singh summons a pair of small-time thieves that he had once arrested. Thakur feels that the duo—Veeru and Jai —would be ideal to help him capture Gabbar Singh, a dacoit wanted by the authorities for a ₹50,000 reward. Thakur tells them to surrender Gabbar to him, for an additional ₹20,000 reward; the two thieves thwart the dacoits sent by Gabbar to extort the villagers. Soon afterwards and his goons attack Ramgarh during the festival of Holi.
In a tough battle and Jai are cornered. Thakur, although he has a gun within his reach, does not help them. Veeru and Jai fight back and the bandits flee; the two are, upset at Thakur's inaction, consider leaving the village. Thakur explains that Gabbar had killed nearly all of his family members, cut off both his arms a few years earlier, why he could not use the gun, he had concealed the dismemberment by always wearing a shawl. Living in Ramgarh, the jovial Veeru and cynical Jai find themselves growing fond of the villagers. Veeru is attracted to Basanti, a feisty, talkative young woman who makes her living by driving a horse-cart. Jai is drawn to Radha, Thakur's reclusive, widowed daughter-in-law, who subtly returns his affections. Skirmishes between Gabbar's gang and Jai-Veeru result in the capture of Veeru and Basanti by the dacoits. Jai attacks the gang, the three are able to flee Gabbar's hideout with dacoits in pursuit. Fighting from behind a rock and Veeru nearly run out of ammunition. Veeru, unaware, is forced to leave for more ammunition.
Meanwhile, continuing the gunfight singlehandedly, decides to sacrifice himself by using his last bullet to ignite dynamite sticks on a bridge from close range. Veeru returns, Jai dies in his arms. Enraged, Veeru catches the dacoit. Veeru nearly beats Gabbar to death when Thakur appears and reminds Veeru of the promise to hand over Gabbar alive. Thakur uses his spike-soled shoes to injure Gabbar and destroy his hands; the police arrive and arrest Gabbar. After Jai's funeral, Veeru finds Basanti waiting for him on the train. Radha is left alone again. Dharmendra as Veeru Sanjeev Kumar as Thakur Baldev Singh addressed as "Thakur" Hema Malini as Basanti Amitabh Bachchan as Jai Jaya Bhaduri as Radha, Thakur's daughter-in-law Amjad Khan as Gabbar Singh Satyen Kappu as Ramlaal, Thakur's servant A. K. Hangal as Rahim Chacha, the imam in the village Sachin as Ahmed, son of the imam Jagdeep as Soorma Bhopali, a comical wood trader Leela Mishra as Mausi, Basanti's maternal aunt Asrani as the Jailor, a comical character modelled after Charlie Chaplin in The Great Dictator Keshto Mukherjee as Hariram, prison barber and Jailor's side-kick Mac Mohan as Sambha, Gabbar Singh's sidekick Viju Khote as Kaalia, another of Gabbar's men whom he kills in
Ujjain is a city in Ujjain district of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. It is the fifth largest city in Madhya Pradesh by population and is the administrative centre of Ujjain district and Ujjain division, it is a known Hindu pilgrimage centre with the Kumbh Mela held here every 12 years. An ancient city situated on the eastern bank of the Kshipra River, Ujjain was the most prominent city on the Malwa plateau of central India for much of its history, it emerged as the political centre of central India around 600 BCE. It was the capital of one of the sixteen mahajanapadas, it remained an important political and cultural centre of central India until the early 19th century, when the British administrators decided to develop Indore as an alternative to it. Ujjain continues to be an important place of pilgrimage for Shaivites and followers of Shakta. Ujjain has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission.
Excavations at Kayatha have revealed chalcolithic agricultural settlements dating to around 2000 BCE. Chalcolithic sites have been discovered at other areas around Ujjain, including Nagda, but excavations at Ujjain itself have not revealed any chalcolithic settlements. Archaeologist H. D. Sankalia theorized that the chalcolithic settlements at Ujjain were destroyed by the Iron Age settlers. According to Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund, whose capital was Ujjain, "was one of the earliest outposts in central India" and showed signs of early incipient urbanisation around 700 BCE. Around 600 BCE, Ujjain emerged as the political and cultural centre of Malwa plateau; the ancient walled city of Ujjain was located around the Garh Kalika hill on the bank of river Kshipra, in the present-day suburban areas of the Ujjain city. This city covered an irregular pentagonal area of 0.875 km2. It was surrounded by a 12 m high mud rampart; the archaeological investigations have indicated the presence of a 45 m wide and 6.6 m deep moat around the city.
According to F. R. Allchin and George Erdosy, these city defences were constructed between 6th and 4th centuries BCE. Dieter Schlingloff believes that these were built before 600 BCE; this period is characterised by structures made of stone and burnt-brick and weapons made of iron, black and red burnished ware. According to the Puranic texts, a branch of the legendary Haihaya dynasty ruled over Ujjain. In the 4th century BCE, the Mauryan emperor Chandragupta annexed Avanti to his empire; the edicts of his grandson Ashoka mention four provinces of the Mauryan empire, of which Ujjain was the capital of the Western province. During the reign of his father Bindusara, Ashoka served as the viceroy of Ujjain, which highlights the importance of the town; as the viceroy of Ujjain, Ashoka married the daughter of a merchant from Vedisagiri. According to the Sinhalese Buddhist tradition, their children Mahendra and Sanghamitra, who preached Buddhism in modern Sri Lanka, were born in Ujjain. From the Mauryan period, Northern Black Polished Ware, copper coins, terracotta ring wells and ivory seals with Brahmi text have been excavated at Ujjain.
Ujjain emerged as an important commercial centre because it lay on the trade route connecting north India to the Deccan, starting from Mathura. It emerged as an important center for intellectual learning among Jain, early Buddhist and Hindu traditions. After the Mauryans, Ujjain was controlled by a number of empires and dynasties, including local dynasties, the Shungas, the Western Satraps, the Satavahanas, the Guptas. Ujjain remained as an important city of the Guptas during the 5th centuries. Kalidasa, the great Indian classical poet of the 5th century who lived in the times of the Gupta king Vikramaditya wrote his epic work Meghadūta in which he describes the richness of Ujjain and its people. In the 6th century CE the Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang visited India, he describes the ruler of Avanti as a king, generous to the poor and presented them with gifts. Bharthari is said to have written his great epics, Virat Katha, Neeti Sataka, the love story of Pradyot Princess Vasavadatta and Udayan in Ujjayini, as the city was called during his times.
The writings of Bhasa are set in Ujjain, he lived in the city. Kalidasa refers to Ujjain multiple times, it appears that he spent at least a part of his life in Ujjain. Mrichchhakatika by Shudraka is set in Ujjain. Ujjain appears in several stories as the capital of the legendary emperor Vikramaditya. Somadeva's Kathasaritsagara mentions that the city was created by Vishwakarma, describes it as invincible and full of wonderful sights; the Paramaras shifted the region's capital from Ujjain to Dhar. In 1235 CE, Iltutmish of Delhi Sultanate plundered the city, destroyed its temples. With the decline of the Paramara kingdom, Ujjain came under the Islamic rule, like other parts of north-central India; the city continued to be an important city of central India. As late as during the times of the Mughal vassal Jai Singh II, who constructed a Jantar Mantar in the city, Ujjain was the largest city and capital of the Malwa Subah. During the 18th century, the city became the capital of Scindia state of the Maratha confederacy, when Ranoji Scindia established his capital at Ujjain in 1731.
But his successors moved to Gwalior, where they ruled the Gwalior State in the latter half of the 18th century. The struggle of supremacy between the Holkars of Indore and Scindias led to rivalry between the merchants of the two cities. On 18 July 1801, the Holkars defeated the Scindias at the Battle o